Participating in Government Programmes

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Arghyam, a civil society organisation working on water issues since 2005, has participated in drinking water programmes involving State Governments since its inception, either directly or by partnering with local Civil Society Organisations (CSOs).

This publication documents Arghyam's and its partners' collective experiences in participating in these Government programmes and puts forward key learnings and challenges.

The various programmes include - Sachethana, a school rooftop rainwater harvesting programme, and Suvarnajala, a flouride mitigation programme, both in Karnataka; Pani Thiye Panjo, a decentralised drinking water management programme in Gujarat; and Mazhapolima, an open-well recharge programme in Kerala.

Overall, Arghyam's experiences point out to the need to gravitate towards developing partnerships based on mutual respect. This means that Government and Civil Society collaboration in the programmes should be officially recognised and formalised, so that suggestions and key inputs get attention and are acted upon.

Further, focus on software activities such as capacity building of water users and institutions and increased civil society participation in such programmes, rather than on hardware/assets, will have better impact on improving the quality of implementation and ensuring transparency and accountability.

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Participating in Government Programmes

  1. 1. Participating in Government Programmes The Arghyam Experience
  2. 2. Content First Published by Arghyam (India) in 2010 Acknowledgements 5 Copyright©Arghyam All Rights Reserved Authored by Amitangshu Acharya, on behalf of Executive Summary 6 Grants Team, Arghyam, Bangalore Reference, partial reproduction and transmission by 1 Introduction 9 any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise are allowed if the copyright 1.1 Arghyam: A Profile 10 holder is acknowledged. Any commercial use of 1.2 Why Participate in Government Programmes? 11 this material requires express written consent from the copyright owners of the original material 1.3 Arghyam Participation in Government Programmes: A Profile 13 1.3.1 Suvarnajala, Karnataka 14 Further information on the contents of this document 1.3.2 Sachethana, Karnataka 18 & for a full list of publications please contact: 1.3.3 Pani Thiye Panjo, Gujarat 24 Grants Team, Arghyam 599, HAL 2nd Stage, Indiranagar 1.3.4 Mazha Polima, Kerala 28 Bengaluru 560008, Karnataka, India Tel + 91 80 41698942 Fax + 91 80 41698943 Email info@arghyam.org / grants@arghyam.org 2 Learning from Partnerships 32 www.arghyam.org 2.1 Why collaborate? 32 2.2 Mapping Influence 35 Citation: Acharya 2008. 2.3 Adding Value to Government Programmes 40 Participating in Government Programmes: The Arghyam Experience, Learning Document Issue No.1, Bengaluru, India 3 Reflections and Way Ahead 46 Design by Kena Design, www.kenadesign.com Print by Aakruthi design and print on Rendezvous Ultra White, 100% Recycled paper
  3. 3. 5 Acronyms and Abbreviations Acknowledgements ACT Arid Communities and Technologies This learning document is the end product of Information on Mazhapolima was provided by AMVS Abdasa Mahila Vikas Sangathan project that was coordinated and anchored by the Manohar Rao, Arghyam and P.K Kurian ex Team Grants Team at Arghyam. It comprised of a series Leader, Mazha Polima, Thrissur. Jos Raphael and ARWSP Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme of stakeholder discussions. Such were mostly his team members at Mazhapolima provided BIRD-K BAIF Institute for Rural Development, Karnataka individual and occasionally institutional in nature. additional support. BPL Below Poverty Line CBO Community Based Organisation A rich amount of inputs came from stakeholders Arghyam provided all the financial and intellectual in Karnataka. Dr. G.N.S Reddy, Vice President & inputs required for publishing this learning document. GAA German Agro Action K. Mallikarjunappa, Chief Programme Co-ordinator GoK Government of Karnataka (BIRD-K), Tumkur, Karnataka who not only provided Rohini Nilekani, Chairperson and Ravi Narayanan GoK Government of Kerala detailed information on their learning and (C.B.E), Advisor, provided vital feedback, which GP Gram Panchayat innovations in both Sachethana and Suvarnajala helped to improve the quality of the document. programmes but also shared their experience of K. Nagasreenivas, Manager, Urban and Suresh Babu, IEC Information, Education, Communication implementing the same and issues in programme Manager, Advocacy were instrumental with their IDRC International Development Research Centre delivery architecture. Vishwanath Srikantaiah, support and feedback. KFFFT Kutch Fodder Fruit & Forest