PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION
MANAGEMENT UNDER TANKS
THE CASE OF IAMWARM PROJECT

K Sivasubramaniyan
Assistant Professor
Madras...
FIVE CONSTITUENTS MANAGING THE GLOBE ARE LAWFA

1 LAND
– Possibility of ownership
2 AIR
- Unknown (invisible) strength
3 W...
Special Features of WATER
Among the five constituents of NRs, the WATER has its special features.
¾ of land area is made u...
Table 1 Trends in Net Area Irrigated by Sources from 1950-51 to 2010-11
(Area in lakh ha)
Source
1950-51 to 1959-60 1960-6...
Table 1 Structural Changes in the Economy of Tamil Nadu (Contribution by Percentage)
Sl no Sectors
1960-1 1970-1 1980-1 19...
Basin wise Surface Water Potential, Capacity of Reservoirs and Tanks in Tamil Nadu
Sl.
no.
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13...
Canal
Tank
Well
Year

Other Sources

2005-06

2001-02

1997-98

1993-94

1989-90

1985-86

1981-82

1977-78

1973-74

1969...
Trends in Sources of Irrigation in Tamil Nadu 1950s to 2000s
1. In TN, canal irrigation declined from 8.0 lakh hec to 7.3 ...
Characteristics of Kaveripakkam, Dusi-Mamandur and Chembarambakkam Tanks
-------------------------------------------------...
Table 4 District wise net sown, net irrigated and tank irrigated area in Tamil Nadu 2005-06 to 2010-11
Sl.No.

Districts

...
Table 5 Size Class and NIA by Tanks and Rainfall in Tamil Nadu:1950-51 to 2010-11
Sl No

Period

Number of Tanks

>40ha

1...
Names of Small Water Bodies in the Villages Served by Kaveripakkam Tank, 1913.
Sl.no. Name of Village
Name of Water Bodies...
CHANGES IN IRRIGATION INSTITUTIONS
Increase in Pop;
<---------- Demographic Pressure ---------->
Land SD;
Big Land Lords
P...
THE IAMWARM PROJECT
Irrigated Agriculture Modernisation and Water Bodies Restoration and Management

Objective
: More Yiel...
DEPARTMENT WISE INTERVENTIONS

1 Water resources department (WRD)
1 Supply Channel Desiltation
2 Sluices & Surplus Weirs R...
2 Department of Agriculture (Agri)
1. Introducing modern techniques – SRI,
Pulses mission, popularizing oilseeds
and so on...
3 Agricultural Engineering Department (AED)

1. Improving conveyance efficiency of water.
2. Improving Application Efficie...
4 Agricultural Marketing Department (AMD)
1. Ensure market driven profitable crops.
2. Facilitate value addition crops.
3....
5 Animal Husbandry Department (AHD)

1. Upgrading local cattle population.
2. Improving health care of livestock.

3. Nutr...
6 Fisheries Department (DoF)
1. Promoting Pisciculture / Quality fish seed
production in Farm Ponds.
2. Promoting sustaina...
7 Department of Horticulture (DoH)

1. Crop diversification to HYV & Water
Efficient Crops / Techniques.
2. Introducing Hy...
8 Tamil Nadu Agl University (TNAU)
1.

Promoting large scale adoption of modern / scientific
technologies – SRI, Oilseeds,...
Component Wise IAMWARM Project Cost and Expenditure
Sl. No.

Project
Cost in
Rupees

Component / Departments

(Figures in ...
Problems and Issues Identified among the WUAs and
Depiction made by them During the Training
Name of the WUAs

Problems an...
Name of the
WUAs
1. Pudukulam
tank WUA
direct

2. Ariyur
Periyakulam
WUA
3. Athikulam
Senkulam tank
Anaithalaiaru
and Peya...
Name of the WUAs Problems and Issues Identified
1. Indhiraperikulam  f z ; ha p ; mj p M oj ; p ; k z ; ms ; g;
k
y
f
j y...
Name of the WUAs Problems and Issues Identified
1. Padharankulam &
Chittaru WUA

 nr q ; y ; R+ s f s ; c gN h j ; p F k ...
Major Problems in Tank Irrigation Reporting Data
1. Most of the available official statistics of tanks are inadequate, inc...
Critical Factors Affecting Tank Irrigation
1. Three important sets of factors:
a) PHYSICAL – Location, sources of supply, ...
Suggestions for Improvement and Restoration
1. Converting local ponds into full-fledged tanks and non-system tanks into sy...
Conclusion: The tank improvement programmes undertaken in recent decades have
been inadequate in scale, misconceived in de...
THANK YOU
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013
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Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013

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In this presentation, K. Sivasubramaniam from the Madras Institute of Development Studies brings out the importance of tanks in irrigation and need for them to be managed effectively. He takes up the case of the Tamil Nadu - Irrigated Agriculture Modernisation and Water-bodies Restoration and Management (IAMWARM) project and discusses his research findings.

