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Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014
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Impact of climate change on glaciers_Dr. S.S.Randhawa,State Centre on Climate Change_August 2014

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What is climate change and will be its effect the Himalayan glaciers? A look at what are the reasons for concerns, will it lead to more extreme weather events and what the future climate will be like.

What is climate change and will be its effect the Himalayan glaciers? A look at what are the reasons for concerns, will it lead to more extreme weather events and what the future climate will be like.

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  • 1. Impact of Climate Change on Himalayan Glaciers & the climate induced hazards and the initiatives taken by the Government of Himachal Pradesh Dr. S.S.Randhawa Sr. Scientific Officer State Centre on Climate Change (State Council for Science, Technology & Environment) .
  • 2. WHAT IS CLIMATE CHANGE The long term fluctuations in temperature , precipitations, wind, and all other aspects of the Earth’s climate. It is also defined by the United Nations Convention on Climate Change as “Change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
  • 3. Five Questions about Climate Change * Is the climate really changing ? * How much has been the past change ? * What will the future climate be like ? * What are the reasons for concern ? * Will there be more extreme weather events ?
  • 4. Is the Earth warming? Really? Yes, really.
  • 5. Ozone Layers (0-15 km) (50-90 km) (15-50 km)
  • 6. Greenhouse effect
  • 7. Four Major Greenhouse Gases
  • 8. Greenhouse gases on the Rise
  • 9. Estimates of Future Levels of CO2 Year CO2, ppm 2000 369 2010-2015 388-398 2050/2060 463-623 2100 478-1099 Source: IPCC, 2001
  • 10. India’s Contribution to Global Warming GAS Contribution to Global Warming (%) Emission from India to Global (%) India’s contribution to Global Warming (%) CO2 61 2.2 1.34 CH4 15 4.0 0.6 N2O 4 4.8 0.2 CFCs 12 0.8 0.09 Total 2.23%
  • 11. Climatic Change How is being felt ? • Increase in CO2 • Increase in temperature • Change in precipitation • Sea level rise • Retreating glaciers • Variability and extreme events such as floods and drought
  • 12. HOW WILL IT AFFECT US ?
  • 13. CLIMATE CHANGE – A HIMALAYAN PERSPECTIVE Climate Change issues are of global concern. It pose major challenge to our mountain environment as mountain ecosystem is highly vulnerable and sensitive to the climatic variations. Mountain cover close to 20% of the Earth’s surface, providing a home to approximately one-tenth of the global human population. With their steep and varied topography and distinct altitudinal zones, mountains support a high diversity of species and ecosystem and large percentage of global endemic species. Mountains have special role in showing the effects of climate change. The Himalayan ecosystem has 51 million people who practice hill agriculture and whose vulnerability is expected to increase on account of climate change.
  • 14. The economy of the State is wholly dependent on areas like the hydel power generation, horticulture, agriculture, forestry and tourism and are assumed to be under threat in the present scenario of changing climate. Any change in these sectors due to climate change, in every likelihood, will not only going to affect the livelihood prospects in the agrarian economies of mountain regions, but also everyone living below in the plains. The major issues of concern due to the emerging threat of climate change in Himachal Pradesh are: • Agrarian economy of 90% rural population and their livelihood. • Dependence on rains for agrarian activities. • Sustainability of hydro economy as dependency on snow and glaciers. • Water sources for drinking and irrigation . • Rural livelihood dependency on forest for fuel wood, fodder & non wood products etc. • Economy of the State on the medicinal herbs. • Climate induced and other natural hazards threat in the state. Receding Trend in Himalayan Glaciers 2009 CLIMATE CHANGE – ISSUES OF CONCERN Vacated Area
