Water Management for Better

Landscapes
Mohan Subramanian
Water and Landscape
Importance of water
 Water is found in the landscape as a water
body or a fountain
 But the most important water compone...
The World’s Water Crisis

There is no new water.
Outlook for the Future
 69% of water used in
Agriculture
 More efficient use can
have significant impact
on available su...
The Indian Context
 More than 700 million Indians lack access to
sanitation and safe drinking water
 More than 2.1 milli...
The Value of Landscaping
 Beauty and relaxation
for family, employees
and visitors
 Increases real estate
market value

...
The Value of Landscaping
 Soil erosion control

 Rainwater entrapment and
ground water recharge
 Provides shelter for
w...
Conservation Through Efficient Irrigation
Proper system design
Use water-conserving products

Proper system installation
P...
Proper Irrigation Design
 Different plants require
different amounts of water
 Understand exactly what
will be irrigated...
Use of Water Conserving Products
 Significant recent
advances in irrigation
technology
 Automated systems are
more effic...
Automatic Controllers with
Water Conserving Features
 Multiple start times and
multiple independent
programs
 Cycle+Soak...
Add an Automatic Shut-Off Device
 Rain, moisture and wind
sensors automatically
suspend watering
 15-20% or more in wate...
Efficiency
Typical Efficiency Levels:
Spray heads – 60%
Rotors – 70%
Bubblers – 80%
Rotary – 85%
Low Volume – 90%
Use Low Volume Irrigation
 Very efficient for
non-turf applications
 Apply precise amounts
of water slowly and
evenly at...
Low Volume Irrigation- Issues
 Clogging

 Mis-alignment of lateral lines
 Vandalism of exposed tubing

 Low quality pr...
Sub Surface Drip Irrigation
 The latest technological innovation

 Very useful for areas like medians, car parks,
plante...
Proper Installation
 Systems must be
properly installed and
configured to achieve
the most efficient use of
water

 Use ...
Proper Maintenance and Operation
 Set systems to operate in
early morning
 Periodic monitoring is
important
 Routine in...
Provide Optimum Water Pressure
 Use pressure regulating devices
in high pressure situations
 Every 0.3 bar reduction res...
Design & Installation
“Head to Head” Coverage
Stretched Spacing
Irrigation Over-spray
Low Pressure
High Pressure
High Wind
Low Head Drainage
Design & Product Selection
Transpiration
Water vapor

~ 99% of water consumed by plants is transpired.
The function of stomates is
gas exchange - pri...
Root Zone Pore Space
Composition of an average loamy soil
Maintaining pore
space for soil gases
(O2) is critical to
health...
Root Zone Pore Space
After a heavy rain or irrigation
all pores are filled with water,
and the soil is saturated.

After g...
Plant Water Requirements
 The landscape’s water requirement can be
measured through Evapotranspiration
(ET) calculations:...
Calculating ET
Step-Down Method
The step-down method is a simple and easy way to conserve
water and save money






Take the base s...
Water Savings
2 minutes from each zone can make a large difference.

54 litres/minute zone x 2 minutes = 108 litres
8 zone...
Benefits of Proper Irrigation
 Tangible Benefits
–
–
–
–

Water Savings
Power Savings
Labour Savings
Reduced input costs
...
Case Study- Lalbagh and Cubbon
Park
 Initiated in 2003-05 by Bangalore
Development Authority
 Computer controlled automa...
Lalbagh- Cost Benefit Analysis
 System Cost was 158 Lakhs

 Benefits
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Complete utilization of STP water
Su...
Volkswagen Automotive, Pune
 Installed in 2010

 State of the Art Computerized Irrigation
System
 25 acres of landscape...
Volkswagen- Cost Benefit
 Power savings of 25%- VFD pumps and Flo
Manager technology- around Rs.3 lakhs p.a
 Automation ...
Volkswagen- Benefits
 System is estimated to payback in 4 years

 Green Landscapes throughout the year
 Optimal utiliza...
Intelligent Use of Water
Thank you.
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
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The value of landscaping, how water conservation can be carried out through efficient design, better products & proper installation