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Participatory irigation management under tanks_ K. Sivasubramaniam_2013

  1. 1. PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT UNDER TANKS THE CASE OF IAMWARM PROJECT K Sivasubramaniyan Assistant Professor Madras Institute of Development Studies 79, Second Main Road, Gandhinagar, Adyar, Chennai 600 020 E-mail: siva@mids.ac.in Web: http://www.mids.ac.in/siva.htm
  2. 2. FIVE CONSTITUENTS MANAGING THE GLOBE ARE LAWFA 1 LAND – Possibility of ownership 2 AIR - Unknown (invisible) strength 3 WATER - Possibility of ownership 4 FIRE - No ownership 5 ATMOSPHERE - Possibility of ownership Among the 5 constituents, the quality of the first 3 only determine the environmental sustainability. So, all of us should be careful against this LAW (= Land, Air & Water) and not to pollute them but protect these natural resources.
  3. 3. Special Features of WATER Among the five constituents of NRs, the WATER has its special features. ¾ of land area is made up of water, but only 2.4 % is possible for utilisation. Without water, nothing will move on this earth. This resource is available in three forms such as Seawater, freshwater and groundwater. The source for the latter two forms, is only by rainfall. • In some coastal areas the source for groundwater is Seawater, but it is fully saline. • This resource has no Boarders to hold in the world. As a result, any wrong doing to this resource (Seawater Pollution) will affect the entire globe. • • • • • A very important postulate is: For the basic source of water, the quantum of annual rainfall occurred on the earth is equal almost in all the years, but its distribution varies considerably. • By having all these special features, WATER serves better to one and all for a happy living. But, what are we doing in our life to help the WATER RESOURCE? • The possible answer is CONSERVE WATER & PREVENT POLLUTION IN ANY FORM
  4. 4. Table 1 Trends in Net Area Irrigated by Sources from 1950-51 to 2010-11 (Area in lakh ha) Source 1950-51 to 1959-60 1960-61 to 1969-70 1970-71 to 1979-80 1980-81 to 1989-90 1990-91 to 1999-2000 2000-01 to 2010-11 Area % to NIA Area % to NIA Area % to NIA Area % to NIA Area % to NIA Area % to NIA INDIA Canals 91.9 41.2 111.9 41.9 137.7 40.1 163.1 38.3 173.4 32.7 154.6 26.7 Tanks 41.5 18.6 44.5 16.6 38.1 11.1 29.9 7.0 31.1 5.9 19.7 3.4 Wells+tubewells 66.3 29.8 87.1 32.6 144.1 41.9 207.8 48.7 292.5 55.2 353.9 61.0 Other sources * 23.2 10.4 23.9 8.9 23.8 6.9 25.4 6.0 33.1 6.2 51.9 8.9 Total NIA 222.9 100.0 267.3 100.0 343.6 100.0 426.3 100.0 530.1 100.0 580.1 100.0 TANMIL NADU Canals 8.0 37.6 8.8 35.6 8.9 33.2 8.2 33.0 8.3 29.3 7.3 26.8 (8.7) (7.9) (6.5) (5.0) (4.8) (4.7) Tanks 7.8 36.8 9.1 36.8 8.5 31.5 6.2 24.7 6.3 22.4 5.1 18.6 (18.7) (20.5) (22.3) (20.6) (20.4) (25.6) Wells+tubewells 5.0 23.5 6.5 26.0 9.2 34.1 10.4 41.6 13.5 47.7 14.8 54.2 (7.5) (7.4) (6.4) (5.0) (4.6) (4.2) Other sources * 0.5 2.2 0.4 1.6 0.4 1.3 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.4 (2.0) (1.6) (1.5) (0.7) (0.5) (0.2) Total NIA 21.2 100.0 24.8 100.0 27.0 100.0 25.0 100.0 28.4 100.0 27.3 100.0 (9.5) (9.3) (7.8) (5.9) (5.4) (4.7) Note: Figures in brackets indicate sourcewise percentage compared to India. * Indicates Anicutes, Bhandaras, Springs, Kuttai, Thangal, Small diversion networks and so on. Source: Indian Agricultural Statistics, 1985-86--1989-90, Vol.I, Ministry of Agriculture, GOI. New Delhi. CMIE, Agriculture, Various Issues. Indian Agriculture in Brief 27th Edn. January 2000. GOTN, Tamil Nadu-An Economic Appraisal, Various Issues, Evaluation and Applied Research Department, Chennai. GOTN, Season and Crop Reports, Various Issues. Chennai. www.IndiaAgristat.com
