Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Landscape architecture & water management_ Mohan Subramaniam_2013

362

Published on

The value of landscaping, how water conservation can be carried out through efficient design, better products & proper installation

The value of landscaping, how water conservation can be carried out through efficient design, better products & proper installation

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
362
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Water Management for Better Landscapes Mohan Subramanian
  • 2. Water and Landscape
  • 3. Importance of water  Water is found in the landscape as a water body or a fountain  But the most important water component is the one you do not see  The water that nourishes the plants is critical to ensure the landscape is lively and healthy  Providing adequate amount of this water is the main purpose of Irrigation.
  • 4. The World’s Water Crisis There is no new water.
  • 5. Outlook for the Future  69% of water used in Agriculture  More efficient use can have significant impact on available supply  Increasing number of international and regional summits  Working together to find a solution
  • 6. The Indian Context  More than 700 million Indians lack access to sanitation and safe drinking water  More than 2.1 million children under the age of 5 die due to disease related to water.  22 Million bore-wells pump water whenever there is power and pump out roughly 200 Cubic Kilometres of water every year
  • 7. The Value of Landscaping  Beauty and relaxation for family, employees and visitors  Increases real estate market value  Provides safe, high-quality play and exercise areas
  • 8. The Value of Landscaping  Soil erosion control  Rainwater entrapment and ground water recharge  Provides shelter for wildlife  Solar heat dissipation  Reduces air and noise pollution
  • 9. Conservation Through Efficient Irrigation Proper system design Use water-conserving products Proper system installation Proper maintenance and usage
  • 10. Proper Irrigation Design  Different plants require different amounts of water  Understand exactly what will be irrigated  Divide by zones  Use the right products for the right applications  Consult a licensed professional
  • 11. Use of Water Conserving Products  Significant recent advances in irrigation technology  Automated systems are more efficient than hand watering  Can be set to deliver exactly the amount of water needed
  • 12. Automatic Controllers with Water Conserving Features  Multiple start times and multiple independent programs  Cycle+Soak™  Water budget  ET Programming  Rain Delay  Pump Station Control
  • 13. Add an Automatic Shut-Off Device  Rain, moisture and wind sensors automatically suspend watering  15-20% or more in water savings  Very simple to install and maintain. Cost effective too.
  • 14. Efficiency Typical Efficiency Levels: Spray heads – 60% Rotors – 70% Bubblers – 80% Rotary – 85% Low Volume – 90%
  • 15. Use Low Volume Irrigation  Very efficient for non-turf applications  Apply precise amounts of water slowly and evenly at the root  Helps reduce weeds and plant disease  Helps eliminate runoff  Helps plants thrive
  • 16. Low Volume Irrigation- Issues  Clogging  Mis-alignment of lateral lines  Vandalism of exposed tubing  Low quality products- frequent replacement required  Maintenance issues- Cleaning, aligning, repairing
  • 17. Sub Surface Drip Irrigation  The latest technological innovation  Very useful for areas like medians, car parks, planters  Ideal for shrub lines in lawn areas  Best suited for highway medians  No maintenance and very reliable  Out of sight- No vandalism, no damage
  • 18. Proper Installation  Systems must be properly installed and configured to achieve the most efficient use of water  Use Certified Irrigation Contractors (Irrigation Association)
  • 19. Proper Maintenance and Operation  Set systems to operate in early morning  Periodic monitoring is important  Routine inspections to discover problems  Adjust schedules when the seasons change  Adjust schedules when plants change
  • 20. Provide Optimum Water Pressure  Use pressure regulating devices in high pressure situations  Every 0.3 bar reduction results in 6-8% lower water usage  Prevent misting & fogging  Use booster pumps in low pressure environments  Ensures complete and efficient water coverage
  • 21. Design & Installation
  • 22. “Head to Head” Coverage
  • 23. Stretched Spacing
  • 24. Irrigation Over-spray
  • 25. Low Pressure