  • 15. AGRO- HORTICULTURE SECTOR 1. Rabi crops more affected due to erratic rainfall. 2. Diversion from apple to vegetables especially in the Lower Kullu valley. 3. Increase in annual production of vegetables from 25,000 tonne in 3000 ha area in 1951- 52 to 1269 thousands tonne in 65,000 ha area in 2010-11. 4. The rise in temp has affected the apple production especially located on the lower altitude. 5. Apple production in cold desert areas has suddenly improved. 6. Change in average winter temp. has led to early flowering in rhododendron. Erratic and changing weather pattern has affected on the sustainability of marginal agriculture and horticulture in the State where average holding size is 1.07 ha and about 70% of the population depends upon these two sectors for their livelihood. Over 92% of the holdings in the State are classified as small or marginal and dependence on rain in some areas is very high. Thus, when viewed along with other specificities such as infrastructure, rugged topography, limited land for cultivation, limited livelihood choices, low productivity of land, and vulnerability to natural disaster renders the state to be highly vulnerable to the phenomena of climate change. Replacement of apples by vegetables (Lower Kullu Valley) Upward shift to cold desert region
  • 16. SNOW & GLACIERS According to experts, glaciers in the Himalaya have been reported to be in the retreating phase and in future, this can result in water scarcity for the people living in the mountain region and in downstream area who depend on glaciers and snow as a source of fresh water. Retreating glaciers, depleting snow cover and Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) are of immediate concern in the mountain environment as GLOFs can have a devastating impact on the hydro power, water sources, people, livestock, forests, farms and infrastructure. Decreases in snow accumulation and glacial retreat might lead to acute water shortages in the future. Glacier Status in Himachal Pradesh • An overall reduction in glacier area from 2077 sq.km to 1628 sq.km from 1962-2001 in Chenab, Parbati & Baspa Basins,H.P. • An overall deglaciation of 21% of total area in these basins. • About 10% deglaciation is observed in Spiti Basin between 2001-2007. • Prominent glaciers like as studied by GSI in Himachal Pradesh shows: • Chota Sigri 6.81 m/y retreat between 1962 -95 • Bara Sigri 29.78 m/y between 1906-1957 • Trilokinath as 17.86 m/y between 1968-1996 • Beas Kund as 18.8 m/y between 1963-2003 • Manimahesh as 29.1 between 1968-2005 TEMPORAL MONITORING OF GLACIERS 2001 2007
  • 17. Effect of Climate Change on Snow fall pattern affecting precipitation in peak winter months. Formation of moraine dammed lakes due to retreat of Himalayan glaciers – potential vulnerable area in Himachal Pradesh.
  • 18. FORESTS Forests in Himachal Pradesh are an important ecological and natural resource and have been aptly termed as “Green Pearl” in the Himalaya. About 26% of the State’s geographical area is the repository of 3245 species out of which 95% are endemic to the state and 5% (150) species are exotic, most of the people in rural areas in the State depend directly or indirectly on forests for their livelihood and use significant quantity of forest goods and services like non-wood forest products, ecotourism, fodder, timber etc. The immediate repercussions of climate change on the forests are visible in the form of shifting of tree line to higher altitudes and movement of pine species to higher altitudes. Available data on climate suggested that by 2100, under the most probable scenario, temperature of the state is likely to increase by 30C and precipitation will decrease by 20% and in that situation the effects will be more visible and alarming also. UPWARDSHIFTOFTREELINE