  5. 5. Table 1 Structural Changes in the Economy of Tamil Nadu (Contribution by Percentage) Sl no Sectors 1960-1 1970-1 1980-1 1990-1 1999-0 2010-1 1 Primary 43.5 34.8 25.9 23.4 17.3 8.8 2 Secondary 20.3 26.9 33.5 33.1 29.6 30.6 3 Tertiary 36.2 38.3 40.6 43.5 53.1 60.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1. P Sector’s income contribution declined from 44 % to 9 %. 2. S Sector’s contribution increased from 20 % to 31 %. 3. T Sector’s growth is appreciable which contributes more than 3/5th of total. The point is, still we have not self-sustained in all types of food grains requirements and still we are in the process of importing agl commodities. In the US economy, agl sec’s contribution is only < 2% of GDP. WATER (80+%) IS THE BASIC INPUT FOR PROSPEROUS AGRICULTURE
  6. 6. Basin wise Surface Water Potential, Capacity of Reservoirs and Tanks in Tamil Nadu Sl. no. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Basin 2 Chennai Palar Varahanadhi Pennaiyar Paravanar Vellar Agniyar Pambar & Kottakaraiyar Vaigai Gundar Vaippar Kallar Tambraparani Nambiyar Kodayar Parambikulam & Aliyar Cauvery Total Surface Reservoirs Water Capacity Potential No. MCM TMCft (MCM) 3 4 5 6 1124 1 91.2 3.2 1758 4 18.5 0.7 412 1 17.1 0.6 1310 7 333.4 11.8 144 0 0.0 0.0 963 5 109.3 3.9 1084 0 0.0 0.0 % to Total Tanks No. Capacity MCM TMCft % to Total Total Capacity MCM TMCft 7 1.5 0.3 0.3 5.4 0.0 1.8 0.0 8 9 2562 362.2 4224 1074.1 422 16.1 4772 631.4 149 0.6 1176 212.5 3081 230.3 10 12.8 37.9 0.6 22.3 0.0 7.5 8.1 11 7.1 21.2 0.3 12.5 0.0 4.2 4.5 12 453.4 1092.6 33.2 964.9 0.6 321.8 230.3 13 16.0 38.6 1.2 34.1 0.0 11.4 8.1 653 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2812 550.7 19.5 10.9 550.7 19.5 1579 568 611 125 1375 204 925 6 0 7 0 7 2 5 521.6 0.0 49.9 0.0 193.7 5.8 239.9 18.4 0.0 1.8 0.0 6.8 0.2 8.5 8.5 0.0 0.8 0.0 3.2 0.1 3.9 2934 3337 1317 192 1355 425 1957 235.0 549.6 235.4 28.4 300.3 52.5 47.2 8.3 19.4 8.3 1.0 10.6 1.9 1.7 4.6 10.8 4.6 0.6 5.9 1.0 0.9 756.6 549.6 285.2 28.4 494.0 58.3 287.1 26.7 19.4 10.1 1.0 17.5 2.1 10.1 864 8 707.7 25.0 11.5 11 0.1 0.0 0.0 707.8 25.0 10460 23 3839.7 135.6 62.7 8476 540.1 19.1 10.7 4379.8 154.7 24159 76 6127.8 216.4 100.0 39202 5066.6 178.9 100.0 11194.4 395.3 Percentage to Total 25.4 54.7 21.0 45.3 46.3 100.0 Note: 1 MCM = 0.035314 TMCft or 35.314 MCft. All percentages and TMCft calculations are done by us. Chennai basin potential includes 340 MCM as per Krishna water agreement. Cauvery basin potential includes Cauvery in Tamil Nadu (4655MCM) and from Karnataka as per interim Tribunal order (5805 MCM). All basins surface water potential @ 75 % dependability is 24,159 MCM (Hence the Capacity is 25%). Source: XI FYP 2007-2012 SPC, Chennai, December 2007. Pp. 216 - 217.
  7. 7. Canal Tank Well Year Other Sources 2005-06 2001-02 1997-98 1993-94 1989-90 1985-86 1981-82 1977-78 1973-74 1969-70 1965-66 1961-62 1957-58 1953-54 1949-50 1945-46 1941-42 1937-38 1933-34 1929-30 1925-26 1921-22 1917-18 1913-14 1909-10 1905-06 Area in '000 ha Figure 2 Trends in NIA by Sources in Tamil Nadu - 1905-2006 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
  8. 8. Trends in Sources of Irrigation in Tamil Nadu 1950s to 2000s 1. In TN, canal irrigation declined from 8.0 lakh hec to 7.3 L Hec. 2. Tank irrigation also declined from 7.8 lakh hec to 5.1 L Hec. 3. Well irrigation increased from 5.0 lakh hec to 14.8 L Hec. 4. Overall net irrigated area increased from 21 lakh hec to 27 L Hec. However, NSA increased marginally from 57 to 58 lakh hec. A TRICKY QUESTION IS: HOW, WELL IRRIGATION HAS BEEN INCREASING? 1. Area under both Canals & Tanks have been declining. These are the main sources for recharging groundwater source. 2. The interesting point is: whether canals / tanks are irrigating or not, it is only secondary, but the primary concern is that once these two surface sources get water supply – either through rains or through dams – the next second onwards continuously these sources seeps, percolates water into the soil to penetrate it into the sub-surface strata to store it as groundwater source. 3. Hence, the groundwater is in one way, the other form of surface source and its judicial use is considered important.