Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011

8,488 views

Published on

An overview of water resources projects, their design, classification, weirs & barrages.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
8,488
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
854
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Infrastructure for water resource development_ Sushil Kumar (NWA)_2011

  1. 1. <ul><li>Based on a presentation by </li></ul><ul><li>Sushil Kumar </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>National Water Academy </li></ul>Infrastructure for W R Development-an overview
  2. 2. Infrastructure for Water Resource Projects <ul><li>Broadly of three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Storage / Diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro Power </li></ul>
  3. 3. Storage/Diversion Structures <ul><ul><li>Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrage </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Storage - Dams <ul><li>A dam is a barrier built across a stream or river. It creates a reservoir behind it and controls the flow of water. </li></ul><ul><li>A dam can be classified based on- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>its use or function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>material of its construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>its size </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Power House Long Distance Power Lines Turbine Intake Sluice gates Spillways River River Reservoir
  6. 7. Classification of Dams based on Use <ul><li>Storage Dam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for impounding water (creating a reservoir or lake) behind it during excess supply, to be used in periods of deficient supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purpose(s): Irrigation, Hydropower, Water Supply, Recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversion Dam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>raises water level for diversion into other conveyance system for irrigation, municipal or industrial uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of smaller height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no reservoir (or very limited storage) behind it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>full waterway available across dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Weir, Barrage </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ht of dam > 15 m from its deepest foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ht of dam=10-15 m from its deepest foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ht of dam >10 m from its deepest foundation </li></ul></ul>Classification of Dams based on height
  8. 9. Dam Population in India India ranks third in the world in dam population, after China and USA Indian Register of Large Dams available here: http://cwc.gov.in
  9. 10. Large Dams – state wise Total=5100
  10. 11. Large Dams – height wise
  11. 12. <ul><li>Concrete / RCC dams </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry dams </li></ul><ul><li>Earth fill dams </li></ul><ul><li>Rockfill dams (Earth core rockfill dam) </li></ul>Classification of Dams based on material
  12. 13. Concrete Dams <ul><li>Concrete dam </li></ul><ul><li>Material of construction : Plain Concrete </li></ul><ul><li>Its own weight provides resistance to the forces exerted on it </li></ul><ul><li>Needs sound rock foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Straight or curved in plan </li></ul><ul><li>Straight = Gravity Dam (most common) </li></ul><ul><li>Curved = Arch Dam </li></ul><ul><li>Roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam </li></ul><ul><li>New technique, first used in 1986 in USA </li></ul><ul><li>Faster construction, rapid placement of concrete in layers </li></ul><ul><li>Construction operation very similar to road construction </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete mix uses large quantity of fly ash , environmental friendly </li></ul><ul><li>First RCC Dam in India – in Maharashtra, at Ghatghar </li></ul>
  13. 14. Concrete Dam-a typical section Heel Gallery Toe Spillway (inside dam) Crest Full Reservoir Level Free board Under sluice Upstream Down stream River Flow Foundation Level
  14. 15. Masonry dam <ul><li>a gravity dam, constructed of stone masonry (stone and cement) </li></ul><ul><li>now a days constructed for small heights only </li></ul><ul><li>in past, number of large and important dams were constructed in masonry, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Srisailam, Krishnarajsagar, Tungabhadra, Malaprabha, Peechi, Barna, Ranapratapsagar, Khadakwasla </li></ul>
  15. 16. Earthen Dam Generally built of locally available natural materials with minimum processing. Most common and the first kind of dam to be built have gentle side slopes and hence a wide base. F.R.L. PITCHING AXIS OF DAM TURFING ROCK TOE GROUT CURTAIN CUT OFF TRENCH M.D.D.L. SEMI PERVIOUS SEMI PERVIOUS