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Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013

  1. 1. Water Management for Better Landscapes Mohan Subramanian
  2. 2. Water and Landscape
  3. 3. Importance of water  Water is found in the landscape as a water body or a fountain  But the most important water component is the one you do not see  The water that nourishes the plants is critical to ensure the landscape is lively and healthy  Providing adequate amount of this water is the main purpose of Irrigation.
  4. 4. The World’s Water Crisis There is no new water.
  5. 5. Outlook for the Future  69% of water used in Agriculture  More efficient use can have significant impact on available supply  Increasing number of international and regional summits  Working together to find a solution
  6. 6. The Indian Context  More than 700 million Indians lack access to sanitation and safe drinking water  More than 2.1 million children under the age of 5 die due to disease related to water.  22 Million bore-wells pump water whenever there is power and pump out roughly 200 Cubic Kilometres of water every year
  7. 7. The Value of Landscaping  Beauty and relaxation for family, employees and visitors  Increases real estate market value  Provides safe, high-quality play and exercise areas
  8. 8. The Value of Landscaping  Soil erosion control  Rainwater entrapment and ground water recharge  Provides shelter for wildlife  Solar heat dissipation  Reduces air and noise pollution
  9. 9. Conservation Through Efficient Irrigation Proper system design Use water-conserving products Proper system installation Proper maintenance and usage
  10. 10. Proper Irrigation Design  Different plants require different amounts of water  Understand exactly what will be irrigated  Divide by zones  Use the right products for the right applications  Consult a licensed professional
  11. 11. Use of Water Conserving Products  Significant recent advances in irrigation technology  Automated systems are more efficient than hand watering  Can be set to deliver exactly the amount of water needed
  12. 12. Automatic Controllers with Water Conserving Features  Multiple start times and multiple independent programs  Cycle+Soak™  Water budget  ET Programming  Rain Delay  Pump Station Control
  13. 13. Add an Automatic Shut-Off Device  Rain, moisture and wind sensors automatically suspend watering  15-20% or more in water savings  Very simple to install and maintain. Cost effective too.
  14. 14. Efficiency Typical Efficiency Levels: Spray heads – 60% Rotors – 70% Bubblers – 80% Rotary – 85% Low Volume – 90%
  15. 15. Use Low Volume Irrigation  Very efficient for non-turf applications  Apply precise amounts of water slowly and evenly at the root  Helps reduce weeds and plant disease  Helps eliminate runoff  Helps plants thrive
  16. 16. Low Volume Irrigation- Issues  Clogging  Mis-alignment of lateral lines  Vandalism of exposed tubing  Low quality products- frequent replacement required  Maintenance issues- Cleaning, aligning, repairing
  17. 17. Sub Surface Drip Irrigation  The latest technological innovation  Very useful for areas like medians, car parks, planters  Ideal for shrub lines in lawn areas  Best suited for highway medians  No maintenance and very reliable  Out of sight- No vandalism, no damage
  18. 18. Proper Installation  Systems must be properly installed and configured to achieve the most efficient use of water  Use Certified Irrigation Contractors (Irrigation Association)
  19. 19. Proper Maintenance and Operation  Set systems to operate in early morning  Periodic monitoring is important  Routine inspections to discover problems  Adjust schedules when the seasons change  Adjust schedules when plants change
  20. 20. Provide Optimum Water Pressure  Use pressure regulating devices in high pressure situations  Every 0.3 bar reduction results in 6-8% lower water usage  Prevent misting & fogging  Use booster pumps in low pressure environments  Ensures complete and efficient water coverage
  21. 21. Design & Installation
  22. 22. “Head to Head” Coverage
  23. 23. Stretched Spacing
  24. 24. Irrigation Over-spray
  25. 25. Low Pressure
  26. 26. High Pressure
  27. 27. High Wind
  28. 28. Low Head Drainage
  29. 29. Design & Product Selection