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Kaveripakkam, Dusi-Mamandur and Chembarambakkam Tanks --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Technical Details KPT DMT CPT ___________________________________________________________________________________ Number of villages served 14 18 38 Number of sluices 10 4 8 Number of fillings 1 1 1 Number of supply sources 1 3 3 Number of surplus weirs 3 2 2 Depth of tank at FRL (feet) 31 30 24 Original / Present storage capacity at FTL (mcft) 1474 (1100) 1799 3130 (3645) Registered ayacut (acres) 1983 (UDR) 5853 4139 13572 Water Spread area (m.sq.feet) 173 151 275 Free catchment area (sq.miles) 12 12 30 Combined catchment area (sq.miles) 49 116 138 Length of bund (miles) 5 2 6 Length of main channels under all sluices (Kms) 23 36 NA Length of Branch channels under all sluices (Kms) 67 23 NA ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: Updated Settlement Registers. FTL = Full Tank Level. Source: PWD Memoirs – KPT, DMT and CPT.
  10. 10. Table 4 District wise net sown, net irrigated and tank irrigated area in Tamil Nadu 2005-06 to 2010-11 Sl.No. Districts --> 2005-06 to 2010-11 <-- NSA 1 2 1 Sivagangai 2 Ramanathapuram 3 Pudukkottai 4 Kancheepuram 5 Kanniyakumari 6 Virudhunagar 7 Tirunelveli 8 Madurai 9 Villupuram 10 Thiruvannamalai 11 Thoothukudi 12 Thiruvallur 13 Krishnagiri 14 Perambalur Total % to State Total 15 Dharmapuri 16 Vellore 17 Theni 18 Dindigul 19 Tiruchirappalli 20 Thanjavur 21 Cuddalore 22 Namakkal 23 Salem 24 Karur 25 Coimbatore 26 Erode 27 Thiruvarur 28 Nagapattinam 29 The Nilgiris Total 3 NIA by All Sources Tanks 4 5 (area in hectares) Col.5/ Col.5/ No.of Tanks Col.4*1 Col.3*1 during 2010-11 00 00 > 40 ha < 40 ha 6 8 Name of river basin Avg.N IA/ tank 11 9 10 114414 188216 153768 130506 80791 131454 165992 140217 337400 227378 177061 115486 179956 154315 83320 69657 109447 116818 27677 56746 115841 85523 234287 150643 40981 90434 48502 47254 68362 54897 72028 65702 14350 25608 48717 23022 55922 33214 8320 14674 7686 5105 82.0 78.8 65.8 56.2 51.8 45.1 42.1 26.9 23.9 22.0 20.3 16.2 15.8 10.8 59.7 29.2 46.8 50.3 17.8 19.5 29.3 16.4 16.6 14.6 4.7 12.7 4.3 3.3 678 477 660 709 41 290 373 294 988 604 107 573 139 84 4288 1217 4791 1233 2582 707 1782 1995 1097 1361 544 1322 1188 732 4966 1694 5451 1942 2623 997 2155 2289 2085 1965 651 1895 1327 816 2296953 1277131 497606 94 39.0 21.7 6017 75 24839 75 13.8 32.4 13.2 33.8 5.5 25.7 22.6 10.1 26.8 16.9 12.8 7.7 5.8 6.3 30856 16.1 75 162324 193922 114858 235858 233511 206869 229157 170012 225057 97602 344044 252246 172551 173545 78080 65606 96967 60033 105945 120603 168850 147988 70545 102556 53035 202581 150019 148158 125992 550 4264 5540 1423 6153 7400 321 6179 318 998 130 1130 167 0 0 0 6.5 5.7 2.4 5.8 6.1 0.2 4.2 0.5 1.0 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 2.9 1.2 2.6 3.2 0.2 2.7 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 89 420 20 766 115 130 188 67 89 18 49 17 0 0 0 926 935 130 2338 1652 298 404 192 457 248 42 681 0 0 0 1015 1355 150 3104 1767 428 592 259 546 266 91 698 0 0 0 5186589 2896559 531627 18.4 10.3 7985 33142 41127 12.9 Source: GOTN. Season and Crop Reports of Tamil Nadu, Various Issues. Dept. of Economics & Statistics. Chennai - 6. 7 Total 4.2 4.1 9.5 2.0 4.2 0.7 10.4 1.2 1.8 0.5 12.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 12 Manimuthar + PV PV + Gundar Vellar + Cauvery Palar Kodayar Vaippar + Gundar Tambraparani + Chittar Periyar-Vaigai (PV) Ponnaiyar +Gadilam Cheyyar Vaippar + Chittar Ponnai + Cooum Ponnaiyar Cauvery Ponnaiyar + Chinnar Palar Suruli + PV Kodavanar+Shanmukha Cauvery Cauvery Cauvery + Vellar Vellar Vellar Kodavanar+Shanmukha Aliyar+Bhavani+Noyyal Bhavani+Noyyal
  11. 11. Table 5 Size Class and NIA by Tanks and Rainfall in Tamil Nadu:1950-51 to 2010-11 Sl No Period Number of Tanks >40ha 1 2 3 <40ha 4 NIA by Tanks Lakh ha Total 5 6 <---- Rainfall in MM ---> June to Oct. to Jan. to June to Sept Dec. May May 7 8 9 10 Normal Rainfall -> As per 2010-11 SCR --> 319 430 159 908 Normal Rainfall -> 61 Years data ------------> 319 457 156 933 1 1950-1 to 1959-60 7008 19125 26132 7.66 329 409 194 932 2 1960-1 to 1969-70 7922 27377 35299 9.12 323 466 151 940 3 1970-1 to 1979-80 8079 29724 37803 8.49 329 475 128 932 4 1980-1 to 1989-90 7251 30804 38054 6.16 320 372 165 856 5 1990-1 to 1999-00 7606 31570 39176 6.21 304 520 118 942 6 2000-1 to 2009-10 7791 32523 40315 5.06 301 487 183 971 Source: GOTN, Season and Crop Reports, Various Issues, Dept. of Economics and Statistics.
