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Introduction to Marine Mammals_Mridula Srinivasan_2013
 

Introduction to Marine Mammals_Mridula Srinivasan_2013

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At the Timi-Kurm Festival, this presentation was used as an aid to explain marine mammals.

At the Timi-Kurm Festival, this presentation was used as an aid to explain marine mammals.

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    Introduction to Marine Mammals_Mridula Srinivasan_2013 Introduction to Marine Mammals_Mridula Srinivasan_2013 Presentation Transcript

    • An Introduction to Marine Mammals: With a focus on India 12/21/2013 Mridula Srinivasan, Ph.D. Terra Marine Research Institute 2013 Timi-Kurm Festival 1
    • Roadmap Marine Mammal Basics Why Marine Mammals are Unique Marine Mammal Types Cetaceans Cetaceans of India Studying Marine Mammals 12/21/2013 2
    • Mammals BASICS Nurse young Have hair Warm blooded Four-chambered heart Parental Care Lungs to breathe Same core body temperature 12/21/2013 3
    • Marine Mammal BASICS Nurse young Have hair Warm blooded Four-chambered heart Parental Care Lungs to breathe Same core body temperature 12/21/2013 4
    • Marine Mammal Basics Cont.… Gestation period range: 10-17.5 months 1 – 3 year birth interval breeding – migration (only whales) – feeding – calving – lactation – weaning – resting/playing 12/21/2013 5
    • Hippopotamus - Whales & Dolphins Bears - Seals Manatees & Dugongs ELEPHANTS 12/21/2013 6
    • Whale Evolution VIDEO 12/21/2013 7
    • What makes marine mammals unique ? Breath holding (High Myoglobin) Live and reproduce for the most part in water Deep divers May drink salt water, get water from prey Longest migrations Blubber/fur (insulation) 12/21/2013 8
    • • Above and below water • No eyelashes • More rods then cones/some color vision http://cetus.ucsd.edu/voicesinthesea_org/videos/videos.html (VOICES OF THE SEA) 12/21/2013 9
    • ~78 SPECIES OF WHALES, DOLPHINS, PORPOISES 12/21/2013 10
    • 4 species (manatees and dugong) 12/21/2013 11
    • ~33 species of seals, sea lions, walrus 12/21/2013 12
    • Sea Otters Marine - related to weasels, 12/21/2013 badgers, river otters Polar Bears Depend on ocean for food 13
    • Marine Mammals of the World – Classification Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order – Cetacea – Whales and Dolphins Order – Sirenia – Manatees and Dugongs Order – Carnivora – Polar bear, seals, sea lions, otters 12/21/2013 14
    • Taxonomy – Family Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises (Cetaceans) Balaenidae Neobalaenidae Eschrichtiidae Balaenopteridae Physeteridae Kogiidae Platanistidae Pontoporiidae Lipotidae Iniidae Monodontidae Phocoenidae Delphinidae 12/21/2013 Ziphiidae Seals, Sea Lions, and Walrus (Pinnipeds) Phocidae Otariidae Odobenidae Manatees and Dugongs (Sirenia) Trichechidae Dugongidae Polar Bears and Sea Otters (Carnivores) Ursidae Mustelidae 15
    • Cetaceans: Whales and Dolphins, and Porpoises Two Sub-Orders--Odontocetes (Toothed Whales) Mysticetes (Baleen Whales) 12/21/2013 16
    • Marine Mammals of India • - KNOWN 20-25 species found in India Ganges River Dolphins Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins Irrawaddy Dolphins Dwarf Sperm Whales Bottlenose dolphins Dugongs Beaked whales Finless Porpoise Humpback Whales Sperm Whales 12/21/2013 17
    • Baleen whales or Mysticetes Have 2 blow holes Females are larger than males Mostly solitary, but cooperate during feeding! Long migrations Use low frequency sounds (<10KHz)to communicate long distances 4 families with a total of 14 species 12/21/2013 18
    • 12/21/2013 19
    • Mysticete External Morphology 12/21/2013 20
    • Tooth brush or baleen!! 12/21/2013 21
    • Baleen size and feeding technique Gray whale – shortest baleen sediment or bottom feeding. Biggest reason for organic sediment turnover in the oceans. Right and bowhead whales – thickest and longest baleen – skim feeders Humpback and blue whales ( rorqual whales) – intermediate length baleen mid-water column feeding, gulp or lunge feeders 12/21/2013 22
    • 12/21/2013 23
    • Know a whale from its blow! Right Whale Blow Characteristic V- shaped 12/21/2013 24
    • Family: Balaenopteridae Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus • Rorquals (2 genera, 8 species) • 7 separated cervical vertebrae • Small dorsal fin behind 12/21/2013 midline • 30-100 gular grooves • Short baleen plates, 200+ per side 25