  30. 30. Transpiration Water vapor ~ 99% of water consumed by plants is transpired. The function of stomates is gas exchange - primarily the acquisition of CO2 for photosynthesis. Stomates also transpire water which is the ecological trade-off. Space between cells is saturated with water vapor. H2O H2O Stoma or pores in the leaf surface allow CO2 to enter for photosynthesis and water vapor to escape through transpiration. CO2 H2O H2O H2O What’s the function of transpiration ? • Translocation of materials • Evaporative cooling What’s the drawback ? • Water loss
  31. 31. Root Zone Pore Space Composition of an average loamy soil Maintaining pore space for soil gases (O2) is critical to healthy root Water function!!! 25% Mineral 45% Solids Soil gases 25% Pore Space Organic • Half the volume of a soil is pore space. 5% % by volume VC ‘97 • Under ideal conditions ½ of the pore space is filled with water, the other ½ is filled with air.
  32. 32. Root Zone Pore Space After a heavy rain or irrigation all pores are filled with water, and the soil is saturated. After gravity drains the soil, ½ the pore space is filled with water and ½ is filled with air. This condition is “Ideal”. Over-watering can cause soils to be constantly saturated which starves roots of oxygen and restricts root growth and root function. This is an unhealthy condition for turf!!!
  33. 33. Plant Water Requirements  The landscape’s water requirement can be measured through Evapotranspiration (ET) calculations: – ET is the amount of water lost to the plants use through daily evaporation and transpiration – ET is the measurement in mm of irrigation required to supplement rainfall and maintain desired soil moisture content – ET and the efficiency of the irrigation system are used to calculate the valve operating time
  34. 34. Calculating ET
  35. 35. Step-Down Method The step-down method is a simple and easy way to conserve water and save money      Take the base schedule already in use. Subtract 2 minutes from each zone. Monitor. If still very green, subtract 2 more minutes. Continue until you reach an acceptable level of colour and health.
  36. 36. Water Savings 2 minutes from each zone can make a large difference. 54 litres/minute zone x 2 minutes = 108 litres 8 zones x 108 litres = 864 litres per irrigation day 864 litres/irrigation day x 7 irrigation days/week = 6048 litres/week 6048 litres/week x 40 weeks/year = 2,41,920 lites/year 2,41,920 litres/year x 100 homes = 24 Million litres saved
  37. 37. Benefits of Proper Irrigation  Tangible Benefits – – – – Water Savings Power Savings Labour Savings Reduced input costs  Intangible Benefits – – – – Greener landscapes Reduced dust pollution Cooling Effect Better aesthetics and working environment
  38. 38. Case Study- Lalbagh and Cubbon Park  Initiated in 2003-05 by Bangalore Development Authority  Computer controlled automatic irrigation system installed in both parks  Over 1500 sprinklers in each park  Works in tandem with Sewage Treatment Plant installed at the same time  Uses STP water for all irrigation needs
  39. 39. Lalbagh- Cost Benefit Analysis  System Cost was 158 Lakhs  Benefits – – – – – – – Complete utilization of STP water Surplus water available for sale to other users Power savings of Rs.3 Lakhs per annum Labor Savings of Rs.15 Lakhs per annum Green Landscape throughout the year Reduced dust and a better environment System operational efficiently even after 10 years
  40. 40. Volkswagen Automotive, Pune  Installed in 2010  State of the Art Computerized Irrigation System  25 acres of landscape  Changing Land use- Parking lots become factories etc  Over 500 sprinklers and 20,000mts of Drip Line
  41. 41. Volkswagen- Cost Benefit  Power savings of 25%- VFD pumps and Flo Manager technology- around Rs.3 lakhs p.a  Automation was cheaper than manual in capital costs  Only one person operates the entire system replacing over 15 people.  Water consumption is reduced by 40% over conventional system. This is based on data of pre-irrigation usage and current usage
  42. 42. Volkswagen- Benefits  System is estimated to payback in 4 years  Green Landscapes throughout the year  Optimal utilization of the STP water, System allows monitoring of consumption and maintains logs of usage  Irrigation system has brought down dust drastically and for the automobile plant, this has been a major value addition for their painting process quality
  43. 43. Intelligent Use of Water
  44. 44. Thank you.

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