Trust Advisor, Arghyam, shared his experience of MDG’s Millennium Development Goals Sachethana and Suvarnajala, which allowed a closer Rahul Bakare, Director, Grants was extremely look at these two from various lenses. supportive and encouraging. He made sure that MKT Manav Kalyan Trust both human and financial resources were made MMCU Mazhapolima Monitoring & Coordination Unit Inputs on Suvarnajala came largely from Manohar available for publishing this document. MoU Memorandum of Understanding Rao and Sunita Nadhamuni of Arghyam. Their long NGO Non Governmental Organisation term association with this programme yielded Kumkum Nadig of Kena Design, without whose help WATSAN Water and Sanitation quality information and insights. Learnings from the document wouldn’t look as good as it does now. Pani Thiye Panjo, Gujarat, were generated largely RDPR Rural Development & Panchayat Raj Department by Sabyasachi Das, CEO, Sahjeevan. He took great Last, but definitely not the least, Sunita Nadhamuni, RGRHCL Rajiv Gandhi Rural Housing Corporation Limited pains to provide information, even in the oddest who seeded the concept of this learning document RWH Rain Water Harvesting of hours. K. Nelson Royal, Arghyam helped in fine and was supportive through out the exercise. RTRWH Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting tuning this section and Dr. Yogesh Jadeja, ACT, Her meticulous review has enhanced the quality Gujarat helped demystify the technical processes. of this document. SDMC School Development and Management Committees SPV Special Purpose Vehicle VRTI Vivekanand Research and Training Institute WASMO Water and Sanitation Management Organisation ZP Zilla Panchayat
  4. 4. 7 Also, by supporting NGOs/CSOs and investing in However, the challenges faced by such partnerships Executive Summary developing their capacities, donor institutions are also immense. The fact that there is no clear policy helped to instil greater confidence in them. This from the Government that encourages programmes enhanced the organizations ability to articulate to engage with civil society puts the onus on the Onus of drinking water provision in independent programme Gujarat and lastly Mazha Polima, an open issues more confidently to the Government latter to prove its value in participating.Often, India has been vested largely with the State. Both well recharge programme in Kerala. This document related to project conceptualisation and civil society is perceived more as service delivery Union and State Governments have been extending delineates key learnings that resulted from each. implementation. Analysis also reveals that agencies in such partnerships and their function policy, technological and financial support for donor promoted activities such as collecting, of ensuring transparency and accountability gets implementing rural water supply schemes. By the It is generally acknowledged that Civil Society collating and analysing data for decision making, downplayed. Absence of legitimacy also leads to 10th plan, an estimated total of Rs.1,105 billion participation in Government programmes addresses organizing exchange and exposure, developing confusion and affects programme implementation. had been spent on providing drinking water. Yet, issues of equity and marginalization and thereby and designing systems to track progress, all at around the same time 2.17 lakh habitations had enables universalization of access. It also generates added significant value to enhance transparency Therefore learnings from this study points out water quality problems and did not have a safe community ownership over created assets and and efficiency of programme delivery. Most the need for participation to gravitate towards drinking water source. Huge public expenditure did ensures sustained management. Apart from the importantly, since collaborations operate in a partnerships based on mutual respect. This in turn not necessarily lead to significant improvement above-mentioned, the Arghyam experience reveals universe of unequal power relations, proactive requires formalizing of such collaboration. Unless in provision of safe water. Given that 170 million that technical innovations which enhanced efficiency donor involvement creates more dialogic space there is official recognition of Government and civil Indians still do not have access to safe water, the of drinking water supply and storage assets seems for civil society, thereby restoring the balance society collaboration, suggestions and key inputs speed, scope and scale of service delivery and its to have been a significant value add. Innovations to some extent. do not get their due attention and rarely get acted upon. sustainability issues needed urgent attention. Hence, in this domain also generated quick buy in and Photo Credit: Mazhapolima Team increasingly Government programmes are opening consequent support. Approaching a problem with up to the idea of collaborating with civil society multipronged strategies was another. Such an organisations. Conversely, realising that optimising approach allowed greater flexibility to adapt to the efficiency of State funded programmes is a better local contexts of demand and capacity. Government bet to reach out to larger sections of society, civil programmes also seem to benefit when Civil Society society organizations are also attempting to work Organizations manage to (a) make innovations with Government institutions and programmes. cost effective and (b) simplify local management processes of created assets. Arghyam, a non profit foundation based in Bangalore has been working solely on water issues In the architecture and mechanics of collaboration, since 2005. In an effort to achieve its vision of the role of donor organisations emerged as vital. ensuring safe, sustainable water for all, it has While the Government focus was primarily on participated in several Government programmes. creating assets (hardware), Arghyam supported Over the last 5 years, Arghyam has collaborated NGOs concentrated more on social/institutional in four specific Government programmes. Namely, mobilization and awareness building. In due time, Suvarnajala, a school roof top rain water harvesting these projects helped illustrate the importance of programme in Karnataka; Sachethana, a fluoride software activities and the Government recognized Dr.V. Kurien Baby, Former District Collector,Thrissur,Kerala mitigation programme in Karnataka; Pani Thiye the same by allocating finances to support software addressing a local gathering on the merits of Mazha Polima Panjo, a decentralized drinking water management activities in the succeeding stages.
  5. 5. 9 The climate change context has made such launched on 25th December 2002 ushered in the 1 Introduction predictions more real than ever before. paradigm change. There was a perceptible shift in policy from supply driven to demand driven and The World Bank Report was a watershed in such a centralized to decentralized modes of management Onus of drinking water provision in independent By the 10th plan, an estimated total of Rs.1, context. Not only did it focus on need to reform the and implementation. India has been vested largely with the State. 105 billion had been spent on providing drinking State modus operandi in water supply, it also argued The Constitution of India in Article 47 clearly water 1. Yet, at around the same time 2.17 lakh for collaborations and partnerships for increased Since water is on the State List (List-III), the primary mentions that the State has to raise “the level of habitations had water quality problems and did efficiency. Moreover, successful community based responsibility of providing drinking water facilities nutrition and the standard of living of its people” not have a safe drinking water source2. Hence, water management as witnessed in Ralegaon Siddhi, in the country rests with State Governments. Hence, and lists “improvement of public health as among huge public expenditure did not necessarily lead to Hivre Bazaar, Hebbali, et al helped to create space a number of programmes modelled on the same lines its primary duties”. This has automatically entailed significant improvement in provision of safe water. for an alternate water management paradigm with as Swajaldhara have been executed at the State direct State intervention in providing safe drinking Though resources are still being invested to reach a focus on decentralization and application of Level. These include the Jalanidhi Programme in water to its citizens. Various State and Centre uncovered habitations, older “covered” ones keeps principles of subsidiarity. Kerala, Jalswarajya Project in Maharashtra, Swajal aided programmes have mobilized significant dropping off the list intermittently3. Moreover, while Project in Uttarakhand et al. While most of these resources for this. Through a Centrally Sponsored source security was taken for granted earlier, in Successive policies seem to have moved in favour were possible through external funding from the Scheme – the Accelerated Rural Water Supply 1999 it too became unreliable. The joint World Bank of such recommendations. The National Water World Bank, UNICEF, et al various State departments Programme (ARWSP) – the Union Government and Government of India review of water resource Policy, 2002, in its section on Participatory Approach launched their own programmes financed through has provided funds to State Governments for management in India grimly concluded that water to Water Resources Management 4, articulates State budgets. This includes the Sachethana and implementing rural