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Anthropegenic noise and its impact on marine species_Cdr Arnab Das_2013
 

Anthropegenic noise and its impact on marine species_Cdr Arnab Das_2013

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An understanding of how man created noise affects marine species in the country.

An understanding of how man created noise affects marine species in the country.

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    Anthropegenic noise and its impact on marine species_Cdr Arnab Das_2013 Anthropegenic noise and its impact on marine species_Cdr Arnab Das_2013 Presentation Transcript

    • Cdr (Dr) Arnab Das
    • Menu Ambient Noise Anthropogenic Noise Radiated Noise Marine Species Hearing Conclusion
    • Classification
    • Ambient Noise in the Sea
    • Classification
    • Ambient Noise Trend
    • Anthropogenic Noise Sonar Transmissions Oil Exploration Industrial Activities Explosions Radiated Noise of Marine Vessels Acoustic High Power Transmission.
    • Sonar Transmissions Military Sonar SURTASS Towed Array Sonar Hull Mounted Sonar Non-Military Echo Sounders Side Scan Sonar Sub-bottom Profilers
    • Sonar Transmission
    • Sonar Transmissions Mid-Frequency Range Limitation of the Transducer size Higher attenuation Levels Localized Impact High Intensity Sound 230 dB re 1µPa @ 1m Instant Impact
    • Oil Exploration Seismic Exploration Finding Reserves of Underwater Oil Uses High Intensity Sound Arrays of Air Gun Releases Specified Air at High Pressure Sound Pressure due to Contraction
    • Oil Exploration
    • Industrial Activities Dredging Pile Driving Underwater Construction Wind Mills Power Plants Canal Lock Operations
    • Industrial Activities
    • Some Comparisons
    • Explosions Ship Shock Test To evaluate ability of Ship to withstand Shock Chemical Explosion 300-4000 explosions per month reported in North Pacific in the 1960 Used for removal of Undersea Structures and Construction
    • Underwater Explosion
    • Explosions Nuclear Explosion French test as late as 1995-1996 CTBT does prevent such tests in future however the precise impact on Marine Life yet to be ascertained Weapon Tests Torpedo firings Tests for Naval Weapon Systems
    • Radiated Noise Ship Generated Noise Propeller Noise Machinery Noise Hydrodynamic Noise Radiated Noise Spectrum Narrowband Discrete Tonals Broadband Noise due to Cavitation
    • Radiated Noise
    • Radiated Noise Low-Frequency Sound 10 – 500 Hz Undergoes minimal Attenuation Propagates to a large distance Distant Shipping Major contributor to Ambient Increased Significantly in the last 30 years
    • Radiated Noise Single Ubiquitous Noise Source Well Spread out Low frequency Minimal Attenuation Economic Factor Only likely to rise India Emerging as a major ship- building destination
    • Ambient Noise
    • Shipping the World Over
    • Machinery Noise
    • Propeller Cavitation
    • Propeller Cavitation
    • CPP Ships
    • Some Comparisons
    • What Has Changed?
    • Some Comparisons
    • Frequency Response
    • Hearing Loss-Baleen Whale Estimated reduction in baleen whale communication range from (left) prior to the advent of commercial shipping to (right) the expected ranges today. Figure courtesy of C W Clark, Cornell University
    • Fish Hearing
    • Radiated Noise Spectrum Underwater radiated noise specification at 11 knots free-running for all vessels used in fisheries research
    • Conclusion Urgent steps required Awareness. Actionable Inputs. Research efforts to understand our waters. Challenges of regulatory framework.