  • 19. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE INVASION OF PINE INTO OAK/DEODAR DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE AFFECTING FODDER AVAILABILITY FOR LIVESTOCK & PEOPLE’S LIVELIHOOD Year No. of fire Incidences Areas Affected (In Hectares) 1995 1669 57143 2000 1900 36887 2001-02 301 5719 2002-03 282 4204 2003-04 550 9896 2007-08 550 8393 2008-09 572 6586 2009-10 1906 24849 2010-11 870 7837 2011-12 168 1758 2012-13 1798 20773 2014-15(Up to 03-07-14) 580 4467 Source : SDMA Himachal Pradesh & Forest Department (Forest Protection & Fire Control, Bilaspur)
  • 20. BIODIVERSITY  Himachal Pradesh being a mountain State, is rich in floral and faunal biodiversity. The tribal and remote areas of the state have good medicinal and aromatic floral resources which plays a major in their livelihoods.  With the changing climate, many species are either facing the problem of extinction or declining because of rising temperature affecting health, well being and livelihood of the people who rely on such resources.  We are committed to preserve this Himalayan reserve as it provides us with biological resources and basic goods like food, fibre, medicine, timber, fuel wood etc. Romulus sp. In upper Himachal
  • 21. WATER RESOURCES Climate Change induced weather extremes such as unprecedented drought, frequent floods, cloud bursts, erratic and changing pattern of rain and snowfall, higher temperature and milder and late winters have affected the availability of natural resources in general and the water in particular. Over the years, the water availability in all towns of the State has declined and majority of them are facing scarcity situation. The traditional water sources are either on the verge of extinction or have dried. Any change in the behaviour of water resources will have adverse impact on the overall economy of the State. River System Area of Catchment Area in % Satluj 20,398 30.69 Beas 13,663 24.50 Chenab 7,850 14.20 Ravi 5,528 9.90 Yamuna 5,872 10.60 Major river system and its catchment area in Himachal Pradesh
  • 22. 1 7 5 4 6 3 2 EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE WATER RESOURCES 5. Dried traditional sources of water. 6. Decreasing snowfall patterns. 7. Perennial streams have become seasonal. 1. Khatris are no more functional. 2. Micro – hydal are under threat. 3. Decreasing river discharge. 4. Affects the riverine ecology. 3
  • 23. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE GLACIERS IRS LISS III SATELLITE PICTURE SHOWING GLACIERS IN THE CHANDRA BASIN, HIMACHAL PRADESH BARA SIGRI GLACIER
  • 24. IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SNOW COVER * Freezing level increase * Raise in snow line * Decrease in snow cover area. * Reduction of snow cover period * Excessive build up of moist snow cover on slopes * May lead to drier conditions in plains
  • 25. IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SNOW COVER * Moist/Wet snow cover may melt off fast * Permanent snow cover may become seasonal * Decrease in snow cover in the northern hemisphere * Continued warming could melt all the glaciers * Areas covered by mountain glaciers decreased * Threat of avalanches, landslides and floods may increase as the snow melts.
  • 26. Effect of warming: Different Possibilities * No avalanches because snow bound region may turn up to be rain bound regions which would cause • Soil erosion • Mass wasting / Landslides * Excessive wet snow avalanches may lead to • Scouring of soil cover. • Melting of avalanche debris speeds up in valley region • Release of massive avalanches • Forest Destruction * Wet snow precipitation, may not release as avalanches easily and as a result snow cover on mountain slopes may stay for longer duration.
  • 27. GLACIERS AS THE DIRECT INDICATORS FOR GLOBAL WARMING * Glaciers and snow cover studies can be considered as the direct indicators reflecting the rise in temperature. •* Evidences of global warming can be reflected by •(a) Retreat in glacier snouts •(b) Variation in snow cover extent •© Formation of moraine dammed lakes