water supply schemes. availability in India was “fragile and finite”. clearly that “Management of Water Resources… Suvarnajala Programme aimed at providing safe should incorporate a participatory approach; water to rural populations in Karnataka and the Photo Credit: Sahjeevan by involving not only the various Governmental recently launched Mazhapolima programme in Kerala. agencies but also the users and other stakeholders… in various aspects of planning, design, development The Approach Paper to the Eleventh Five Year Plan, and management of the water resources scheme”5. clearly spells out “ tackling of water quality problems With a commitment to meet the Millennium in 60,000 habitations affected by arsenic, salinity, Development Goals (Target 7C) and halve, by fluoride and nitrate by 2009” 7 as key goal. This 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable implies working on a mission mode and tapping into access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation6, expertise and resources that cuts across sectors. innovative programmes and projects were recognized Also, civil society is increasingly playing a key role as need of the hour. Increasingly, the water sector in participating in State programmes and providing opened up to non State institutions and actors. valuable inputs. It is generally accepted that when The role of the State in water provision became taken on an equal footing, such participation helps more facilitative than regulatory. Swajaldhara, in optimizing public expenditure. 1 Khurana, I & Sen, R (2008) Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches. Background Paper, Water Aid, New Delhi 2 Rural Water Supply & Sanitation, Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Approach Paper, DDWS, New Delhi, pp 2 3 ibid 4 National Water Policy, 2002, New Delhi, pp5, Section 12 Drinking and Livestock water assets created under 5 ibid Pani Thiye Panjo Programme in Kachchh, Gujarat 6 With 1990 data as baseline 7 Rural Water Supply & Sanitation, Eleventh Five-Year Plan, Approach Paper, DDWS, New Delhi, pp
  6. 6. 11 1.1 Arghyam: A Profile 1.2 Why Participate in Government Programmes? Arghyam is a public charitable foundation setup with on subsidiarity (which signifies local management) Safe, sustainable water for all implies quality with Government in water and sanitation issues an endowment from Rohini Nilekani and working in and the effective use of technology as enabler. and scale. During early years, Arghyam supported made it challenging. Opportunities were also rare the water sector since 2005. ‘Arghyam’ is a Sanskrit grassroots organizations in implementing sustainable to come by. word meaning ‘Offering’. Arghyam works through a combination of project WATSAN projects. However, it was soon understood grants to grass roots organizations, knowledge that though such projects made a difference to However, Arghyam made serious attempts over The mission statement of Arghyam reads: building and sharing through the India Water Portal, peoples lives, it could reach only a limited number. the past few years to participate or partner in promoting new models of water science, technology Given that 170 million Indians don’t have access Government programmes. The modalities of each Safe, sustainable water for all… and system design, participatory action research to safe water and only 30% of the total population collaboration varied. While participation is defined and advocacy. have toilets, the speed, scope and scale of service as collaboration through partner institutions, delivery and its sustainability issues needed urgent partnership signified a direct collaboration with Specifically, Arghyam projects strive to understand As a small funding agency, Arghyam works primarily attention. Also, key learnings from smaller projects a Government institution, recognized through and address issues of quantity, quality and access to through partnerships – with Government, NGOs and had potential to add value to implementation of clearly defined and acknowledged roles in formal domestic water in communities across the country. various types of institutions – for impact and scale. large Government programmes. As such thoughts agreements. Hence while Mazhapolima is viewed Some of the key principles which guide its efforts Arghyam now collaborates with a diverse range of actors crystallized, Arghyam started engaging more and as partnership, Sachethana and Pani Thiye Panjo include the recognition of lifeline water as a basic across 17 States in India through more than 60 projects. more with existing Government programmes with denote participation. Suvarnajala is also viewed as need and also a right, decentralization, community Rigorous engagement with people and institutions the intent of making public investment work. The participation