    • Toothed Whales or Odontocetes One blowhole Killer whales sexually dimorphic Strong social bonds Known for their human/chimp equivalent Cognition and Intelligence Use echolocation to feed and communicate Use high frequency sounds to communicate 10kHz-100KHz 10 families with at least 71 species 12/21/2013 26
    • Odontocete External Morphology 12/21/2013 27
    • Female (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) 12/21/2013 28
    • Male (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) 12/21/2013 29
    • Family: Physeteridae Produces ambergris – a valuable substance in perfumes. • • Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus): 1 species • • 18-25 conical teeth on lower jaw only • Dorsal hump; no fin • 12/21/2013 All cervical vertebrae except first are fused Males 15-18 m; females up to 11 m Feeds primarily on deep-water 30 squid at depths of up to 600m
    • Family: Kogiidae • Pygmy and dwarf sperm whales (1 genus, 2 species) • Blunt, shark-like head Pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) • Small, sub-terminal lower jaw • 24-32 conical teeth in lower jaw • Diet primarily deep-sea cephalopods and slow moving fish Breaching Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus) 12/21/2013 31
    • Family: Ziphiidae A rare photograph of Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) • Beaked whales (6 genera, 20 known species) • Protruding rostrum with arched jaws • Small dorsal fin past midline • Cuvier’s beaked whale – Deepest diving record – 1,800 12/21/2013 meters in 45 minutes Northern Bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) aboard a whaling ship • 1-2 pairs of teeth on lower jaw in most species • Non-notched flukes • Feeds primarily on deepsea squid • Also has spermaceti 32
    • Family: Platanistidae Platanista gangetica India’s National Aquatic Animal • • • • Two captive Susus (Platanista sp.) Indus (bhulan) & Ganges (susu) Broad, paddle-like pectoral fins • river dolphins (1 species) • 2-3 m in length Long, narrow beak with no • Range limited to the Indus and whiskers Ganges river basins. No dorsal fin; low dorsal hump Small eyes and poor vision 12/21/2013 33
    • Family: Delphinidae Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) 12/21/2013 • 36 species, 17 genera • Range from 1.5-10 m in length, 50-9000 kg • Conical, functional teeth in both jaws • All but genus Lissodelphis have dorsal fin 34
    • Family: Phocoenidae • The porpoises: 3 genera with 6 species • Porpoises are distinguished from other Odontocetes by their small body size 12/21/2013 Harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) • The porpoises are an elusive and relatively poorly known group. They feed on small pelagic and mesopelagic fish and squid. Their lifespans are relatively short (~20 years), and they usually spend their time in small, fluid social 35 groups.
    • Dolphin and Porpoise features Porpoise Features spade shaped teeth triangular dorsal fin 12/21/2013 no beak Dolphin Features cone shaped teeth curved or hooked dorsal fin often prominent beak 36
    • What can we hope to see in waters near Karwar and Goa 12/21/2013 37
    • 12/21/2013 38
    • What can we learn from studying dolphins and whales and how do we study them? 12/21/2013 39
    • Photo Identification • Identifying unique individuals by markings on their dorsal fin • Saddle-patches plus dorsal fin for killer whales 12/21/2013 40
    • Dorsal Fins Top chopped Trailing edge Leading Edge 12/21/2013 Top Notch Unusual pigmentation/ scars 41
    • What can we use this for? • • • • • • • • • • • Movement patterns (migrations) Habitat use and Distributions Site fidelity Population estimates and Abundance Association patterns (social behavior) Predation & Predator Effects Behavior – Feeding, Mating, Social, Play Behavioral Ecology Environmental and Human Effects Wildlife Management and Policy Environmental Regulations 12/21/2013 LOCAL, REGIONAL, NATIONAL, GLOBAL SCALES 42
    • Other Techniques • Biopsy • Radio Tracking and Satellite Tagging • Boat-based studies • Theodolite tracking (Hill-based) • Unmanned systems • Acoustic tracking – listening to whales • Aerial and Ship surveys • Modeling 12/21/2013 43
    • WHY SHOULD WE CARE? They are like “humans” Top of the food chain ‘TIGERS OF THE SEA’ Sentinels of Ocean Health and Climate Change They keep ecosystems in check National Aquatic Animal – Ganges River Dolphin 12/21/2013 44
    • The End 12/21/2013 Thank you! 45
    • Back Up Slides 12/21/2013 46
    • WHOI CSI • http://csi.whoi.edu/interactive/harborporpois e2d (harbor porpoise body) • http://csi.whoi.edu/interactive/pinnipedskulld orsal2d (pinniped skull) • http://csi.whoi.edu/interactive/odontocetesku lllateral2d (dolphin skull lateral) 12/21/2013 47