  • 28. Present status of snow and glaciers in Himachal Himalaya
  • 29. Tsho Morari lake Pangong Tso Pong Dam Govind Sagar 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 : Satluj Basin, 2: Beas Basin, 3 : Baspa Basin, 4: Pin Basin, 5 : Spiti Basin, 6 : Jiwa basin 7: Parbati Basin, 8 : Miyar Basin 9 : Bhaga Basin, 10: Chandra basin 11 : Ravi Basin Snow fed basins in Himachal Pradesh
  • 30. An overview of Snow & Glacier in Himachal Himalaya Contd…
  • 31. Distribution of Glaciers & Snowfields in Himachal Himalaya BASIN NO.OF AERIAL NO.OF AERIAL NAME GLACEIRS EXTENT SNOW EXTENT (Sq.Km) FIELDS (Sq.Km.) Beas Basin 51 503.725 237 312.564 {Parvati Sub Basin 36 450.627 131 188.188 { Sainj Sub Basin 09 37.255 59 51.934 Satluj Basin 151 616.299 857 544.173 { Spiti Sub Basin 71 258.237 597 368.366 { Baspa Sub Basin 25 203.300 66 64.964 Chenab Basin 454 1174.5 732 245.000 Contd…
  • 32. DISTRIBUTION OF GLACIERS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR AERIAL EXTENT IN SATLUJ BASIN AERIAL RANGE NUMBER OF TOTAL AREA (SQ.KM.) GLACIERS OF GLACIERS (SQ.KM.) 0.5 41 10.254 0.5-1.0 47 37.167 1.0-2.0 75 108.641 2.0-5.0 92 296.208 5.0-10.0 51 377.649 >10.0 28 687.202 Glacier Area Sq.Km.) No.of Glaciers Total Area (Sq.Km.) <1 244 113.832 1-5 165 394.599 5-10 34 211.284 >10 14 335.612 Distribution of Glaciers in Satluj basin on the basis of their aerial range Distribution of glaciers in Chenab Basin on the basis of their aerial range
  • 33. GLACIAL VARIATIONS IN SPITI SUB CATCHMENT OF SATLUJ RIVER BASIN , NW HIMALAYA
  • 34. Satellite view of the study Area
  • 35. Fig: Glacier Layer ,Spiti Sub Basin based on SOI,1962/1965
  • 36. Fig: Spiti Sub Basin, Satluj Catchment, H.P. IRS,1C LISS-III, P96,R48, 01 August 2001
  • 37. Fig: Spiti Sub Basin, Satluj Catchment, H.P. IRS,1C LISS-III, P96,R48, 18 August 2007
  • 38. Glacier Area (sq km) No. of glaciers in 1962 Area in (Sq.Km.) No. of glaciers in 1993 Area in (Sq.Km.) No. of glaciers in 2001 Area in (Sq.Km.) No. of glaciers in 2007 Area in (Sq.Km.) 0-1 141 65.18 162 60.16 163 85.62 172 73.75 1-3 58 106.90 59 112.85 63 110.19 52 91.55 3-5 10 38.79 15 58.30 12 46.37 10 38.58 5-10 09 61.17 10 77.51 08 60.58 09 67.59 >10 08 105.88 4 51.13 04 50.74 03 37.94 Total 226 377.92 250 359.95 250 353.50 246 309.41 Variations in the Glaciers between 1965,1993,2001 & 2007
  • 39. Contd… Glacial Variations in Spiti Sub Catchment of Satluj River Basin, NW Himalaya
  • 40. 53E/13 1962 53E/132001 Temporal Variations between 1962-2011
  • 41. 53E/13 2001 53E/13 2007 Temporal Variations between 1962-2011
  • 42. 2. Determination of glacial retreat using GPS observations
  • 43. USING REMOTE SENSING DATA AND SOI MAP(52H/11) SNOUT POSITION:- SATELLITE DATE SNOUT ALT. SOI SNOUT DATA ALT. IRS-1D 27 -08-2001 5080 M 4960 M FIELD INVESTIGATION:- SNOUT ALTITUDE OBSERVED = 5062 M
  • 44. Glacier Snout in the Field Field Photographs
  • 45. Field view of Glacier Snout in Sept.2007
  • 46. Clippings-Glacier Expedition
  • 47. OBSERVED VARIATIONS ON THE BASIS OF STDUIES CARRIED OUT BY HPRSC AND SAC AHMEDBAD USING SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN HIMACHAL HIMALAYA •GLACIER RETREAT WAS ESTIMATED IN CHENAB, PARBATI & BASPA BASINS USING TOPOSHEETS OF 1962 AS BASE.. •EXPEDITIONS TO CHHOTA SIGRI, SAMADRU TAPU, PARBATI AND SHAUNA GARANG GLACIERS WERE ORGANIZED TO IDENTIFY THE GLACIER TERMINUS. •AN OVERALL REDUCTION IN GLACIER AREA FROM 2077 SQ.KM. TO 1628 SQ.KM FROM 1962 , AN OVERALL DEGLACIATION OF 21% OBSERVED. •NO.OF GLACIER INCREASED DUE TO FRAGMENTATION. •SMALL GLACIERATES AND ICE FIELDS HAVE SHOWN EXTENSIVE DEGLACIATION. •127 GLACIERATES AND ICE FIELDS LESS THAN 1 SQ.KM. HAVE SHOWN RETREAT OF ABOUT 38% SINCE 1962. •COMBINATION OF GLACIAL FRAGMENTATION, HIGHER RETREAT OF SMALL GLACIER AND CLIMATE CHANGE ARE INFLUENCING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF HIMALAYAN GLACIER.
