Politics of India
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Politics of India

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    Politics of India Politics of India Presentation Transcript

    • Politics of India Political Institutions & Parties
    • Republic of India
      • A federal republic with a parliamentary system of government
      • capital: New Delhi
    • A federal system
      • 26 states and 6 centrally administered Union Territories
        • 2 states are partially claimed by Pakistan and China
    • Federal system
      • Relatively centralized
      • federal government controls the most essential government functions
        • defense
        • foreign policy
        • taxation
        • public expenditures
        • economic (industrial) planning
    • Federal system
      • state governments formally control
        • agriculture
        • education
        • law and order within states
        • dependent on central government for funds
    • Federal system
      • Balance of power between central and state governments
        • varies by time and place
        • state power was constrained
          • during the rule of Nehru and Indira Gandhi
        • state governments have more room to maneuver
          • when central government is weak
          • since 1998
    • Federal system
      • considerable center-state conflict when ruling political party in a state is different from national ruling party
    • Parallel state structure
      • Formal political structure of the states parallels that of the national government
      • national state
      • President Governor
      • Prime Minister Chief Minister
      • Parliament Assembly
      • Supreme Court High Court
    • The legislature
      • Parliamentary system of government
        • the executive authority is responsible to the Parliament
    • The legislature
      • bicameral Parliament
        • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
        • Lok Sabha (House of the People)
    • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
      • The Upper House
    • Upper House
      • Rajya Sabha (Council of States)
      • not more than 250 members
        • 12 are nominated by the President of India
        • the rest are indirectly elected
          • by state Legislative Assemblies
      • The Council of States can not be dissolved
        • members have terms of 6 years
        • 1/3 members retire at end of every 2nd year
    • Lok Sabha
      • House of the People
    • Lower House
      • Lok Sabha (House of the People)
      • 545 members
        • 2 are appointed by the President of India
        • the rest are directly elected from single-member districts
      • 5-year terms unless dissolved
      • Lok Sabha elects its presiding officer
        • the Speaker
    • Lok Sabha
      • Elections held at least every 5 years
      • Prime Minister may call elections earlier
      • 543 single-member districts of roughly equal population
      • party nomination
      • 1st-past-the-post
        • winner-take-all
      • women’s share
    • Elections to Lok Sabha
      • Vote share of 3 major political parties
    • Current composition
      • 43 parties in the 13th Lok Sabha (1999)
      • 39 parties in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004)
      • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 184 138
      • Indian National Congress (INC) 109 145
      • Communist Party of India (M) 34 43
      • other political parties 218 217
      • total 545 543
    • Indian National Congress
      • India’s oldest political party
        • since 1885
      • India’s premier political party
        • until 1990s
      • in 1960s many regional parties started challenging INC’s monopoly on power
    • Indian National Congress
      • Indira Gandhi
        • created a top-down structure
        • party leaders appoint party officials
        • some limited party elections
      • left-of-center, pro-poor political platform
    • Indian National Congress
      • INC moved toward the ideological center
        • Beginning in 1984
      • INC today tilts right-of-center
        • economic efficiency
        • business interests
        • limited government spending
    • Indian National Congress
      • INC has always attracted support from diverse social groups
      • in the 1990s INC has lost some of its traditional constituencies among the poor and Muslims
    • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
      • The major political party in India today
      • right-leaning, Hindu-nationalist party
        • first major party to mobilize explicitly on the basis of religious identity
    • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
      • better organized than INC
        • disciplined party members
        • carefully selected party cadres
        • clear and respected authority line within the party
    • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
      • Traditional supporters
        • urban, lower-middle-class groups
      • base of support widened since mid-1980s
        • Hindu nationalism
        • north-central India
        • decline of Indian National Congress
        • Muslims as convenient scapegoat for frustration
    • BJP’s rapid rise to power
      • electoral success from 1989 to 1999
        • difficulty in forming alliance with other parties
      • break with past traditions
        • relatively moderate, centrist position
      • BJP formed governing coalition in 1998
        • collapsed in 1999
      • BJP formed a new coalition in 1999
        • more broadly based than previous coalition
    • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
      • economic liberalization and stability
      • privilege the interests of the Hindu majority
    • Prime Minister
      • Leader of the majority party leader in Lok Sabha becomes the prime minister
      • prime minister nominates a cabinet
        • members of Parliament in the ruling coalition
        • Council of Ministers
      • effective power is concentrated in the office of the prime minister
        • where most of the important policies originate
    • Prime Ministers of India
      • 38 years in the Nehru-Gandhi family
      • more and more rapid turnover
    • The President of India
      • Head of the State
      • Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces
      • elected by an electoral college
        • national Parliament
        • state legislature
      • 5-year terms
      • can be reelected
    •  
    • The President of India
      • Ceremonial office
        • symbolize national unity
        • supposedly above partisan politics
      • mostly acts on the advice of the prime minister
      • President plays a significant role when the selection of a prime minister is complex
        • in 1998 President requested BJP to form govt.
    • The Judiciary
      • Fundamental contradiction in constitution
        • principle of parliamentary sovereignty
        • principle of judicial review
    • The Judiciary
      • judiciary tries to preserve the constitution’s basic structure
      • to ensure that legislation conforms with the intent of the constitution
      • parliament tries to assert its right to amend the constitution