attempted through formal dialogues participation and ownership, an integrated approach has helped in deepening the internal debate and fact that there is an absence of a comprehensive and processes. to managing water from source to sink, an emphasis keeping Arghyam closely connected to the ground. institutional framework to make civil society work Learning was a mutual process. Such collaborations Photo Credit: Sahjeevan Photo Credit: Manoj Dabas allowed interaction with experienced Government staff and highlighted their technical competencies. Arghyam and its NGO partners brought on board skill set such as technological applications, communication, consensus building, innovation, etc. When such competencies started leveraging on each other, the success validated the power of such partnerships. Hansa Bai, ex Sarpanch Karamta village, Abdasa Taluka, Kachchh Rainwater harvesting structures double up as livestock water points next to a dug well constructed under the Pani Thiye Panjo Programme Kachchh, Gujarat under the Pani Thiye Panjo project
  7. 7. Photo Credit: BIRD-K Children playing next to a roof top rain water harvesting tank, in the fluoride affected Pavagada Taluka, Tumkur District, Karnataka 1.3 Arghyam Participation in Government Programmes: A Profile Arghyam, since its inception has been actively participating in State Government programmes for gap filling support and making strategic funding. Within a short period these interventions have matured, and transformed from participation to partnership. Total Issue Total Funding Name of Partner Type of physical Funding Year Region (water quality/ Scale of Work from Arghyam Programme Institution intervention by State quantity) (in Rs Lakh) (in Rs Lakh) Suvarnajala 2005 Karnataka RDPR & Dearth of good quality 23,000 schools Rooftop RWH 7400 40.7 (approx) Nirmiti Kendra drinking water and in 28 districts of for covering sanitation facilities Karnataka 3491 schools in primary and middle schools in rural Karnataka Sachethana 2006 Karnataka RDPR Fluoride contamination 64 fluoride Rooftop RWH, 1525 58.9 of drinking water affected villages Artificial Catchment sources in rural in 3 districts of RWH, Groundwater Karnataka Karnataka recharge, Direct aquifer recharge, Training & awareness Pani Thiye 2006 Gujarat WASMO, Govt Scarcity of drinking 135 villages in Well recharge, 141 for 142 for of Gujarat water and poor water Abdasa Taluka in Rooftop RWH and 35 villages 79 villages Panjo quality Kachchh district traditional water (as of March (approx) harvesting, Public 2009) stand posts Mazha 2009 Kerala Office of Drying of openwell 100 Gram Open well recharge 1354 58.74 the District in summer Panchayats Polima Collector, & Contamination Thrissur of well water 13
  8. 8. 15 Primary School students with their teacher monitoring water levels in the school’s roof top rainwater harvesting tank in Jadegondanahalli village in 1.3.1 Suvarnajala Chitradurga District. The RTRWH system was constructed under Suvarnajala Photo Credit: Gauri Tikota Area: Karnataka Districts: Raichur, Mysore, Chamrajnagar, Chitradurga, Davangere, Dharwad, Tumkur and Gadag d h a r wa d ga dag Project: Drinking water in 23,683 dava n g e r e Government schools c h i t r a d u r ga Period: 2006 – 2008 tumkur Funds support: Rs 40.7 lakhs for covering mysore c h a m r a j n aga r (from Arghyam) 3491 schools The Rural Development & Panchayati Raj Department committees out of its purview. At the operational (RDPR), Government of Karnataka (GoK) initiated level the programme failed to invest adequate a massive Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting Program resources into institutional capacity building. called Suvarna Jala 8, in 2005. The agenda was to provide safe drinking water for children in Arghyam, aware of these lacunae, decided to take about 23,683 Government run schools across rural part in this initiative. It realized that providing Karnataka where there was either scarcity of drinking resources for gap filling would optimize public water or presence of excess fluoride. The aim was investment. Hence RDPR was approached with an to provide 1.5 litres of safe water per student per offer of participation, which was accepted. day. The funds for the programme were routed from Bharat Nirman allocations for the State of the The earlier focus of RDPR on hardware activities Karnataka. Suvarnajala was flagged off in the year continued as before. RDPR released funds to the Zilla 2006. However it was soon realized that there were Panchayat (ZP) which in turn transferred the same to severe inadequacies in the way the programme was District Nirmiti Kendra (or ZP Engineering Department, being implemented. There was minimal ownership in case there were no Nirmiti Kendra’s in that District). over constructed assets; they were falling into The Nirmiti Kendra was responsible for setting up disuse. The service delivery architecture kept school the roof top rainwater system in each school. 8 Touted to be the biggest school roof top rainwater harvesting programme in the world