  • 48. • Chotta Sigri 6.81 m / year between 1962-95 • Bara Sigri 29.78 m/year between 1906-1995 • Trilokinath 17.86 m/year between 1968-1996 • Beas Kund 18.8 m/year between 1963-2003 • Manimahesh 29.1 m/year between 1968-2005. • (Based on GSI Database) Retreat of Glaciers in Himachal Himalayas SATELLITE VIEW OF CHOTTA SIGRI GLACIER
  • 49. Field view of Glacier Snout in Sept.2007
  • 50. FIELD VIEW OF A HANGING GLACIER IN THE BHAGA RIVER BASIN
  • 51. LOSS IN GLACIER AREA: 1962 - 2001 Glaciers are well distributed by size, type, altitude and debris cover. Area in 1962 and 2001 (LISS-III) observed as 173 and 140 sq. km.,respectively. Overall 19 % loss in glacier area .
  • 52. Retreat of 1963-1997 Janapa Glacier: 696 m Shaune Garang: 923 m Jorya Garang : 425 m Naradu Garang: 550 m Bilare Bange : 90 m Karu Garang : 800 m Baspa Bamak : 380 m 53I01 008 : 585 m Glacier Retreat monitoring using IRS PAN stereo data ORTHO-IMAGERY OF JANAPA GLACIER
  • 53. PARBATI GLACIER, KULLU DISTRICT H. P. MASSIVE GLACIAL RETREAT WAS OBSERVED FROM YEAR 1962 TO 2000. 1962 : 46.8 sq km 2000 : 39.8 sq km Retreat : 6.8 km 178 m /year 4130 m 4200 4400
  • 54. BASPA BASIN, H.P. GLACIER NO: 11 GLACIER AREA 1962: 7.1 sq. km. 2001: 5.0 sq. km. LOSS: 2.1 sq. km. IRS LISS-III imagery August 25, 2001. October 3, 2000.
  • 55. SATELLITE VIEW OF CHOTTA SIGRI GLACIER Chhota Sigri glacier as per SOI 1963 Salient feature of Chotta Sigri Glacier Glacier snout in 1963 4020m Glacier snout in 2001 4280m Acc. area(2001) 3.265 sq.km. Abl.area(2001) 11.49 sq.km. Total area (2001) 14.75 sq.km. Total area (1963) 16.00 sq.km.
  • 56. SOI 1963 Glacier Feeding Miar Nala in L& Spiti Present Extent on 30August 2001 showing Retreating trend
  • 57. OBSERVED RETREAT IN THE TRIBUTARY GLACIERS OF MIAR GLACIER
  • 58. SNOW FIELD IS NO MORE EXISTING NOW SNOW FIELD AS PER SOI IN 1963
  • 59. 28 Apr 08 Total Area under snow cover 16649.48 sq. km. 23 Apr 09 Total area under snow cover 19211.69 sq. km. Contd… Seasonal Snow Cover estimation S. No Date Snow cover (sq. km) Snow cover (%) Oct-10 1 03-Oct-10 582.22 53.12226 2 08-Oct-10 679.19 61.96989 3 18-Oct-10 507.34 46.29015 4 27-Oct-10 859.33 78.40602 Nov-10 1 06-Nov-10 665.33 60.70529 2 15-Nov-10 601.81 54.90967 3 20-Nov-10 746.43 68.10493 4 30-Nov-10 584.79 53.35675 Dec-10 1 05-Dec-10 559.57 51.05566 2 09-Dec-10 560.67 51.15602 3 14-Dec-10 529.52 48.31387 4 19-Dec-10 553.25 50.47901 5 24-Dec-10 578.08 52.74453 6 29-Dec-10 1067.6 97.40876 Jan-11 1 02-Jan-11 1089.4 99.39781 2 03-Jan-11 1088.08 99.27737 3 07-Jan-11 793.39 72.3896 4 12-Jan-11 822.39 75.03558 5 27-Jan-11 