QUALITY OF WATER IS DETERMINED BY 1. Physical Quality 2. Chemical Quality 3. Biological Quality 4. Bacteriological Quality 5. Radioactivity
C O N S T IT U E N T S IN W A T E R P h y s ic a l C h e m ic a l M ic r o b io lo g ic a l B io lo g ic a l R a d ia c t iv e P r o p e r t ie s C o n s t it u e n t s P a ra m e te rs P a ra m e te rs P a ra m e te rs ( c o l o r , o d o r , t u r b i d it y ( B a c t e r ia , ( a lp h a , b e t a & E C , T D S , e tc .) v ir u s ) g a m m a ra y s ) I n o r g a n ic O r g a n ic P h y t o p la n k t o n Z o o p la n k t o n C o n s t it u e n t s C o n s t it u e n t s ( P r o t o z o a , c il ia t e s , ( d e t e r g e n t s , p h e n o ls , C r u s t a c e a , r o t if e r s p e s t i c id e s ) w o rm s ) M e ta ls N o n -m e ta ls A lg a e Fungi M a jo r M in o r M a jo r M in o rC o n s t it u e n t s C o n s t it u e n t s C o n s t it u e n t s C o n s t it u e n t s (N a , K , ( H C O 3 , C l, Ca, M g) SO 4, NO 3) N o n - t o x ic T o x ic N o n - t o x ic T o x ic (F e , M n) (A s , C r) (F , N H 3 , ( C y a n id e ) NO 2, PO 4)
But Common man’s perception is ….. Water contaminants micro Substancesorganisms Suspended Dissolved matter matter
Three Types of water sources Source Turbidity TDS Bacteria Sea Surface water High Low High Ground water Low High Low Rain Subsoil water Low Low LowSurface Ground Subsoil water water water Quality of water depends on the Type of Source
Range of TDS in Various WatersRain water 1 – 150 mg/LSurface water in Hills 10 – 100 mg/LSurface water in Plains 100 – 1000 mg/LGround water 500 – 5000 mg/LGround water polluted 2000 – 20000 mg/LSea water 35000 mg/LMineral (bottled water) 100 – 200 mg/LPermissible Limit 500 mg/LMaximum allowable Limit 2000 mg/L
Brown streak in themiddle of teeth Skeletal fluorosis
Nitrate causes blue baby disease Infants (below 6 months) are affected by blue baby disease (methemoglobinemia) Adults are not affected by Nitrate NO3 Limit: 100 mg/LMother fed babies are not affected by Blue Baby Disease
Number of Habitations Affected with Quality Problem Nature of Quality No. of affected Problem habitationsExcess Fluoride 36,988Excess Arsenic 3,553Excess Salinity 32,597Excess Iron 1,38,670Excess Nitrate 4,003Other reasons 1,400
FIELD WATER TESTING KIT To test TEST • pH 12 • Alkalinity Parameters • Hardness • Chloride • Fluoride Cost: • Nitrate Rs. 2500 • Hardness • Ammonia • NitriteOBSERVE Funded • Phosphate• Appearance by GOI • Residual chlorine• Odor• Turbidity CALCULATE• Iron • Total Dissolved Solids A MINI LAB IN YOUR PALM
FIELD WATER TESTING KITField water Opening Reagents and tools testing kit the kit inside the kit box Taking water sample for testing Taking 20 mL water sample Transferring the sample in the measuring jar into the Titration cup
TEST FOR ALKALINITY Take 20 mL water sample Add 5 drops of ‘A1’ Reagent; Add ‘A2’ reagent drop by drop into the Titration cup color changes to bluish green till the color changes to orange red Alkalinity in mg/L = No. of ‘A2’ drops x 20 TEST FOR HARDNESS Take 20 mL Add 5 drops of ‘H1’ and Add ‘H3’ reagent Add drops till thewater sample into the Titration 5 drops of ‘H2’ reagents. drop by drop colour changes using an ink filler to bluish. cup The color changes to red. Hardness in mg/L = No. of ‘H3’ drops x 20
TEST FOR CHLORIDE Take 20 mL water sample into the Titration cup Add 5 drops of ‘C1’ Reagent. Color of water changes to yellow Add ‘C2’ reagent drop by drop At the end point the color changes to red Chloride in mg/L = No. of ‘C2’ drops x 20 TEST FOR FLUORIDE If fluoride is not present, the water turns pink Add 1 mL ‘F1’ using an ink filler If fluoride is present, In the given the water turns yellowcentrifuge tubetake 4 mL water Compare with fluoride color chart and record the fluoride value
Testfor pH Booklet for pH test. Tear a portion of Using an ink filler The color of the leaf changes In the front leaf pH color a leaf from the add a drop of test water within 10-15 seconds. chart is given pH booklet on the leaf Compare its color. Compare the color, with pH color chart and record the pH value TEST Take 10 mL of Add 5 drops water in the of ‘AM’ reagent FOR given Test tubeAMMONIA Compare the color of water with Ammonia color chart Compare the color, with Ammonia color chart and record the Ammonia valueTEST FOR Take 10 mL Add 5 dropsRESIDUAL of water in the of ‘RC’ reagentCHLORINE given Test tube Compare the color of water with Chlorine color chart Compare the color, with Residual chlorine color chart and record the Residual chlorine value
TEST FOR FECAL COLIFORM(For Bacteriological Contamination) Add water sample into the H2S vial up to the given mark. Observe the change after 24 hours. After 24 hours, if no change takes place then the water is not contaminated After 24 hours, if the water in the H2S vial turns dark brown and/or turbid, the water is slightly contaminated After 24 hours, if the water in the H2S vial turns black the water is highly contaminated
Household Water Treatment and Safe storage- Point of Use water treatment• Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) is also known as managing water at the "point-of-use" (POU) includes wide array of treatment techniques, e.g.: boiling, filtration, chemical, solar, and UV lamp disinfection, flocculation, etc. Safe storage prevents recontamination and includes the use of narrow-mouth, screened, and covered containers, and of taps and spigots.• 884 million lack access to "improved" drinking water supply, 4 billion cases of diarrhoea annually, 88% attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene. 1.8 million die each year from diarrhoeal diseases, vast majority children under five. High returns for investment in drinking-water supply (between US$3 and US$34 for every US$ invested).• HWTS alone will reduce burden of diarrheal disease by 19% in sustained manner.