  12. 12. Names of Small Water Bodies in the Villages Served by Kaveripakkam Tank, 1913. Sl.no. Name of Village Name of Water Bodies No. of SWBs 1 Kaveripakkam 1. Tamara Kuttai. 1 2 Kondapuram 1. Kandappar Kulam. 2. Nallathanni Kulam. 2 3 Sirukarumbur 1. Krisnan Kasam. 2. Amarapuram Kasam. 3. Ayapadi Kasam. 4. Ocheri Kasam. 4 4 Athipattu 1. Sirukarumbur Kasa Kalvay. 2. Meclean Kalvay. 3. Mamandur Kasam. 4. Vilagam Kasa Kalvay. 4 5 Eralacheri 1. Sitheri Tangal. 2. Isvaran Kulam. 3. Setti Kulam. 4. Nalla Thanni Kulam. 5. Pillaiyar Kuttai. 6. NanthiSetti Kuttai. 7. Paracheri Kuttai. 8. Thandu Kuttai. 9. Peria Devi Kuttai. 10. Karai Kuttai. 11. Sundu Kuttai. 11 6 Cheri 1. Nallathanni Kulam. 2. Alli Kulam. 3. Isvarankoil Kulam. 4. Pillaipettai Kuttai. 5. Anniyamman Kuttai. 5 7 Kattalai Wholly a wetland village located adjacent to the foot of KPT. 0 8 Thuraiperumpakkam 1. Pakkiri Kuttai. 2. Vannan Kuttai. 3. Para Vannan Kuttai. 4. Amman Kuttai. 5. Talattiyan Kuttai. 6. Pattan Kuttai. 7. Ayanan Kuttai. 7 9 Maganipattu 1. Divittiyan kulam. 2. Toppu Kuttai. 3. Mangkuttai. 4. Thenginaru Kuttai. 5. Jambu Kuttai. 6. Sangara Kuttai. 7. Elaval Kuttai. 7 10 Alapakkam 1. Pudu Tangal. 2. Isvaran Kulam. 3. Govindan Kulam. 4. Nalla Thanni Kulam. 5.Tamarai Kulam. 6. Paracheri Kuttai. 7. Nirali Kuttai. 8. Vella Kuttai. 9.Pidari Kuttai. 10.Thulukkan Kuttai. 11. Kosavan Kuttai. 12. Mel Kuttai. 13. Munuperumal Kuttai. 14. Andar Kuttai. 15. Ellaitarisu Kuttai. 16. Parayan Kuttai. 17. Ramadas Kuttai. 18. Sudukattu Kuttai. 19. Petta Kuttai. 20. Lingam Kuttai. 21. Muttivettan Kuttai. 21 11 Pudupattu 1. Sitteri Tangal. 2. Kurutu Anichan Tangal. 3. Pudupattu Tangal. 4. Vellalan Kulam. 5. Pillaiyar Kulam. 6. Govindan Kulam. 7. Kosavan Kuttai. 8. Enavayan Kuttai. 9. Mungil Kuttai. 10. Pandaram Kuttai. 10 12 Panniyur 1. Nallathanni Kulam. 2 Palani Mudali Kuttai. 3. Ayakaran Kuttai. 3 Total 75 Source: Descriptive Memoirs of Villages Served by Kaveripakkam Tank, 1913.
  13. 13. CHANGES IN IRRIGATION INSTITUTIONS Increase in Pop; <---------- Demographic Pressure ----------> Land SD; Big Land Lords Pattadars Multiplicity of tenants (Agre for Survival) Landed Tenants became owners Community: BR; Land to the tiller (Govt's Policy) MR; NR; SC Devpt of Wells Leads to Farmers without depending on tanks are not interested to cooperate Weakening of Organisation Less cooperation with the Orgn led to LAND CONTROL CASTE From To Upper Lower Difficult to avoid drought; reduce scarcity in surface supply; quality of irrigation (Assured, adequate & timely supply) Most non-well farmers got affected Poor utilisation of available water Less (yield) Productivity Hence a strong organisational set-up is necessary to effectively run the irrigation system Finally, while attempting on tank modernisation / rehabilitation and any other improvements the Govt / NGO should take into account the socio-economic, demographic and technological transformation that have occurred in the village economies over time. Most importantly the users / beneficiaries should be involved in the Development Process. However, the beneficiaries involvement is totally lacking in the TN-IAMWARM Project now it is nearing completion
  14. 14. THE IAMWARM PROJECT Irrigated Agriculture Modernisation and Water Bodies Restoration and Management Objective : More Yield per Drop of Water Budget & Years: 2200 Crore & 7 Years (2007-2013) Depts. Involved: 1 Agri. 2 Agl Engg. 3 Agl Marketing. 4 Animal Husbandry. 5 Fisheries. 6 Horti. 7 TNAU & 8 WRD. No. of Tanks to be Rehabilitated : About 5000 in 63 SBs. C-A: Irri. System Modernisation @ SB Framework – 55 % Budget C-B: Agl. Intensification & Diversification - 32 % C-C: Institutional Modernization for Irri. Agre - 10 % C-D: Water Resources Mgt. - 1% C-E: Project Management Support - 2 %. Period: Start – April 1, 2007 and Closing – March 31, 2013.
