Politics of India


Published on

Published in: News & Politics
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Politics of India

  1. 1. Politics of India Political Institutions & Parties
  2. 2. Republic of India <ul><li>A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government </li></ul><ul><li>capital: New Delhi </li></ul>
  3. 3. A federal system <ul><li>26 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Federal system <ul><li>Relatively centralized </li></ul><ul><li>federal government controls the most essential government functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foreign policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>taxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic (industrial) planning </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Federal system <ul><li>state governments formally control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>law and order within states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dependent on central government for funds </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Federal system <ul><li>Balance of power between central and state governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>varies by time and place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state power was constrained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state governments have more room to maneuver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>when central government is weak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>since 1998 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Federal system <ul><li>considerable center-state conflict when ruling political party in a state is different from national ruling party </li></ul>
  8. 8. Parallel state structure <ul><li>Formal political structure of the states parallels that of the national government </li></ul><ul><li>national state </li></ul><ul><li>President Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Chief Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court High Court </li></ul>
  9. 9. The legislature <ul><li>Parliamentary system of government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The legislature <ul><li>bicameral Parliament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rajya Sabha (Council of States) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lok Sabha (House of the People) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Rajya Sabha (Council of States) <ul><li>The Upper House </li></ul>
  12. 12. Upper House <ul><li>Rajya Sabha (Council of States) </li></ul><ul><li>not more than 250 members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 are nominated by the President of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the rest are indirectly elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by state Legislative Assemblies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Council of States can not be dissolved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>members have terms of 6 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Lok Sabha <ul><li>House of the People </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lower House <ul><li>Lok Sabha (House of the People) </li></ul><ul><li>545 members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 are appointed by the President of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the rest are directly elected from single-member districts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-year terms unless dissolved </li></ul><ul><li>Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Speaker </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Lok Sabha <ul><li>Elections held at least every 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister may call elections earlier </li></ul><ul><li>543 single-member districts of roughly equal population </li></ul><ul><li>party nomination </li></ul><ul><li>1st-past-the-post </li></ul><ul><ul><li>winner-take-all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>women’s share </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elections to Lok Sabha <ul><li>Vote share of 3 major political parties </li></ul>
  17. 17. Current composition <ul><li>43 parties in the 13th Lok Sabha (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>39 parties in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 184 138 </li></ul><ul><li>Indian National Congress (INC) 109 145 </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Party of India (M) 34 43 </li></ul><ul><li>other political parties 218 217 </li></ul><ul><li>total 545 543 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Indian National Congress <ul><li>India’s oldest political party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>since 1885 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India’s premier political party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>until 1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>in 1960s many regional parties started challenging INC’s monopoly on power </li></ul>
  19. 19. Indian National Congress <ul><li>Indira Gandhi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>created a top-down structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>party leaders appoint party officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some limited party elections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>left-of-center, pro-poor political platform </li></ul>
  20. 20. Indian National Congress <ul><li>INC moved toward the ideological center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INC today tilts right-of-center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited government spending </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Indian National Congress <ul><li>INC has always attracted support from diverse social groups </li></ul><ul><li>in the 1990s INC has lost some of its traditional constituencies among the poor and Muslims </li></ul>
  22. 22. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) <ul><li>The major political party in India today </li></ul><ul><li>right-leaning, Hindu-nationalist party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first major party to mobilize explicitly on the basis of religious identity </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) <ul><li>better organized than INC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disciplined party members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carefully selected party cadres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clear and respected authority line within the party </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) <ul><li>Traditional supporters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urban, lower-middle-class groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>base of support widened since mid-1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindu nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>north-central India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decline of Indian National Congress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims as convenient scapegoat for frustration </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. BJP’s rapid rise to power <ul><li>electoral success from 1989 to 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty in forming alliance with other parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>break with past traditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively moderate, centrist position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BJP formed governing coalition in 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collapsed in 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BJP formed a new coalition in 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more broadly based than previous coalition </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) <ul><li>economic liberalization and stability </li></ul><ul><li>privilege the interests of the Hindu majority </li></ul>
  27. 27. Prime Minister <ul><li>Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>prime minister nominates a cabinet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>members of Parliament in the ruling coalition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where most of the important policies originate </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Prime Ministers of India <ul><li>38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family </li></ul><ul><li>more and more rapid turnover </li></ul>
  29. 29. The President of India <ul><li>Head of the State </li></ul><ul><li>Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>elected by an electoral college </li></ul><ul><ul><li>national Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-year terms </li></ul><ul><li>can be reelected </li></ul>
  30. 31. The President of India <ul><li>Ceremonial office </li></ul><ul><ul><li>symbolize national unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supposedly above partisan politics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mostly acts on the advice of the prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>President plays a significant role when the selection of a prime minister is complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in 1998 President requested BJP to form govt. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. The Judiciary <ul><li>Fundamental contradiction in constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principle of parliamentary sovereignty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>principle of judicial review </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. The Judiciary <ul><li>judiciary tries to preserve the constitution’s basic structure </li></ul><ul><li>to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution </li></ul><ul><li>parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution </li></ul>