1030.29 94.00456 6 31-Jan-11 1057.02 96.44343 Feb-11 1 01-Feb-11 1012.48 92.37956 Mar-11 1 15-Mar-11 1037.93 94.70164 2 30-Mar-11 997.87 91.04653 Apr-11 1 08-Apr-11 996.64 90.93431 2 09-Apr-11 956.79 87.29836 3 13-Apr-11 972.18 88.70255 4 18-Apr-11 985.6 89.92701 5 23-Apr-11 944.61 86.18704 6 28-Apr-11 879.61 80.20073 May-11 1 03-May-11 837.48 76.41241 2 12-May-11 777.63 70.95164 3 17-May-11 729.01 66.51551 4 22-May-11 509 46.44161 5 26-May-11 390.48 35.62774 Jun-11 1 19-Jun-11 440.47 40.18887 2 20-Jun-11 122.73 11.19799
  • 60. Sr. No Month Snow Cover (Sq.Km) 1 Oct 2011 262.50 2 Nov 2011 284.00 3 Dec 2011 637.72 4 Jan 2011 1146.38 5 Feb 2011 1272.12 6 Mar 2011 1269.45 7 Apr 2011 1177.25 8 May 2011 1001.88 9 Jun 2011 648.89 Basin Name: Pin Basin Area: 1266 sq Km Sr. No Month Snow Cover (Sq.Km) 1 Oct 2011 629.67 2 Nov 2011 817.00 3 Dec 2011 1560.00 4 Jan 2011 5451.00 5 Feb 2011 8523.33 6 Mar 2011 8417.33 7 Apr 2011 6119.33 8 May 2011 4636.33 9 Jun 2011 2174.00 Basin Name: Spiti Basin Area: 8871 sq Km Basin Name: Baspa Basin Area: 1096 sq Km Sr. No Month Snow Cover (Sq.Km) 1 Oct 2011 301.66 2 Nov 2011 237.00 3 Dec 2011 514.00 4 Jan 2011 792.33 5 Feb 2011 1095.33 6 Mar 2011 1045.00 7 Apr 2011 959.00 8 May 2011 841.00 9 Jun 2011 521.67
  • 61. FORMATION OF MORAINE DAMMED LAKES IS ANOTHER PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH THE GLOBAL WARMING TREND OBSERVED IN THE HIMALAYAS
  • 62. FOMRATION OF A MORAINE DAMMED LAKE
  • 63. SATELLITE VIEW OF MORAINE DAMMED LAKE NEAR THE SNOUT OF GEEPANG GATH GLACIER IN THE CHANDRA RIVER BASIN,HIMACHAL PRADESH Year Aerial Extent (Sq.Km.) 1976 0.27 1990 0.42 1998 0.50 2013 0.81
  • 64. Photo by : GSI Lucknow
  • 65. NO LAKE AS PER SOI TOPOSHEET FORMATION OF LAKES
  • 66. NEW LAKES & RETREAT IN THE GLACIER EXTENT NO LAKES & GLACIER EXTENT IN 1963
  • 67. SATELLITE VIEW OF MORAINE DAMMED LAKE NEAR THE SNOUT OF GEEPANG GATH GLACIER IN THE CHANDRA RIVER BASIN,HIMACHAL PRADESH
  • 68. Monitoring of Moraine Dammed lakes in Satluj River Basin 2009 onwards 96-48-26-09-2011 LISS III
  • 69. 2007 MONITORING OF MORAINE DAMMED LAKES 2001 1962
  • 70. Sr.No. Name of the basin No.of lakes with area >10ha No.of lakes with area between 5- 10 ha No.of lakes with area <5ha Total No.of lakes 1 Chenab 03 08 105 116 Bhaga 01 03 10 14 Chandra 02 02 15 19 Miyar ---- 03 80 83 2 Beas 02 02 63 67 Jiwa ---- 02 37 39 Parbati 02 ----- 26 28 Beas ---- ----- ---- Cloud free Data not available 3 Ravi 02 01 19 22 4 Satluj 40 75 276 391 Distribution of lakes in different sub basins in Himachal Pradesh based on LISS III satellite data analysis for 2013.