  15. 15. DEPARTMENT WISE INTERVENTIONS 1 Water resources department (WRD) 1 Supply Channel Desiltation 2 Sluices & Surplus Weirs Repair / Reconstruction 3 Strengthening of Tank Bund 4 Lining of Field Channels 5 Laying of Boundary Stones 6 All Other Works (model section, steps, measuring devise, weir shutter and protection wall…)
  16. 16. 2 Department of Agriculture (Agri) 1. Introducing modern techniques – SRI, Pulses mission, popularizing oilseeds and so on. 2. Increasing CI, Crop diversification and Productivity. 3. Identification of commodity groups. 4. Capacity building activities.
  17. 17. 3 Agricultural Engineering Department (AED) 1. Improving conveyance efficiency of water. 2. Improving Application Efficiency by drip / sprinkler. 3. Improving groundwater recharge through developing farm-ponds. 4. Popularizing agl. Machineries to improve productivity of crops
  18. 18. 4 Agricultural Marketing Department (AMD) 1. Ensure market driven profitable crops. 2. Facilitate value addition crops. 3. Improve transport arrangement for marketing of products. 4. Provide cold storage/godowns & ABCs. 5. Identifying & forming commodity groups. 6. Improve market awareness using latest techniques.
  19. 19. 5 Animal Husbandry Department (AHD) 1. Upgrading local cattle population. 2. Improving health care of livestock. 3. Nutrient management of animals. 4. Developing entrepreneurship in livestock through training unemployed veterinary graduates.
  20. 20. 6 Fisheries Department (DoF) 1. Promoting Pisciculture / Quality fish seed production in Farm Ponds. 2. Promoting sustainable Aquaculture in Irrigation Tanks. 3. Promoting small Ornamental Fish Culture units to increase income.
  21. 21. 7 Department of Horticulture (DoH) 1. Crop diversification to HYV & Water Efficient Crops / Techniques. 2. Introducing Hybrid Varieties in Vegetables / Fruits / Spices to increase income 3. Promotion of INM / IPM for sustaining soil health. 4. Promoting Organic Farming
  22. 22. 8 Tamil Nadu Agl University (TNAU) 1. Promoting large scale adoption of modern / scientific technologies – SRI, Oilseeds, Pulses to increase PDY. 2. Spreading of Precision Farming / sprinkler / Drip technology to increase yield & save water. [Tomato in 1 ha yield is 30,000 kg – Normal cultivation. In Precision farming this yield is 1.5 lakh kg. In Israel the same is 5 lakh kg. The plant is 16’ high and the crop period is 8-9 months]. 3. Popularizing Crop Diversification / Labour saving implements. 4. Promotion of Seed Village Concept (SVC) to produce quality seeds.
  23. 23. Component Wise IAMWARM Project Cost and Expenditure Sl. No. Project Cost in Rupees Component / Departments (Figures in Rs. Crores) Expenditure Details Total Expenditure for the Year 2012-13 (till Dec. 2012) Cumulative Total for the Project Component A – Irrigation Systems Modernization 1,272 Component B – Agl Intensification & Diversification 2 Agriculture Department 98 3 Agriculture Engineering Dept. 339 1 Water Resources Department 255 1,071 0.74 4.82 57 75 4 Agri-business & Agri. Marketing Dept. 93 0.14 28 5 Tamil Nadu Agriculture University 89 6.20 57 6 Horticulture Department 7 Animal Husbandry Department 8 Fisheries Department 73 39 17 748 237 23 37 2,317 0.90 2.03 0.03 14.87 1.64 0.68 3.26 311 54 28 9 308 38 0.95 24.39 1,452 Total (Component B) Component C (WRD – Institutional Modernization) Component D (WRD) – Water Res. Mgt . (SWaRMA) Component E (MDPU) – Project Mgt. Support Total