  9. 9. 17 Data Collection Capacity Building Baseline surveys; Water quality NGO Partners in assessments various Taluks Monitoring GP/SDMC Department Providing RDPR with Education status updates post school visits District Coordinator Arghyam (NGO) of RTRWH Systems Training Coordination Awareness creation Management through innovative IEC Weak Advocacy materials; Training of school 17 Model Schools; teachers, SDMC members, Recommendations children; Development of to RDPR to strengthen a maintenance manual the programme Infrastructure in Schools Arghyam RTRWH Z.P Engineering Department District Nirmiti Kendra/ of RTRWH Systems Arghyam’s role in Suvarnajala was to improve the Chitradurga, Davangere, Dharwad, Tumkur and Gadag. Construction Coordination quality of the implementation of the programme in Strong these schools. This involved facilitating a network Arghyam pitched in with its resources to create a Data Information Feedback Zilla Panchayat of Rainwater Harvesting experts and grass-roots network of NGOs. The main activities of the network Bharat Nirman NGOs who were involved in capacity-building, supported by Arghyam are depicted above. Implementation evaluating and monitoring the programme. Suvarna Jala Yojane10 ran its course from 2005–2006 Funds Flow A total of 8 districts were taken up by the network to 2007–2008. Arghyam was involved in the RDPR which included Raichur 9, Mysore, Chamrajnagar, programme from September 2006 till March 2008. 9 However, a partner’s unwillingness to take this work forward in Raichur led to its dropping off the list of Districts. This is explained later in the document. 10 Programme
  10. 10. 19 1.3.2 Sachetana Area: Karnataka Districts: Gadag, Tumkur, Kolar Project: Drinking water sources in 64 fluoride affected villages m u n da r g i Period: 2006 – 2008 pavaga da Fund support: Rs 58.9 lakhs sira baga pa l l i (from Arghyam) In 1998, BAIF Institute for Rural Development, programme with support from German Agro Action Karnataka (BIRD-K), a non profit organisation based (GAA) to nine villages in Gadag District. A number in Tumkur District initiated a programme on fluoride of innovations apart from rainwater harvesting were mitigation through rainwater harvesting. Though tried out. This included different models on roof generally focussed on livelihoods and watershed top rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and development issues, high fluoride content in drinking massive afforestation programmes. The latter was water supplies in the district and its resultant health based on evidence that latex yielding species could impacts didn’t escape their notice. The quantity optimally absorb fluoride from sub surface flows. of fluoride varied between 3 ppm11 to 6 ppm, way Though suitable latex yielding species could not be above WHO prescribed limit of 1 ppm. Hence, with a found, the afforestation drive still continued since small grant from International Development Research it would at least absorb some levels of fluoride. Centre (IDRC), a Canadian Research institution, they started working on fluoride mitigation by The success of BIRD-K’s work had generated trying and testing out a number of models with substantial interest in State Government circles. 15–20 families in Mundargi taluk, Gadag district. Mr. Kaushik Mukherjee, the then Secretary RD & PR These initiatives yielded results and managed Department took keen interest in the programme provide relief to a large number of people in the and visited the project sites. Convinced that roof surrounding fluoride affected region by reducing top rainwater harvesting was a practical and cost fluoride content in drinking water significantly. effective solution to fluoride contamination of Bolstered by its success BIRD-K scaled up its drinking water, he pushed for upscaling of the pilot. 11 parts per million An aquifer recharge system constructed under the Sachetana programme in Sira Taluka, Tumkur District, Karnataka Photo Credit: BIRD-K