  • 71. MONITORING OF PARECHHU LAKE
  • 72. IRS P6 LISS-IV MX Parechhu Water spread on 20th June 2009 *The water spread in the Parechhu lake as on 20th June 2009 is mainly confined to the downstream end of the lake. •The input and output is normal. • The water column is shallow and hence Parechhu poses no threat of any kind. PARECHHU IN 2001 PARECHHU IN 2007 PARECHHU ON 20 JUNE 2009
  • 73. 400 m April, 2006 June, 2006 July, 2006 Sept, 2006 Aug, 2004 Pareechu Lake
  • 74. LISS III 23, May 2012 Normal course of the Pin River Small stream without debris
  • 75. IRS LISS III 16 June 2012 Temporary blockage along the Pin River Small stream with debris
  • 76. Parechhu as on 16June2012
  • 77. Cartosat 1-Satellite View of Parehhu Lake as on 22 June 2013 Accumulated water in the depression could be seen mainly on the frontal and left side of the lake. Inflow is quite normal in nature where as the outflow on the downstream side seems to be accumulating as some debris could be seen on the forntal side along the main stream channel. As on day, there does not seem any perceptible threat from the Parechhu Lake, but needs proper monitoring from the accumulated water on the downstream side as the snow line is quite low and still melting will take place in the time to come.
  • 78. IRS LISS III Image 05 July 2013 Observations: On analyzing the satellite data for 05 July 2013, it is found that the accumulated water as on 22 June 2013 has been released as a result the inflow and outflow seems normal. However, it is seen that outflow is overtopping the debris cover as encircled andSatellite View of Parechhu Lake as on 5 July 2013
  • 79. Inflo w Outflo w Landslide Debris Accumulating Water On analyzing the AWIFS satellite data for 15 July 2013, it is found that there is a slight increase in the accumulated water in the Parechhu depression i.e lake area in comparison to 5 July 2013. In flow seems to be normal, but the outflow seems to be obstructed due to landslide debris. Slight back water in inflow side could also be seen , but needs further monitoring using high resolution data product. Satellite view of Parechhu Lake as on 15 July 2013 through IRS AWIFS
  • 80. Observations: Based on the analysis of the Parechhu lake on satellite data for IRS –RS2-LISS 3-96-48-03 September 2013, the following observations were made: 1. Most of the lake depression as on 3rd September 2013, remains free from accumulated water. 2.The accumulated water is mostly on the frontal side of the lake and on the extreme right corner on the top. The central part seems to be free from the accumulated water. 3. The input and output seems to normal. 4. No fresh debris could be seen on the river course on the downstream side. 5. As on day, there does not seem to be any threat from the accumulated water in the lake.
  • 81. Snout Monitoring, Mapping, Mass and Energy Balance and Assessment of Biophysical Environment of Nardu Glacier, Baspa Basin, District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh Nodal Agency State Council for Science Technology & Environment Collaborating Institute-I Sharda University Noida Collaborating Institute-II NBPGR-Phagli, Shimla Collaborating Institute-III SASE,CHANDIGARH Funding Agency Deptt. of Science & Technology, GoI, New Delhi AWS at the Glacier Site - Nardu Glacier ,Baspa Basin, H.P. Installation of Stacks for Mass Balance studies on the Glaciers Contd…
  • 82. Initiatives taken by the Government of Himachal Pradesh to tackle the issue of climate change in this part of the Himalayan region
  • 83. In pursuance to the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), Government of H.P. took several actions which includes Himalayan Chief Ministers Conclave on "Indian Himalayas: Glaciers, Climate Change & Livelihoods" held at Shimla on October 29-30,2009. The recommendations based on the deliberations with policy makers were presented and a declaration entitled “Shimla Declaration on Climate Change and Himalayan Development” was made. The ‘State Centre on Climate Change’ was established as a follow up of the ‘Shimla Declaration’ under the aegis of the State Council for Science Technology & Environment, Department of Environment, Science & Technology, Himachal Pradesh so that State's initiatives could be dovetailed with the initiatives of Govt. of India.