  24. 24. Problems and Issues Identified among the WUAs and Depiction made by them During the Training Name of the WUAs Problems and Issues Identified 1. Koivaneri anicut          WUA 2. Thailakulam tank WUA t ha ; ; hy ; r hp nr a ; N z ; k ; ff a t L . k i l i a J }h; hw N z ; k ; t t L k i l i a , bj ; f l ; N z ; k ; J l t L f z ; ha ; k z ; t p r ha j ; f ; ga d ; Lj ; N z ; k ; k t J F g j t L . t uj ; f ; hy ; ha ; mi l j ; K l ; s ; t s h; ; s ; J J f t J f eJ s t uj ; f ; f hy ; ha ; mf y g; Lj ; N z ; k ; J t g j t L f i ua p ; k z ; hp G c s ; J . y m g; s k P ; Vy j ; hy ; j z ; P j p J t p j p ; r p ; y ; dp j z h; we; Lt y ff . f z ; ha ; ; s ; t p r ha k ; nr a ; p f s ; f z ; ha ; k fF t f whh; . k j z ; P u gp ; p t p p f s ; z i Lq f Lf whh; . 3. Malli Periyakulam  t uj ; f ; hy ; ha ; eP t ut p ; y . gp hl ; J f t h; yi s Anaithalaiaru & M f ; p p i g mf w; p r hp nr a ; N z ; k ;; f uk g; w a t L . Peyanaru WUA 4. Pottakualam anicut  F s j ; p ; c s ; nr bf i s mf w; j y ; j y s W & Vasudevanallur 1. eP uj ; M w; w r h; t nr a ; M f ; p p G i s h; t J i N J f uk g; f tank WUA mf w; N z ; k ; w t L 2. M w; eP u N hl ; huhy ; C W Rj y . W i k l Q; ;
  25. 25. Name of the WUAs 1. Pudukulam tank WUA direct 2. Ariyur Periyakulam WUA 3. Athikulam Senkulam tank Anaithalaiaru and Peyanaru WUA Problems and Issues Identified  k P ; F j ; i f i a ePi d ga d ; L j ; N h ; d j h p g J t h r q ; j ; f ; f mu f J N R K O c hi k t o q ; p f N z ; j y; t L . ngh f ; wg; J F pG N w k ; F nj h h ; p k i y g; F j p p ; c s ; l ; r r g a y s %d ; W F s q ; s p ; c gh eP C hd ; f d p h ; p eL g; F j p p ; nr y ; k ; f y p ; y hu y g a y Y qf h j w gh N J r h ; i l MW Mf kh p ; f f w c s ; J ; mi j Rj ; k ; nr a ; s j J me; eP j H ; c gh eP l d ; f y f ; h y ; nr a ; y ; p U f k j .  eh ; d F I e; J Mz ; h l f ki o , y ; h y j f h z j ; h ; Fs j ; p ; c s ; s , u ; u j y j d N z L rK j h a f p W N h ; gk ; nr l ; z j z b G L mi k j ; J %d ; W k i l f ; k ; F oh ; F a gj p ; f ; nf h j ; y ; j J L j .  f j f t h ; h ; r P p ; g; l N z ; k ; yt a h Uj j g j ; t L . p Ut p ; p j ; }h ef u l ; p f o p gp yy G J ; h r g; l o p f i s , r h g; l ; i w f o p eP s T a g l T h f ; u ; f ; f h ; h p ; N l ; %L f p ; d h j J yt a y gh L dw . ;  nr q ; s k ; f z ; h p ; N w F k a d k ; F gF j p p ; a y t Pf s ; f l ; , l k ; M f ; pk p G L b f u g; nr a ; p ; d h f dw ; .
  26. 26. Name of the WUAs Problems and Issues Identified 1. Indhiraperikulam  f z ; ha p ; mj p M oj ; p ; k z ; ms ; g; k y f j y s & Peikulam WUA gLf p . k i l f ; j z ; P N wJ F z h; euhf t uhi k . 2. Ilanthaikulam  f z ; ha p ; nr q ; y ; R+ s f ; mD k j p k y f i F Sirukulam WUA t oq ; j y ; F 3. Thirthakkal anicut  f z ; ha p ; c s ; t p r ha ep q ; i s k y s t y f WUA M f ; p p G mf w; j y ; mj p k hf c s ; J . f uk g; W f s 4. T. Manakaseri tank  f z ; ha p ; k z ; ms ; t j w; mD k j p k y S F Anaithalaiaru and Peyanaru WUA mur hq ; k ; nf hLf ; t p ; y f f yi 5. Pudukottai tank  mof hG gf ; K s ; VIP r p ; ; c s ; hp f s l b s and f z ; ha ; ; ghj ; p g; l ; f hy ; hi a k f F j a g l t M f ; p pi g c s ; J . f uk g; s Thathaperumalku lam tank WUA  f z ; ha p ; j z ; Py ; h N k y z hp y euj ; p ; j y t p r ha j j p F r K j ha f p W mi k f ; t ; w; d f N z ; k; t L 6. Sankanaperi  Vw; d N 8000 A+ p ; k z y ; M w; p ; f t d l wy vLj ; j hy ; ep j ; b eP F i we; t p r ha k ; j y j h; J t Anicut Direct ghj p ; g; l ; c s ; J . f f g L s Ayacut WUA & 7. Sengulam anicut  eP p G gF j p s p ; C uhl ; p F g; gf i s h; bg; g f y r i WUA nj hl ; t Uf p f s ; , j d hy ; eP p G b whh; . h; bg; g F i we; t Uf p J wJ
  27. 27. Name of the WUAs Problems and Issues Identified 1. Padharankulam & Chittaru WUA  nr q ; y ; R+ s f s ; c gN h j ; p F k z ; f i a f j w; v L f ; mD k j p ms p ; f ; $ l h . f f f J 2. Keelachinthamani  r p k i l gO J nr a ; W J 6 kh k; $ l j M f t p ; y . mJ K O i k Ak ; r he; yi pJ Tank WUA t p e; O J t p ; J . j z ; P t ut p ; y . l l z N u yi 3. Valaikulam tank,  f y p ; y p ; f l e; IAMWARM N i y f s p ; qf y j t y Peyanaru WUA G p , Uk ; mi l g; h j a G g d nr a ; h ; s ; mJ j h f . K w; p k ; N j k i l e; wY r J gi o a k ur l ; h i s k h ; c gN h p ; l ; f l b a f j J t Uf p wh ; mj p ; ep wa eP N k. y i h ; nt s p a W p . k z y ; h p p k ; eP N f wJ t ha Y h ; nt s p a W p . N f wJ 4. Vagaikulam WUA  t h f f ; s k ; f z ; h p ; c s ; i F k a y s eP p G h bg; g ; gF j p p ; c s ; a y s j d p h ; M f ; p pG a h f uk g; k w; k ; mur h ; f ; f l ; l k ; (mq ; d ; h W qf b f t b i k a k ; mf w; g; l N z ; k ; ) w g t L .  1984M k ; t Ul k ; UDRa p ; r h t y N ; nr a ; g; l ; j p ; gy ; t W F s W a g l y N gbf s ; c s ; J . mi j k W s gbAk ; h h t nr a ; r N P ; J c z ; kah i d gl ; h h ; S f ; l j uh f F nga h ; k h wk ; nr a ; w; J nf h f ; N z ; f p wh ; L f t L N k. 5. Manalur  eP gh ; ; t j w; H ; ar R F Ms ; N i t . j Periyakulam and  eP p G gF j p p ; M f ; p p G h bg; g ; a y f uk g; Perunkottur WUA  r q ; j ; p F r p a mY t y f k ; N i t . f j w; wp j