Bio Sand Filter (BSF): It is adaptation of traditional slow sand filter (SSF) for household use..Suspended materials and pathogens are removed through combination of physical andbiological process. It treats 0.4l/min in batches with 2 to four batches in a day andpause time 6 to 12 hours. Pause tie should not be less than 1 hour and more than 48hours. One filter can treat up to 72 liters in a day. It can be constructed locally withsteel mould.Cost of installation in Nepal is Rs 3000. BSF removes 96% Bacteria, 99% virus, 100%helminthes. Turbidity comes down to less than 1 NTU. Hence nominal chlorination isstill recommended with BSF. This has been used in many part of the world.
Chuli Filters: This is a modified cooking stove where the chimney is fitted with an aluminum pipecoil. Flow of water and coil length is so maintained that water reaches more than 60 degree Celsiusand sustained for at least one hour. Under such condition it is believed to be pasteurized andsuitable for drinking. Cost of aluminum coil is Rs 500 and total cost of installation is less than Rs1000.
Colloidal Silver Filter: Colloidal Silver Filter is an effectivetechnique of removing pathogens from drinking water. Thefilter has clay disc or candle coated with silver. The candleblock strains solids and certain microorganism and silver killsthe micro-organism that comes in contact with silver. Its cost isabout Rs 500
LifeStraw Family Filter: This is Life straw family product for point of use microbiologicalwater system intended to routine use in low income settings. It filters up to 18000 liters of waterand enough to supply family of five with clean water for three years. It complies with USEPA1987 guide standard. According company profile it removes bacteria by 6 log, virus by 4 log,protozoa by 3 log and completely removes turbidity. Its main part is membrane cartridge whereultra flirtation takes places through 20 nanometer pores and retains bacteria, virus and parasites.Halogen chamber releases low level chlorine to prevent membrane fouling. Vacuum tubebackwash system is also there. Clean effluent was demonstrated from dark turbid and drunk in thesite. It is available world wide and cost of one unit Rs 1800
Aquatabs:It is available in 5, 10 and 20 liter capacity internationally. Cost of5 liter tablet is Rs 1.25 including label with instruction in locallanguage. ie Rs 0.25/liter.
Piyush( liquid chlorine):. It comes in 60 ml plastic bottle with 0.5%sodium hypochlorite concentration of chlorine. Three drops of liquid as it drops from the nozzle fitted in the lid is sufficient for treating one liter water. Onebottle is enough for treating 400 liters of water which is sufficient for family of 5 for one month. It giver more than 0.2 FRC. Cost is Rs 15/bottle ie Rs 0.04/liter
PUR: It is product of P&G Company, USA. It is a powdered water purification technology packaged in 4 gm sachet. it works like adirty magnet pulling dirt and contaminants out of unclean water. It uses same principle as municipal water treatment system and provides frc so that water remains usable about a day.Contains of one sachet PUR powder is added in 10 liter water andstirred to begin process of precipitation and coagulation. Further itis stirred for 5 minutes to till floc formed and water become clear.Then water is filtered through 100% cotton cloth. Then 20 minutes are allowed before drinking for disinfection. According to company profile it removes bacteria by 8 log, virus by 7 logs,parasites by 6 logs. It also removes heavy metals and pesticides. It works up to 500 NTU. Cost of 5 sachet is 1 Rs ie Rs 0.02/liter. Product is available internationally and useful during emergency where clean water is not available.
Water Guard: Population Services International (PSI)introduced water guard in 2005. It is 0,72% sodiumhypochlorite solution available in 240 ml bottle. Water Guardbottle has a measuring scale provided on the lid of bottle. Lowerindicator for 10 liter and high indicator for 15 liters.
Solar disinfection (SODIS): SODIS is done by filling clean, unscratched, uncrushed and transparent PETplastic bottle( maximum 10 cm diameter) with water and exposing it to direct sunlight for about 7 hours.Synergic effect of ultra-violet(UV) rays heat from the sun kill the germs in the water. It was first discovered byProf. Aftim Acra of American University Beirut in 1985 and EWAG/SAVDEC has carried various researchin this technology. Any one knowing concept can adopt this technology at zero cost as long as required bottlesare available. Some specially prepared bottles are also available. SOLVATEEN is a SODIS based technologyin which water can be treated @ 10 liter in a batch. It has been fitted with indicator for seeing that waterreached required temperate.
O Treatment system with pretreatment arrangements- 500 LPH capacit
ConclusionHWTS is the best optionLow cost filter, depending on theelement to be removed, may bepromoted,Membrane filters are most suitable andgive total solution, Cost Rs.7000 to12000Water credit may financially support