Bottle it up_Scientific studies on human urine_Arghyam_2012

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This presentation visualizes the results of the Ph.D. work done by Dr. G. Sridevi on the reuse of human urine in agriculture.

The presentation is covered by an Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Please let us know if you use it for your work by email to info@arghyam.org.

For more information on this research work and ecological sanitation, please see http://www.arghyam.org/node/335.

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Bottle it up_Scientific studies on human urine_Arghyam_2012

  1. 1. Scientific studies on Human Urine Bottle it up! We can use it!
  2. 2. This is a visual representation of Ph.D thesis Studies on the effect of anthropogenic liquid waste (ALW) on soil properties and crop growth by G.Sridevi (PAK 5072). The research was conducted at Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and submitted in October 2008. Financial support for this thesis was provided by Arghyam Foundation.
  3. 3. ALW = Anthropogenic Liquid Waste = Human Urine
  4. 4. scientific method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. - Oxford Dictionary
  5. 5. Hypothesis Test Observe Inference Application of ALW* as a nutrient source has a positive impact on soil properties and crop growth. Tested on •Changes in soil parameters with varying ALW concentrations. •Comparative study of maize & banana crop growth with varying treatment with fertilizer , ALW & different ALW combinations. •Pot experiment with radish plants. A combination of ALW + gypsum gives crop growth results at par (partially higher) with recommended dose of fertilizer. SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THIS STUDY *ALW - Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (Urine)
  6. 6. **REQUIRED 1 Billion N K PP N ALW IN NUMBERS 1.37 liters/day 500 liters /year kg kg kg million tons million tons million tonsK generatedinayear *WASTED million tons million tons million tons NPK consumption in Agriculture in India N-Nitrogen | P- Phosphorus | K-Potassium ALW
  7. 7. 12th Century CHINA Recycled ALW for farming 12th Century JAPAN Recycled ALW for farming 18th Century NEPAL ALW used for growing fodder crops 2003 INDIA ALW used as fertilizer for potatoes and chillies in Manipur 1990s SOUTH AFRICA Compost latrines and ALW diverting system introduced 2003 NETHERLANDS ALW integrated Ecosan projects INSTANCES OF ALW USAGE
  8. 8. EXPERIMENT DESIGN (Completely Randomized) Protocol Development PHASE I PHASE II Application of ALW ALW treatment of soil • Incubation studies • Lab Analysis +ALW +ALW +ALW +ALW Hypothesis Test Observe Inference F G U ALW Water Fertilizer Gypsum Urea T1 — T2 — T3 — T4 — T5 — T1— T2 — T3 — T4 — T5 — T6 — T7 — T8 — F G in splits G in splits U U U U U U G RDN G Recommended dose of nitrogen RDNsuppliedby Effect of ALW on soil studied by treating soil with various dilutions of ALW and water (T1,T2…T5) Effect of ALW on maize and banana crop studied separately by treating the crops with various dilutions of ALW, water, urea, gypsum & fertilizer separately (T1,T2…T8) Plot size: Gross- 7.2 m2 Net- 3.24 m2 Effect of ALW studied in potted radish plants alone. Only nitrogen (N) supplied as nutrient source through ALW(dosage based on RDN). Doses given in combination of dilution and splits. Lab study Field study Potted plant study PHASE III Data interpretation & Statistical analysis
  9. 9. 0 2 4 6 8 Tap water(T1) ALW(T2) 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Tap water(T1) ALW(T2) 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Tap water(T1) ALW(T2) 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) pHElectricalConductivityOrganicCarbonContent 0 50 100 150 0 5 10 15 20 0 200 400 600 0 10 20 30 0 20 40 60 0 1 2 3 NitrogenPhosphorusPotassium ZincIronCopper SOIL CHARACTERISTICS MACRO NUTRIENTS MICRO NUTRIENTS ALW EFFECT ON SOIL Hypothesis Test Observe Inference •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1- T5 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage. •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg
  10. 10. Hypothesis Test Observe Inference ALW EFFECT ON MAIZE MACRO NUTRIENTS MICRO NUTRIENTS NitrogenPhosphorusPotassium 1.8 2 2.2 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 1.2 1.4 1.6 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0 20 40 60 80 0 50 100 0 10 20 30 ZincIronCopper EFFECT ON COB SIZE 25.66 35.58 30.55 43.36 0 10 20 30 40 50 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations… Cost Benefit CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1,T2,T3 &T6 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage of maize grain •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg
  11. 11. ALW EFFECT ON BANANA NitrogenPhosphorusPotassium ZincIronCopper Hypothesis Test Observe Inference EFFECT ON YIELD/HA CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) 19.93 28.41 24.92 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2 ) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split… Cost Benefit •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1,T2,T3 &T6 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage of banana fruit •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0 1 2 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 0 10 20 30 40 0 100 200 300 400 0 10 20 30 40 MACRO NUTRIENTS MICRO NUTRIENTS
  12. 12. ALW EFFECT ON RADISH Hypothesis Test Observe Inference 22.67 30.51 31.51 30.29 31.12 28.97 29.73 26.23 26.33 31.28 32.34 34.92 35.02 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 59.73 126 125.28 118.5 120.99 111.27 111.93 86.58 97.95 130.23 142.65 142.83 153.84 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Effect on Plant Height (in cm) Effect on Root Yield (g/ plant)
  13. 13. Hypothesis Test Observe Inference INFERENCE in splitsG on 1. Shows healthier crop growth 2. Builds higher nutrient content and mass in the grain/fruit/root of the respective crops. 3. Cost- Benefit ratio marginally better than chemical fertilizer What does the data suggest? ALW 8 splits6 splits

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