  28. 28. Major Problems in Tank Irrigation Reporting Data 1. Most of the available official statistics of tanks are inadequate, inconsistent and incomplete. 2. No clear data on no. of tanks & the area irrigated by them. 3. Regional studies indicate that not much reduction in the ayacut area under tanks; but at macro level – state / national – it is difficult to see the full extent of area irrigated under tanks even in good rainfall years. 4. This raises doubts about the data recording system. 5. No data are available for the quantum of supply available to each tank and the quantum of water utilised from each tank. All available data are merely approximations. 6. Development of well irrigation affects the growth, mainly due to poor functioning of IIs / stability of tank irrigation. So, regulation required. 7. But the tricky point is: all the wells get their supply either from rainfall or from surface water sources, if so, why farmers do not realise this fact and act upon cooperatively to maintain the tanks?
  29. 29. Critical Factors Affecting Tank Irrigation 1. Three important sets of factors: a) PHYSICAL – Location, sources of supply, siltation and weeds in the tank & supply channels, encroachments in supply channels, foreshore area, tank beds and the catchment area. b) INSTITUTIONAL – This problem is more severe in recent decades: Social (caste and class structure); economic (land holding pattern), demographic (population pressure on land); and Political (poor attention, no policy change, lethargic attitude of politicians in many tank related aspects). c) TECHNICAL – Conditions of water supply; drainage conditions; soil quality, the spread of well irrigation and so on. 2. Most importantly all these factors do not act in isolation and there is strong interconnection among them, which complicate the smooth functioning of institutions.
  30. 30. Suggestions for Improvement and Restoration 1. Converting local ponds into full-fledged tanks and non-system tanks into system tanks. 2. A thorough survey of existence of tanks and their present position in the state. 3. Studying the effectiveness of tanks in terms of groundwater banking. That is, the quantum withdrawal and quantum recharged in each year. 4. To restore the original storage capacity of tanks in the 14 ITI districts, for which suitable no. of bulldozers to be provided by the government to maintain the tanks fully. 5. The GIS to be utilised for tank improvement purpose. 6. The LAWS should be tightened to evict encroachers from all water bodies instantly. 7. To educate the farmers on the importance of tank maintenance, the govt. agencies such as PWD, Revenue, Forestry, Mining as well as the NGOs should be involved. At present these departments itself are not properly functioning for tank improvement purposes. 8. The government’s effort should be to link the southern peninsular rivers first and then these should be interconnected to bigger tanks, which must be given priority in the planning process.
  31. 31. Conclusion: The tank improvement programmes undertaken in recent decades have been inadequate in scale, misconceived in design, poor in implementation and dubious in their impact - A. Vaidyanathan – Former Central PC Member. The apt eg for this point still is the currently moving IAMWARM Project in TN. Hence, due importance should be given in the Plan investments for betterment of tank irrigation.
  32. 32. THANK YOU

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