  • 84. STATE’S INITIATIVES The State Government is moving ahead on the path of development with utmost care to ensure that in no way that the environment of the state is disturbed by developmental activities. The State Government has taken several initiatives to protect its environment. Keeping environment protection at the topmost priority, the major initiatives which the Government of H.P. has taken are: • Himalayan Chief Ministers’ Conclave to discuss the issues concerning climate change. • Establishment of State Centre on Climate Change. • Greenhouse Gas (GHGs) Emissions Inventory of the State. • Reduction of GHG emissions by way of banning fossil fuel and other traditional material for space heating. • Climate Change Adaptation focused Sustainable Water Resources Strategy for Himachal Pradesh carried by Asian Development Bank. • To earn revenue through Carbon Credits under Mid-Himalayan Watershed Project. • Energy Efficiency by promoting CFL through ‘Atal Bijli Bachat Yojna’. • Community Led Assessment, Awareness, Advocacy Program(CLAP) for Environment Protection & Carbon Neutrality. • Afforestation scheme viz. Sanjeevani Van –Sanjha Van for the promotion of medicinal herbs. • Use of plastic in developmental works for road construction as binding material for management of plastic waste. • Creation of Green Fund as a corpus for environment protection works. • Awareness programmes on the conservation and management of Biodiversity. • Awareness programmes on environment conservation through Eco clubs, National Green Corps etc. • Development of Environment Master Plan for sustainable development. • Constitution of State Water Management Board. • Water Conservation (Rain Water Harvesting) mandatory for all type of constructions. • Construction of atleast one check dam at sub-division level. • Constitution of State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA), State Executive Committee (SEC), & Disaster Management Cell (DMC). • State Disaster Management Plan is being finalized. • Training Needs Assessment in Disaster Management proposed for different departments. Initiatives to combat Hazard Threat Initiatives for Conservation of Water Resources Initiatives for Environment Protection Initiatives to combat Climate Change STATE’S INITIATIVES
  • 85. Contd….. Follow Up Action • Government constituted State Council for Climate Change under the Chairpersonship of Worthy Chief Secretary, Himachal Pradesh and Notified vide Notification Number STE-F(1)-12/2008-I • Set up a State Centre on Climate Change in Himachal Pradesh under the aegis of the State Council for Science Technology & Environment. • State Action Plan for Climate Change through vulnerability assessment of various sectors at the tehsil level.
  • 86. THRUST AREAS UNDER SCCC STATE CENTRE ON CLIMATE CHANGE NATURAL HAZARD MANAGEMENT SNOW & GLACIER STUDIES Generation of Scientific database in respect of Natural Hazards in H.P. R & D activities pertaining to seismicity of NW Himalaya particularly in High Seismic Zone, Zone V. Creation of disaster awareness modules amongst grass root level masses. Awareness campaigns at different platforms in the state about natural hazards. Impact of climate Change on the Agriculture Impact of climate change on the horticulture Impact of climate change on the ecology & biodiversity Impact of climate change on the vegetation pattern Impact of climate change on water resources CLIMATE CHANGE: Adaptations & Mitigation Plans Glacier Mass Balance Snow Hydrology Sediment transfer Meteorology of Glaciers and Snow Cover Climate Change Glacial Environment Glacial Chemistry Glacial Inventory/Retreat Remote sensing of glaciers & snow cover Bed Rock profiling & Glacier Thickness Glacial Hazards Monitoring of lakes, GLOFs etc
  • 87. Institutional Arrangements for carrying research under different sectors Himalayan Agriculture Forest Resources and Plant diversity Water, Snow & Glaciers Faunal diversity, wild life and animal population CSK PALAMPUR UHF NAUNI HPU SHIMLA IHBT PALAMPUR NBPGR SHIMLA HFRI SHIMLA FOREST DEPTT. SCSTE,SHIMLA PG COLLEGE DHARAMSHALA

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