  11. 11. 21 However, this took its time. The Government has by As depicted on the facing page, hardware funds then reposed complete faith in de-fluoridation units, were directly released by the RDPR to the Zilla 2. Artificial/Bore well Recharge Jatha’s, street plays, IEC, et al which in reality were not working on the ground. Panchayat which passed down to the Panchayats (on 1. Farm pond construction Awareness Building through After a substantial gap since initial negotiations, the basis of estimates provided by the Panchayats) 3. Aquifer Recharge Arghyam an implementation framework for Sachethana was in each village where the programme was being Village Level conceptualized. The funds for the same were sourced executed. The software costs of BIRD-K were funded from Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme directly through the Dept. of RDPR. The balance/ (ARWSP). Sachethana envisaged working in 60 gap amount was provided by Arghyam through Costs (3.5% of total villages in 4 taluks in 3 fluoride affected districts. a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with programme cost) Other Software BIRD-K. As a technical expert in the programme, The partnership model had roles and responsibilities BIRD-K provided technical support to PRI’s and clearly divided. While the Department of Rural supervised progress of construction and also trained Development & Panchayati Raj (RDPR) were to release communities on O&M components. The support funds for construction (read hardware), BIRD-K from Arghyam helped BIRD-K to organize a number was supposed to provide technical support, ensure of awareness programmes on need for roof top operations and maintenance (O&M) and community rainwater harvesting and other methods of tackling 2. Artificial Catchments Beneficiary Households 1. RTRWH systems contribution. However, during negotiations with the fluoride contamination and also in monitoring the Individual State Government, there was increasing pressure impact of the project. on BIRD-K to reduce its awareness and capacity Bird-K building costs (read software). BIRD-K was aware Sachethana started in 2006 and is slated to continue that downsizing software activities would comprise till 2010. Arghyam support to Sachethana will also Technical Support & Sanction, Monitoring, Capacity building on O&M the impact and acceptance of the programme. At continue till 2010. The project will provide clean this point of time, Arghyam stepped in with support drinking water to approximately 60,000 people in 64 for such costs which were to be incurred by BIRD-K. fluoride affected villages in 3 districts of Karnataka. Admin and Other programme cost) Software Costs (10% of total Photo Credit: BIRD-K PRI Data Information Feedback Payment on completion of RTRWH structure Systems Zilla Panchayat Implementation ARWSP Funds Flow RDPR
  12. 12. 23 Artificial catchment for RW harvest (Rs 22500 per hh) Farm ponds for groundwater recharge; 2400 ponds @ Rs 6000 (Community contribution 25%) Key Interventions under Sachethana Fluoride Mitigation Programme Dilution of underground aquifer by recharging; Recharge of existing Rooftop rainwater harvesting 20 dilutionwells @ Rs 2.45 lakh per well 40 borewell Rs 20,000 per well 5000 litres (Rs 22,067 per hh) (community contribution 3%) All Photos here are provided by BIRD-K
  13. 13. 25 1.3.3 Pani Thiye Panjo Area: Gujarat Districts: Abdasa, Kutchchh Project: Development of sustainable water resources at village level Period: 2007 – 2009 Fund support: Rs 142 lakhs for 79 villages (from Arghyam) “Pani thiye panjo”, (loosely translated from Training Institute (VRTI), Kutch Fodder Fruit & Forest Kachhchi means ‘lets this water be ours!’) is a Trust (KFFFT), Manav Kalyan Trust (MKT) and Abdasa multi institutional programme that attempts to Mahila Vikas Sangathan (AMVS). In a classic example address issues of water scarcity through local source of community-public & civil society partnership, augmentation in Abdasa taluka12, Kachchh district, WASMO (Water and Sanitation Management Gujarat. The immediate aim is to ensure adequate13, Organisation), an autonomous organisation safe drinking water14 access15 to 80% of the population established by the Government of Gujarat in 2002, of the taluka (135 out of 166 villages) through joined hands and committed funds to support the development of sustainable water resources at hardware costs (also some administrative ones) village level over a period of 5 years. This will involved in programme implementation. ideally transform local sources into primary ones with the external sources as backup. The programme is embedded in a collaborative institutional framework that pools in financial The project was conceived by Sahjeevan, an NGO resources from the State and Private Institutions and based in Bhuj, Kachchh and is being implemented by decentralized knowledge management frameworks a group of NGOs, namely Vivekanand Research and from CSO’s. 12 Generally, a tehsil consists of a city or town that serves as its headquarters, possibly additional towns, and a number of villages. As an entity of local government, it exercises certain fiscal and administrative power over the villages and municipalities within its jurisdiction. It is the ultimate executive agency for land records and related administrative matters. Its chief official is called the tehsildar or talukdar 13 70 liter per person per day 14 The quality parameters will concomitant to WHO standards, http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines/en/ 15 ‘Access’ is defined as a distance of not more than 200m from individual households Women collect drinking water from a shallow dugwell constructed under the Pani Thiye Panjo Programme in Abdasaa Taluka, Kachchh, Gujarat Photo Credit: Sahjeevan