  • 26. High Pressure
  • 27. High Wind
  • 28. Low Head Drainage
  • 29. Design & Product Selection
  • 30. Transpiration Water vapor ~ 99% of water consumed by plants is transpired. The function of stomates is gas exchange - primarily the acquisition of CO2 for photosynthesis. Stomates also transpire water which is the ecological trade-off. Space between cells is saturated with water vapor. H2O H2O Stoma or pores in the leaf surface allow CO2 to enter for photosynthesis and water vapor to escape through transpiration. CO2 H2O H2O H2O What’s the function of transpiration ? • Translocation of materials • Evaporative cooling What’s the drawback ? • Water loss
  • 31. Root Zone Pore Space Composition of an average loamy soil Maintaining pore space for soil gases (O2) is critical to healthy root Water function!!! 25% Mineral 45% Solids Soil gases 25% Pore Space Organic • Half the volume of a soil is pore space. 5% % by volume VC ‘97 • Under ideal conditions ½ of the pore space is filled with water, the other ½ is filled with air.
  • 32. Root Zone Pore Space After a heavy rain or irrigation all pores are filled with water, and the soil is saturated. After gravity drains the soil, ½ the pore space is filled with water and ½ is filled with air. This condition is “Ideal”. Over-watering can cause soils to be constantly saturated which starves roots of oxygen and restricts root growth and root function. This is an unhealthy condition for turf!!!
  • 33. Plant Water Requirements  The landscape’s water requirement can be measured through Evapotranspiration (ET) calculations: – ET is the amount of water lost to the plants use through daily evaporation and transpiration – ET is the measurement in mm of irrigation required to supplement rainfall and maintain desired soil moisture content – ET and the efficiency of the irrigation system are used to calculate the valve operating time
  • 34. Calculating ET
  • 35. Step-Down Method The step-down method is a simple and easy way to conserve water and save money      Take the base schedule already in use. Subtract 2 minutes from each zone. Monitor. If still very green, subtract 2 more minutes. Continue until you reach an acceptable level of colour and health.
  • 36. Water Savings 2 minutes from each zone can make a large difference. 54 litres/minute zone x 2 minutes = 108 litres 8 zones x 108 litres = 864 litres per irrigation day 864 litres/irrigation day x 7 irrigation days/week = 6048 litres/week 6048 litres/week x 40 weeks/year = 2,41,920 lites/year 2,41,920 litres/year x 100 homes = 24 Million litres saved
  • 37. Benefits of Proper Irrigation  Tangible Benefits – – – – Water Savings Power Savings Labour Savings Reduced input costs  Intangible Benefits – – – – Greener landscapes Reduced dust pollution Cooling Effect Better aesthetics and working environment
  • 38. Case Study- Lalbagh and Cubbon Park  Initiated in 2003-05 by Bangalore Development Authority  Computer controlled automatic irrigation system installed in both parks  Over 1500 sprinklers in each park  Works in tandem with Sewage Treatment Plant installed at the same time  Uses STP water for all irrigation needs
  • 39. Lalbagh- Cost Benefit Analysis  System Cost was 158 Lakhs  Benefits – – – – – – – Complete utilization of STP water Surplus water available for sale to other users Power savings of Rs.3 Lakhs per annum Labor Savings of Rs.15 Lakhs per annum Green Landscape throughout the year Reduced dust and a better environment System operational efficiently even after 10 years
  • 40. Volkswagen Automotive, Pune  Installed in 2010  State of the Art Computerized Irrigation System  25 acres of landscape  Changing Land use- Parking lots become factories etc  Over 500 sprinklers and 20,000mts of Drip Line
  • 41. Volkswagen- Cost Benefit  Power savings of 25%- VFD pumps and Flo Manager technology- around Rs.3 lakhs p.a  Automation was cheaper than manual in capital costs  Only one person operates the entire system replacing over 15 people.  Water consumption is reduced by 40% over conventional system. This is based on data of pre-irrigation usage and current usage
  • 42. Volkswagen- Benefits  System is estimated to payback in 4 years  Green Landscapes throughout the year  Optimal utilization of the STP water, System allows monitoring of consumption and maintains logs of usage  Irrigation system has brought down dust drastically and for the automobile plant, this has been a major value addition for their painting process quality
  • 43. Intelligent Use of Water
  • 44. Thank you.

×