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Water quality & wastewater management_Dr SP Gautam(CPCB) _2013
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Water quality & wastewater management_Dr SP Gautam(CPCB) _2013

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Water quality monitoring, status of groundwater contamination, wastewater management & initiatives taken up.

Water quality monitoring, status of groundwater contamination, wastewater management & initiatives taken up.

Published in Environment , Technology
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  • 1. By Prof. S.P.Gautam FORMER CHAIRMAN CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD DELHI,INDIA
  • 2. ENVIRONMENT- INDIAN TRADITION
  • 3. INDIAN RESOURCES * Mountains * Snow Fields * Deserts * Plains
  • 4. Major Environmental Impacts in the Manufacturing Industry Environmentally detrimental method of procurement Generation of Wastes, effluents and emissions Environmentally negative impacts due to product use RAW Materials Industrial Processes and Activities Products Unsustainable procurement of raw materials Insufficient use of materials and resources Improper disposal methods for products
  • 5. CONTENTS WATER QUALITY MONITORING STATUS OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES- R&D SCHEMES Initiated as chairman CPCB 1.IN-SITU TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTE WATER EMPLOYING MICROBIAL TECHNOLOGY 2.ELIMINATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND OTHER COLIFORM BACTERIA THROUGH BACTERIOPHAGES -INTERNATIONAL PATENT 3.REJUVENATION OF RIVER SAHIBI TO ENSURE MINIMUM FLOW IN YAMUNA IN LEAN PERIOD 4. WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT IN TANNERIES-LYOPHILIZATION OF HIDES AND SKINS
  • 6. WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT Total Number of Stations : 1429 Rivers : 293 Lakes : 94 Tanks : 09 Ponds : 41 Canals : 23 Creeks/Sea : 15 Wells : 411
  • 7. • Evolved Water Quality Criteria based on best-designated uses. • 75% problems of water pollution is due to sewage disposal • Identified 159 Polluted River Stretches
  • 8. Riverine System Oxygenation cum Circulation
  • 9. Riverine System Oxygenation cum Circulation
  • 10. Riverine Assimilation cum Filtration
  • 11. Riverine Regulation cum Regulatory Regime
  • 12. Regulation cum Regulatory Regime • • • • • • • • • MoEF Government of India Central Pollution Control Board State Government of Uttar Pradesh State Pollution Control Board Central Ground Water Board Urban Local Bodies District Administration Zila Panchayat, Kshettra Panchayat Registered NGOs
  • 13. Executive Coordination cum Administrative Rejuvenation S a harn p u r M u z a ffa r n a g a r B ijn o r C h u y y a N a lla 1 0 .4 M L D C a n e p u r C e n tre D ra in M eeru t M o rad a b ad R am pur G a jra u la P ilib h it B a g a t R . (E fflu e n t D ra in ) 6 .0 5 M L D B a r e illy G a rh A g ric u ltu ra l D r a in A n upshah a r D o m e s tic D r a in 4 .3 M L D G h a z ia b a d B u la n d s h a h r K he ri M a h w a R . (D r a in ) B udaun S o t R . (D ra in ) 1 8 .2 M L D B a h ra ic h S ita p u r A lig a r h M a th u r a Farru kh ab ad G onda N a r k a s a D ra in a R. F a te h g a r h H a ti N a lla 6 .1 M L D A g ra M a in p u r i P a ta N a lla G o ra k p u r K annuaj B a s ti Lucknow E ta w a h F a iz a b a d K anpur S h is h a m a u N a lla 1 2 2 .7 M L D N a lla D /S S id h n a th G h a t 1 3 5 .6 M L D P a n d u R iv e r 1 4 9 .5 M L D A z a m g a rh B a llia K a th a r N a lla 1 2 .1 M L D U nchahar G h a z ip u r N o . o f D r a in 4 , 2 4 .8 M L D N o . o f D ra in 1 2 , 1 4 6 .1 M L D A lla h a b a d LEGEND Va ra n a s i M o rc h a g h a t N a lla 2 5 .1 M L D H u n u m a n G h a t N a lla N o . o f D r a in 8 , 9 2 6 .7 M L D M irz a p u r 6 .1 M L D
  • 14. Executive Coordination cum Administrative Rejuvenation Survey Monitoring Inventorisation Point Pollution Sources Non Point Pollution Sources Concentration based Pollution Load based Pollution Location Specific Legislation Cleaner Technologies Reduction in Carbon Energy and Water Print Adjudication with Academic Curricula Mobilization of Civil Work Force through Mass Awareness Program
  • 15. HIATUS IN ENFORCEMENT • • • • • • • • • Organisations : CPCB, SPCBs Legislative Financial Resources Pollution Data Base Training Public Private Partnership Clean Technology E- Governance Education & Awareness
  • 16. Water is Precious and scarce Resource  Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water  Rainfall is highly uneven with time and space  On an average there are only 40 rainy days  Out of 4000 BCM rainfall received, about 600 BCM is put to use so far  Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major WQ problems