  14. 14. 27 The programme is anchored in communitarian constraints and the technical feasibility of their processes. Pani Samitis, a subgroup of the village proposals needed attention. Hence, PTP consortium Data Information Feedback Panchayat 16 (i.e. Village Water Management worked on strengthening Pani Samiti’s in different (1.42 crores) Committees) facilitated by implementing NGOs, villages to prepare technical plans. In this they Arghyam prepares a project proposal, the quality of which developed an innovative mechanism called Parabs. Implementation is assessed by ACT17. The final proposal is submitted Parabs are local youth who were trained by the Funds Flow to WASMO, which extends support through hardware PTP consortium on basic geo-hydrology and financing. water resource planning. They became barefoot engineers on whom Pani Samitis could bank Software (35% of total outlay) Arghyam provides financial assistance to cover upon for technical guidance. Approximately 30 all soft costs of implementing NGOs. Sahjeevan technical proposals prepared by Pani Samitis Software Costs being the nodal agency coordinates activities of the with assistance from Parabs were sanctioned consortium. The architecture of this collaboration without any additional queries, making it a success is illustrated on top. story by itself. Apart from strengthening Pani Samitis Sanction, Monitoring, the PTP consortium worked on a number of outreach and Capacity building on Technical Support & The work profile was clearly divided between various training programmes cutting across different stake actors. WASMO has been directly working with Pani holder groups. (Sub committee of the Samiti’s in each village. Technical proposals/village plans prepared by the Pani Samiti’s were approved by By the end of 2009, the programme had reached 79 O&M Pani Samiti Panchayat) Consortium Coordination PTP NGO WASMO provided they satisfied set criteria. The funds villages, created 10 barefoot engineers, revived 54 dug for implementing the plan were disbursed directly to wells and 26 ponds benefitting approximately 70,000 the Pani Samiti’s. However, Pani Samiti’s had capacity villagers in the water scarce regions of Kachchh. (1.44 crores) Suzlon State and Central Handware Programmes of Rs 12 lakh contribution Community (1.11 crores) WASMO Photo Credit: Sahjeevan 16 Village level constitutionally approved (73rd Amendment of the Indian Constitution) governance and administrative units 17 Arid Community and Technologies, an NGO with expertise in geo hydrology
  15. 15. 29 1.3.4 Mazhapolima Area: Kerala Districts: Trissur Project: Recharge all open wells to ensure sustainable access to water Period: 2009 – 2011 Fund support: Rs 58 lakhs for two years (from Arghyam) When translated from Malayalam Mazhapolima Mazhapolima Monitoring and Coordination Unit means “bounty of rain”. It’s a community based and (MMCU) was created. This monitoring unit would decentralized well recharge programme, initiated by provide expertise and support for data based the Thrissur district administration in collaboration decision making. Through informal networks with the Panchayati Raj Institutions in the District. Arghyam and Districts Collectors office discussed The idea of this programme was seeded by Dr. V this programme and a collaborative agenda was Kurien Baby, the energetic District Collector of worked out. Arghyam pitched in to support Thrissur. Realizing that reducing groundwater tables the MMCU to generate data and strengthen the and salinity ingress was pushing Thrissur towards an research component of the programme. Through impending drinking water crisis, he conceptualized a Arghyam’s support documentation of social and programme to recharge all open wells in the district. scientific processes critical to the programme This process driven, participatory programme would was ensured. reduce dependence on a tanker supply based water regime and promote local management of water. Mazhapolima has helped recharge 2,536 wells in Thrissur district already and is on its way to Given that revival of approximately 4.5 lakh open becoming a successful example of decentralized wells would require expertise and handholding, a water management at an impressive scale. A well recharge system in place in a household in Thrissur District, Kerala promoted under the Mazhapolima Programme Photo Credit: Mazhapolima Team

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