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Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011
 

Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011

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An overview of water resources projects, their design, classification, weirs & barrages.

An overview of water resources projects, their design, classification, weirs & barrages.

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    Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011 Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011 Presentation Transcript

      • Based on a presentation by
      • Sushil Kumar
      • Director
      • National Water Academy
      Infrastructure for W R Development-an overview
    • Infrastructure for Water Resource Projects
      • Broadly of three categories:
      • Storage / Diversion
      • Irrigation
      • Hydro Power
    • Storage/Diversion Structures
        • Dam
        • Weir
        • Barrage
    • Storage - Dams
      • A dam is a barrier built across a stream or river. It creates a reservoir behind it and controls the flow of water.
      • A dam can be classified based on-
        • its use or function
        • material of its construction
        • its size
    •  
    • Power House Long Distance Power Lines Turbine Intake Sluice gates Spillways River River Reservoir
    • Classification of Dams based on Use
      • Storage Dam
        • most common
        • for impounding water (creating a reservoir or lake) behind it during excess supply, to be used in periods of deficient supply
        • purpose(s): Irrigation, Hydropower, Water Supply, Recreation
      • Diversion Dam
        • raises water level for diversion into other conveyance system for irrigation, municipal or industrial uses
        • of smaller height
        • no reservoir (or very limited storage) behind it
        • full waterway available across dam
        • e.g. Weir, Barrage
      • Large
        • Ht of dam > 15 m from its deepest foundation
      • Medium
        • Ht of dam=10-15 m from its deepest foundation
      • Small
        • Ht of dam >10 m from its deepest foundation
      Classification of Dams based on height
    • Dam Population in India India ranks third in the world in dam population, after China and USA Indian Register of Large Dams available here: http://cwc.gov.in
    • Large Dams – state wise Total=5100
    • Large Dams – height wise
      • Concrete / RCC dams
      • Masonry dams
      • Earth fill dams
      • Rockfill dams (Earth core rockfill dam)
      Classification of Dams based on material
    • Concrete Dams
      • Concrete dam
      • Material of construction : Plain Concrete
      • Its own weight provides resistance to the forces exerted on it
      • Needs sound rock foundation
      • Straight or curved in plan
      • Straight = Gravity Dam (most common)
      • Curved = Arch Dam
      • Roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam
      • New technique, first used in 1986 in USA
      • Faster construction, rapid placement of concrete in layers
      • Construction operation very similar to road construction
      • Concrete mix uses large quantity of fly ash , environmental friendly
      • First RCC Dam in India – in Maharashtra, at Ghatghar
    • Concrete Dam-a typical section Heel Gallery Toe Spillway (inside dam) Crest Full Reservoir Level Free board Under sluice Upstream Down stream River Flow Foundation Level
    • Masonry dam
      • a gravity dam, constructed of stone masonry (stone and cement)
      • now a days constructed for small heights only
      • in past, number of large and important dams were constructed in masonry,
      • e.g. Srisailam, Krishnarajsagar, Tungabhadra, Malaprabha, Peechi, Barna, Ranapratapsagar, Khadakwasla
    • Earthen Dam Generally built of locally available natural materials with minimum processing. Most common and the first kind of dam to be built have gentle side slopes and hence a wide base. F.R.L. PITCHING AXIS OF DAM TURFING ROCK TOE GROUT CURTAIN CUT OFF TRENCH M.D.D.L. SEMI PERVIOUS SEMI PERVIOUS
    • Typical section of an earth-core rockfill dam using a central core Impervious membrane Concrete, asphaltic concrete, steel, impervious soil
    • Spillway
      • Overflow portion of a dam over which surplus discharge flows in a controlled fashion, from the reservoir to downstream
      • Invariably provided for all storage dams, a very important component
      • It is the safety valve for a dam
      • Capacity of spillway is of paramount importance
      • Must have the capacity to discharge major floods anticipated or expected
      • Referred to as controlled or uncontrolled, depending upon whether gated or un gated
    • SIDE CHANNEL & CHUTE SPILLWAY ARRANGEMENT Channel Rest Channel Rough Chute Chute Blocks Dentated Sills Stilling Basin
    • Weir
      • Weir is a solid obstruction put across the river to raise its water level and divert the water into the canal
      • If a weir also stores water for tiding over small periods of short supplies, it is called a storage weir.
      • The main difference between a storage weir and a dam is only in height and the duration for which the supply is stored.
      • A dam stores the supply for a comparatively longer duration.
    • WITHOUT FALLING SHUTTERS POND LEVEL POND LEVEL MASONRY FLOW FLOW Weir
    • Barrage
      • Function of a Barrage is similar to a Weir.
      • There is no solid obstruction across river (dams and weirs have a solid obstruction across the river).
      • Raising of water level for diversion in to a canal is done by gates alone, which are set between flanking piers and are responsible for supporting the water load.
      • Crest level in barrage is kept low
      • Barrages are much more costlier than the weirs
      • Can be used to regulate water flow in a lagoon or estuary
    • AXIS OF BARRAGE GATE ROAD BRIDGE POND LEVEL PEIR D/S SHEET PILE R.C.C.RAFT U/S SHEET PILE Section of a Barrage FLOW STOP LOG GROOVE
    • Infrastructure for Irrigation
      • Canal
      • Canal Regulation Work
      • Cross Drainage Work
      • Lining of Irrigation Canal
    • Canal
      • an artificial channel
      • generally trapezoidal in shape
      • alignment in such a way that it covers the entire area proposed to be irrigated with shortest possible length and at a minimum cost
      • Types of canals
        • Ridge Canal
        • Contour Canal
    • Canal Regulation Works
      • These are structures constructed to regulate the flow rate and volume of water
      • necessary for the efficient working and safety of an irrigation channel
      • Important Regulators:
        • Head regulator or head sluice
        • Cross regulator
        • Canal outlet
    • Cross Drainage Works
      • Canals comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals.
      • The various types of structures that are built to carry a canal’s water across the above mentioned obstructions or vice versa are called cross drainage works.
      • cross-drainage works are generally very expensive, and should be avoided as far as possible.
    • Lining of Irrigation Canals
      • To minimize the seepage losses in canals
      • To increase the discharge in canal section by increasing the velocity
      • To prevent erosion of bed and side due to high velocities
      • to reduce maintenance of canal
      • Lining material : concrete, stone tiles, HDPE geomembrane
    • Infrastructure for Hydro Power
      • Main components of a Hydro Power Scheme:
      • Intake Structure
      • Headrace
      • Penstocks
      • Surge Shaft
      • Power House
      • Turbines
      • Tailrace
    • A typical Hydro power Scheme POWER HOUSE COMPLEX ELECTRICITY TO THE GRID
    • An schematic description of Hydropower Plant