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Aquatic Systems  An Overview
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Aquatic Systems An Overview

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This is part of the educational series that http://schools.indiawaterportal.org has introduced. This presentation is aimed at allowing the teaching and parent community to explain the existing and …

This is part of the educational series that http://schools.indiawaterportal.org has introduced. This presentation is aimed at allowing the teaching and parent community to explain the existing and potential problems of water mismanagement in our world. This is part of the creative common license

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  • 1. Aquatic ecosystems
  • 2. Aquatic Ecosystems
    • An ecosystem located in water bodies
    • Marine eco systems
      • Open sea
      • Coastal
      • Estuary and salt marshes
      • Coral reefs and mangroves
    Open sea Estuary and salt marshes Coral reefs and mangroves rivers, streams and springs ponds lakes Fresh water ecosystems Flowing water (rivers, streams and springs) Static / slow moving water (ponds, lakes, pools / swamps)
  • 3. Fresh Water Ecosystems
    • Fresh water covers 0.8% of the Earth's surface and contain 0.009% of its total water.
    • Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species.
    • Two types of freshwater ecosystems:
      • Lotic : Flowing water (rivers, streams and springs)
      • Lentic: Static / slow moving water (ponds, lakes, pools)
  • 4. Lotic Ecosystems
    • Variation in lotic ecosystems (even within a river or a stream) is considerable and is determined by
      • Shape of stream / river bed (can form microhabitats)
      • Stream / river bed's gradient
      • Quantity of water
      • Velocity of the current
        • Faster moving water has higher concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and therefore supports greater biodiversity
      • Light
      • Temperature
        • most lotic species are poikilotherms, whose internal temperature varies with the surrounding temperature
      • Water chemistry (which changes in large rivers)
    Species adapted to live in conditions of constant flow
  • 5. Lotic Ecosystems riparian Sunlight nutrients decomposers Primary producers Macroinvertebrates Fish Frog amphibians reptiles Mammals (dolphins, otters) Fish
    • Macro invertebrates
      • Insects
      • Molluscs (snails, clams, mussels)
      • Crustaceans (crabs)
    Bacteria Primary producers Algae, Mosses, Liverwort, Duckweed, Water hyacinth Reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, snakes) Amphibians (salamander)
  • 6. Lentic Ecosystems
    • Lakes are heterogenous and not a uniform mass of water
    • Biodiversity within a lake is also variable and depends on
      • Physical characteristics
        • Light
        • Temperature
        • Water currents
      • Chemical characteristics
        • Nutrients
        • Contaminants
  • 7. Lake zones Terrestrial plants Littoral zone Emerged plants Floating plants Limnetic zone (open water) Submerged plants Euphotic zone Benthic zone
  • 8. Lake organisms Creatures that go where ever they choose to go Creatures that go where ever the water takes them Creatures that live on the lake bottom fish amphibians Larger zooplanktons Living creatures – planktons Animals: zooplanktons Algae : phytoplankton Bacteria : bacterioplankton Dead creatures –Detritius Internal: produced within lake External: washed in from wash shed Animals Aquatic insects, clams, snails worms, cray fish Plants macrophytes periphyton Bacteria and fungi Sewage sludge
  • 9. The food chain in a lake NUTRIENTS EAT USE RECYCLE EAT EAT PISCIVOROUS FISH PLANKTIVOROUS FISH ZOOPLANKTON ALGAE BENTHIC ORGANISMS
  • 10. Food and energy web in a lake DECOMPOSERS LOSS THROUGH OUTLET LOST TO SEDIMENTS RECYCLED NUTRIENTS TERITIARY CONSUMERS SECONDARY CONSUMERS PRIMARY CONSUMERS PRIMARY PRODUCERS OUTSIDE NUTRIENTS SOLAR ENERGY RECYCLED NUTRIENTS
  • 11. Ocean zones 6,000m 10,000m 2000 to 1,000m 200m 700 to 1,000m 4 degree C 10 degree C
  • 12. Marine ecosystems
    • Spread over 71% of the Earth’s surface
        • Open sea
        • Coastal
        • Estuary and salt marshes
        • Coral reefs and mangroves
    • Each is a complex ecosystem
    • Producers, consumers and decomposers as
    • in other ecosystems
    http://www.earthhistory.org.uk/ http://www.nu.ac.za http://www.learnnc.org/ http://www.geocities.com http://www.minresco.com/australia