  • 17. ANNUALWATER REQUIREMENTFOR DIFFERENTUSES (in km3) Uses Year 1997-98 Year2010 Year2025 Year2050 Low High % Low High % Low High % Irrigation 524 543 557 78 561 611 72 628 807 68 Domestic 30 42 43 6 55 62 7 90 111 9 Industries 30 37 37 5 67 67 8 81 81 7 Power 9 18 19 3 31 33 4 63 70 6 Inland Navigation 0 7 7 1 10 10 1 15 15 1 Environment –Ecology 0 5 5 1 10 10 1 20 20 2 Evaporation Losses 36 42 42 6 50 50 6 76 76 7 Total 629 694 710 100 784 843 100 973 1180 100 (NCIWRD, 1999)
  • 18. Major Water Quality Issues • • • • Pathogenic (Bacteriological) Pollution Oxygen Depleting organic pollution Salinity Toxicity (micro-pollutants and other industrial pollutants) Surface Water • Eutrophication • Oxygen depletion • Ecological health Ground Water • Fluoride • Nitrate • Arsenic • Iron • Sea water intrusion
  • 19. •River are perfect eco system and therefore ultimate goal is to conserve the ecosystem in the river •Ecological flow throughout the year to support all forms of aquatic life •Maintenance of wholesomeness of water bodies
  • 20. •Groundwater is used for various purposes including drinking vastly in India •The quality of water and its distribution over different regions is uneven and causes problems of scarcity and suitability •This scarce commodity be used as rationally and efficiently as possible
  • 21. Urbanisation and Wastewater Management  Urban India has become a massive reality as far as waste management is concerned.  This country can no longer afford to allow urban areas     constituting cities and towns of varying magnitude to take care of themselves. Urban Centres in India lack infrastructure for sanitation The wastewater generated in Urban Centres are not managed appropriately. Inadequate treatment facilities for sewage have deteriorated the water quality of aquatic resources. They need the full and undivided attention of our planners and decision makers for protection of environment, aquatic resources and ultimately for better management of health aspects.
  • 22. WASTEWATER GENERATION AND TREATMENT  Study to assess the status of wastewater generation and treatment in Class I Cities (Population > 100,000) and Class II Towns (Population Between 50,000 and 100,000) carried out during 1978-79,1989-90, 1994-95,2003-04 and 2009.  The latest study indicate that about 38000 million litre per day (mld) is the wastewater generation from 921 Class I Cities and Class II Towns in India that houses more than 70% of urban population.  About 11700 mld is the municipal wastewater treatment capacity developed so far in India that account for about 31% of wastewater generation in these two classes of urban centres.  Information on other class of cities - III to VI however shall be gathered to assess the overall wastewater generation from urban sector.
  • 23. •Rapid increase in population in large urban agglomerations associated with industrial growth resulted in massive increase of wastewater and solid wastes and ultimately deteriorated the water quality of aquatic resources •Inadequate arrangements for collection and treatment of municipal wastewater and municipal solid waste, major part of the wastewater as well as leachate from solid waste dump sites being stagnating and percolating in the urban areas and polluting the groundwater
  • 24. SEWAGE GENERATION & TREATMENT CAPACITY IN GANGA BASIN Class-ICities NumberofClass-ICities Sewagegeneration(MLD) 179 11386.6 TreatmentCapacity(MLD) 4991.09 Class-IITowns NumberofClass-IITowns Sewagegeneration(MLD) 147 1023.9 TreatmentCapacity(MLD) 78.88 TotalGeneration(MLD) TotalCapacity(MLD) 12410.5 5069.97
  • 25. Future Scenario  Population of India is likely to be stabilized by 2050 at the level of 1700-2000 million.  Urban population for the year 2051 is likely to be more than 1000 million.  Municipal wastewater shall be around 120000 MLD by 2051.  Per capita water availability shall be reduced due to increase in population  Wastewater generation in any urban centre will be the source for d/s located urban centres.  In view of such situation there is a need to attain 100% wastewater treatment in each city with more stringent standard.
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  • 27. ekul esa foKku fNfr ty ikod xxu lehjk A iap jfpr vfr v/ke 'kjhjk AA fdf"dU/kk dk.M pkSikbZ 2 nksgk 10 'kjhj dh jpuk ikap vo;oksa ty] vfXu] gok] vkdk'k vkSj /kjrh tks Lor% esa tM+ gS cuh gS A vo;oksa dk larqfyr ;ksx thou dks tUe nsrk gS A
  • 28. WAY FORWARD (Goals/Aims) • Maintenance of Environmental flow in rivers. • Prohibiting sewage disposal in water bodies. • Restriction on Industrial waste disposal in water bodies. • Ambient air quality monitoring in all habitats. • Action Plans for air pollution control in habitats/ industrial clusters. • Sector-specific Industrial Pollution Control Programmes. • GIS / GPS- based system for Environment Clearance .