  16. 17. Typical section of an earth-core rockfill dam using a central core Impervious membrane Concrete, asphaltic concrete, steel, impervious soil
  17. 18. Spillway <ul><li>Overflow portion of a dam over which surplus discharge flows in a controlled fashion, from the reservoir to downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Invariably provided for all storage dams, a very important component </li></ul><ul><li>It is the safety valve for a dam </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity of spillway is of paramount importance </li></ul><ul><li>Must have the capacity to discharge major floods anticipated or expected </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as controlled or uncontrolled, depending upon whether gated or un gated </li></ul>
  18. 19. SIDE CHANNEL & CHUTE SPILLWAY ARRANGEMENT Channel Rest Channel Rough Chute Chute Blocks Dentated Sills Stilling Basin
  19. 20. Weir <ul><li>Weir is a solid obstruction put across the river to raise its water level and divert the water into the canal </li></ul><ul><li>If a weir also stores water for tiding over small periods of short supplies, it is called a storage weir. </li></ul><ul><li>The main difference between a storage weir and a dam is only in height and the duration for which the supply is stored. </li></ul><ul><li>A dam stores the supply for a comparatively longer duration. </li></ul>
  20. 21. WITHOUT FALLING SHUTTERS POND LEVEL POND LEVEL MASONRY FLOW FLOW Weir
  21. 22. Barrage <ul><li>Function of a Barrage is similar to a Weir. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no solid obstruction across river (dams and weirs have a solid obstruction across the river). </li></ul><ul><li>Raising of water level for diversion in to a canal is done by gates alone, which are set between flanking piers and are responsible for supporting the water load. </li></ul><ul><li>Crest level in barrage is kept low </li></ul><ul><li>Barrages are much more costlier than the weirs </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to regulate water flow in a lagoon or estuary </li></ul>
  22. 23. AXIS OF BARRAGE GATE ROAD BRIDGE POND LEVEL PEIR D/S SHEET PILE R.C.C.RAFT U/S SHEET PILE Section of a Barrage FLOW STOP LOG GROOVE
  23. 24. Infrastructure for Irrigation <ul><li>Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Canal Regulation Work </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Drainage Work </li></ul><ul><li>Lining of Irrigation Canal </li></ul>
  24. 25. Canal <ul><li>an artificial channel </li></ul><ul><li>generally trapezoidal in shape </li></ul><ul><li>alignment in such a way that it covers the entire area proposed to be irrigated with shortest possible length and at a minimum cost </li></ul><ul><li>Types of canals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ridge Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contour Canal </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Canal Regulation Works <ul><li>These are structures constructed to regulate the flow rate and volume of water </li></ul><ul><li>necessary for the efficient working and safety of an irrigation channel </li></ul><ul><li>Important Regulators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head regulator or head sluice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross regulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canal outlet </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Cross Drainage Works <ul><li>Canals comes across obstructions like rivers, natural drains and other canals. </li></ul><ul><li>The various types of structures that are built to carry a canal’s water across the above mentioned obstructions or vice versa are called cross drainage works. </li></ul><ul><li>cross-drainage works are generally very expensive, and should be avoided as far as possible. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Lining of Irrigation Canals <ul><li>To minimize the seepage losses in canals </li></ul><ul><li>To increase the discharge in canal section by increasing the velocity </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent erosion of bed and side due to high velocities </li></ul><ul><li>to reduce maintenance of canal </li></ul><ul><li>Lining material : concrete, stone tiles, HDPE geomembrane </li></ul>
  28. 29. Infrastructure for Hydro Power <ul><li>Main components of a Hydro Power Scheme: </li></ul><ul><li>Intake Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Headrace </li></ul><ul><li>Penstocks </li></ul><ul><li>Surge Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Power House </li></ul><ul><li>Turbines </li></ul><ul><li>Tailrace </li></ul>
  29. 30. A typical Hydro power Scheme POWER HOUSE COMPLEX ELECTRICITY TO THE GRID
  30. 31. An schematic description of Hydropower Plant

×