Tip edge technique /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Indian dental academy provides dental crown &

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Tip edge technique /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Tip edge technique INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Contents          Introduction Tip edge concept Tip edge brackets Tip edge auxiliaries Differential Straight Arch Technique Stages of treatment Final Finishing Conclusion References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Introduction Since the 1900 Angle introduced various appliances :  Angle’s E-arch  Pin and Tube appliance(1910)  Ribbon arch appliance (1915)  Edgewise appliance(1925) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Edgewise appliance       Labially facing horizontal slot 3-dimensional control over tooth Very high forces were used Anchorage depends on extra oral forces No provision for closure of posterior spaces Arch wire slot restricts the anteroposterior correction of dental arches www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Begg appliance During the early 1930s, P.R Begg reverted to the use of ribbon arch brackets Permitted free tipping followed by controlled uprighting  Use of round wires  Use of differential forces(2 oz) Demands on anchorage units was reduced However the vertically facing slot had the following limitations:  Hindrance in manipulation  Reduced mesio-distal control  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Straight wire appliance   1970s Dr Lawrence Andrews introduced the Straight Wire “bracket system” Concept of Preadjusted applianceTip, torque, in-out compensations for each tooth was available. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7.  Limitations of conventional Straight Wire bracket    Moving teeth apex first generates maximum anchorage resistance Torque control - unwanted reciprocal torque reaction in adjacent teeth Full expression of torque not achieved- “torque slop” due to play between bracket and arch wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Tip edge concept    Peter C Kesling decided to combine both the techniques Modified a straight wire bracket ,to create Tip Edge bracket Technique was first introduced at the KeslingRocke Orthodontic Centre,Westville,Indiana,USA in 1986. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Differential force technique: initial crown tipping followed by controlled root uprighting with straight arch wires (differential tooth movement with straight arch wires). Therefore it is known as the “Differential straight arch technique” Arch wire slot permits initial crown tipping mesially or distally and faces horizontally, the slot and bracket are termed “Tip Edge”  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Features of tip edge appliance       Labially facing arch wire slots –improved manipulation with elastomeric ties Light forces(2 oz) Reduced strain on anchorage With a rectangular slot ,a 3-D control was afforded Slots open and close during treatment for maximum ease of arch wire change and minimal discomfort Facilitated intrusion of teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Tip edge brackets Kesling determined that :  It is necessary for each tooth to tip either mesially or distally –not both directions  All teeth tip distally except those distal to the extraction sites-which tip mesially  Anchor molars should remain upright throughout Rx. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13.     Diagonally opposite corner were removed Permits desired distal crown tipping Preadjusted in 3 dimensionstip,torque,in & out built in Slot size-0.022”x0.028” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Central ridge Lateral extensions Uprighting surface Tipping surface Occlusal view Profile view www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Design features       Slot size: 0.022”X0.028” Vertical slot: 0.020”x0.020”- to accept rotating or up righting springs, power pins ,jigs etc. Both the gingival and incisal ends are chamfered to facilitate the insertion of auxiliaries from either direction. Lateral extensions- for rotational control hidden behind the arch wire –which is esthetic. In and out compensation-eliminates the need for lateral, bicuspid or molar offset Torque built in base Tip built in face www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16.  Slot permits initial M-D tipping ,this prevents bowing of arch wire during retraction/space closure and automatically enhances anchorage.  Uprighting surfaces of the slot determine the final tip angulations reached with an uprighting spring. These surfaces can also control torque if an edgewise arch wire is used. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Types of bracket Narrow metal tip edge bracket Twin metal tip edge bracket Narrow ceramic tip edge bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18.    Twin version of bracket - 018” or 022” slot size Known as “Freedom brackets” Disadvantages : Unaesthetic Extra bulk-occlusal interferences and accidental debonds Mechanical disadvantage when Side Winder springs are added. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Tip edge brackets for first premolar extraction cases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Tip edge brackets for second premolar extraction cases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Tip edge brackets for non extraction or first molar extraction cases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Preadjusted in 3 dimensionstip,torque,in & out built in Tip and torque values for maxillary brackets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Tip and torque values for mandibular brackets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Placement of tip edge attachments  Positioning jigs used for bracket placement Positioning jigs used for bracket placement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.     Mid crown position is recommended (Parkhouse) Bracket should be aligned with it’s vertical axis parallel with the long axis of the tooth Mesio-distally at the midpoint Height of the bracket should be at vertical midpoint of the fully erupted clinical crown www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.  Jigs can be modified by cutting off the horizontal section leaving only straight vertical markers www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Rationale behind a mid crown bonding     Prescribed torque value in the bracket base is effectively expressed Initial tipping will be more by the incisal placement of the bracket but it also requires an increased amount of root uprighting Side Winder springs are placed at greater mechanical disadvantage if the distance between the point of rotation and the root apex is increased—resulting in loss of eficiency Also mid-crown position reduces occlusal interference therefore decreases the number of accidental debonds. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29.  Molar tubes   Parallel to occlusal surfaces Upper molar tubes placed at the same level as the bicuspid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Universal premolar tip edge brackets    Similar tip and torque for 1st and 2nd premolars So, possible to have just 2 upper and 2 lower bicuspid brackets. Can be switched from R to L side to provide clockwise or counterclockwise crown tipping. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Identification of brackets  Arrow - direction of tipping  Premolar jigs are modified by the addition of a 90° angle at the tip of the jig which indicates the direction of tipping  Origin from Queen’s University ,Belfast –called as “Irish jigs” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Auxiliaries used in Tip Edge Technique 1.Molar tubes Keep molars upright and permit free sliding of arch wire. Three types:  Single round tube with torquing flap  Combination edgewise(0.022”X0.028”) and round tubes(0.036”)  Combination edgewise and flat oval tube for increased bucco-lingual control  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Single round tube with torquing flap Combination of rectangular and round tube Combination of rectangular and oval tube www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Rectangular slot is at the same level as premolar brackets.  Permits the placement of straight arch wire  Round tube dimensions: 0.036”inside diameter,0.250”length Rectangular tubes are of Easy-Out R TP design with the posterior inner lumen slightly flared towards the occlusal. Facilitates archwire removal when a cinchback has been used  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. 2.Tip edge rings    Elastomeric rings designed to function with tip-edge brackets Designed to retain archwire and prevent mesial and distal tipping during Stage III Lingually facing lug on either end of the crossbar wedge between the archwire and the bracket to control mesiodistal inclination of the tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Straight Shooter (ligature gun)  Advantages Less time consuming Places less pressure on the tooth ,more comfortable for the patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. 3.Rotating Springs  For correction of rotation  Preformed from 0.014” wire  Inserted from gingival aspect www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. 4.Mesiodistal uprighting springs     Optimal means to upright to upright teeth mesiodistally Standard and Side-winder designs Provides localised tip control of individual teeth without archwire modification Fabricated from 0.014” archwire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Side-winder springs   Coils rest on the labial surface of the bracket Improves:     Esthetics Hygiene Choice to insert from gingival or occlusal aspect Mechanical advantages as centre of the coil is concentric with the centre of the bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Invisible Side Winder springs   Wire of spring lies on archwire and bracket Advantages:  Retained in position by the elastomeric module, in addition to it’s own spring pressure  Enables modules to be changed if necessary, during the root uprighting process without removing springs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41.  Because bulky hook has been eliminated, spring arm has a wide range of activation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Direction of insertion    Occlusal and not gingival Masticatory forces coming occlusally are deflected harmlessly off the coils of a correctly inserted spring, keeping these in close proximity to the bracket face. If inserted from gingival, occlusal forces might distort them labially away from the bracket –spoils the action of the spring as well as causes discomfort www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Identification of spring  Spring arm points in the direction towards which the occlusal tip will rotate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. 5.Bilevel pins    Used to capture auxiliaries behind tie wings of the bracket Heads of pins function to retain the auxiliaries and to tie ligature When used with open coil spring; eliminates the need to use vertical loops or to remove main wire to remove coil. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. 6.Power pins  Ideal auxiliaries to engage elastic or elastomeric  Can be inserted from occlusal or gingival  Low profile head with 15° inclination reducing the need for right and left pins  Can be inserted or removed while both ligature and archwires are in place www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. 7.E-links      Elastomeric links stamped from thermoset material Less hydrophilic than thermoplastic material Available in graded lengths E1to E4 smaller size with no tabs E4 to larger sizes with tabs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. 8.Archwires      U/L 0.016” round ,hard,resillient wires Vertical loops may be bent into the initial wire Small segment of co-axial wire 0.014” or 0.016” NiTi as auxiliary wires for alignment Advantages:   Rapid anterior bite opening and improve molar control Reduces the number of archwires required to treat a specific case www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48.    0.022” S-S used during space closure and final uprighting or torquing Rectangular archwires retained in brackets with tipedge rings offer the final expression of tip and torque predetermined in the bracket slot 0.0215”X0.028” S-S archwire are preferred for final finishing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Concept & Function Bite opening   Tip-edge slots facilitate intrusion of teeth along the path of least resistance without creating lateral root movements—open deep bites without the need for extra oral forces Intrusive forces from: Properly bent 0.016” high-tensile S-S wires,  Use of Light inter maxillary elastics(2oz). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50.  Retraction and Space closure without loss of vertical control   Binding between slot and archwire In the canine area incisal deflection of wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51.  No binding or incisal deflection of wire in tip edge slot www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Dynamic arch wire slot Tip edge slots become larger as the teeth tip. The vertical dimension within the slot continuously increases with each degree of distal tipping. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Inter bracket distance    The tip edge bracket provides automatic mesiodistal tip control The tip edge bracket with its propeller shaped archwire slot can provide 100% interbracket distance in both planes. As the crown is tipped distally, slot size increases, this permits passive engagement of full size S-S wire with zero flexing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Advantages      No binding or archwire deflection during retraction Ease of stepping up of archwire size No inadvertent mesial or distal root movement Ease of placing rectangular archwires when third order discrepancies exist between archwire and slot. No need to use NiTi archwires to avoid discomfort and accidental debonding www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56.  “The Hammock Effect” When a ligature (especially steel) is used to retain the archwire a “hammock effect” is created that tends to parallel the archwire with the gingival and occlusal edges of the tie wing tips. This could influence mesial /distal inclinations Steel ligature when tied loosely minimizes the hammock effect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Anchorage consideration      Extra oral anchorage is not required with Differential Straight Arch Technique Forces are so light that adequate anchorage can easily be formed within the mouth. Binding (as in edgewise slots) is nonexistent during retraction. In DSAT,archwires move distally with anterior teeth retraction and premolars are not bracketed during Stage I. Therefore no sliding friction occurs---no additional strain on anchorage. Only friction is in molar tubes which is minimal because tubes are long with large diameter. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58.  Axial inclination control Controlled root movement which is    Selective Physiologic Predetermined www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59.  Selectivity      Selective axial tooth control w.r.t time and location Tip or torque is achieved by addition of SideWinder springs to the teeth requiring correction Rest of the teeth are left undisturbed Application of force is selective and adjacent teeth are not “round tripped” Promotes stability and patient comfort www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60.  Limitation    Design of the bracket automatically limits the degree of M-D uprighting Uprighting continues until the control surfaces within the slot strike the upper and lower surfaces of the archwire. Torquing is also limited and ceases even though the spring remains active-determined by the torque built in the bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61.  Physiologic   Light and continuous forces are transmitted through the auxiliaries Design of tip edge bracket prevents delivery of high third order torque forces from flexed rectangular wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Advantages of Tip Edge brackets  Over conventional edgewise brackets  Eliminates undesired force couples to promote rapid bite opening and prevent midline discrepancies  Anchorage problems are eliminated as space can be closed with light forces and minimum wire deflection. This results in diminished anchorage demands and increased vertical control.  Permits free crown tipping followed by controlled uprighting  Can reposition teeth and jaws with light forces and still maintain total control over their final positions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64.  Over Begg brackets     Horizontally facing archwire slots facilitate initial archwire engagement especially on rotated teeth. Elastomeric ties provide a cushion or flexibility that enhances patient comfort and reduces the chances for bond failure In –out compensation eliminate the need for molar (or other) offsets. Slot designs causes automotive shift from tipping to bodily movement at the predetermined angle and increase anterior anchorage to encourage mesial movement of posteriors – “Programmed Differential Mechanics” Labio-lingual root torque from rectangular wires possible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Three stage of Treatment   Stage I Objectives       Open (or close) the anterior bite Eliminate anterior crowding Close the anterior spaces Overcorrect the rotated cuspids and bicuspids Correct posterior cross bites Correct any mesiodistal malrelationships of the buccal segment as necessary www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Stage I archwires  0.016 S-S wire  Preformed wires   Fabricated from 0.016” Bow flex archwires These are size graded according to the distance in mm between the cuspid circles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Intermaxillary circles    Bent in a vertical plane or inclined slightly labial located 1mm mesial to canine bracket Anterior portion of the circle is labial to the archwire to facilitate engagement of distally directed ties or elastics Advantages of cuspid circles:  Easier to bend  Can be rolled mesio-distally  Less chance of breakage Disadvantage:  Less retention of elastic if bent too small or tightly www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Cuspid ties   Prevents canine from sliding distally along the wire Not to be used when aligning crowded anterior teeth with co-axial or NiTi sectional wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69.  Bite opening mechanics    Anchor bends placed mesial to molars If reduced overbite or an open bite is present at the start of the treatment, reduced degree of anchor bends are placed. Also depends upon the angulation of molars-if molars are tipped mesially, reduced angulation required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Intermaxillary elastics   Use of light Class II elastics (1 to 2 oz)  Worn full time from upper cuspid circles to the distal ends of lower arch wire or from molar hooks Overbite reduction is more effective with a more distal application of elastic to the molar which better resists distal crown tip and encourages fuller expression of the anchor bends to the anterior segment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71.  Outrigger appliance To encourage elastic wear Auxiliary is threaded over an archwire formed with appropriate bite opening bends or sweeps but no intermaxillary circles Has two elastic hooks that extend labially when elastics are not engaged Hooks act as a painful reminder www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72.  Stage II  Objectives: 1.Close any posterior spaces 2.Maintain all corrections obtained during stage I Edge to edge relationship of anterior teeth Anterior space closure Over rotated cuspids and or bicuspids Corrected mesiodistal molar relationship www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73.  Stage II archwires      0.020” or 0.022” hard round S-S wire Reduced anchor bends Molar offset (vertical) to compensate for the more gingivally placed round tube Heavier archwires function as retainers to maintain arch form and bite opening achieved during stage I Heavier wires can better withstand the forces of occlusion-less likely to get distorted www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74.     Remove anchor bends, place sweep in the archwire Upper- increased Curve of Spee Lower- Reverse Curve of Spee Insert wire into rectangular tube (Parkhouse) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Derotation of molar  1mm Molar offset and 10°toe-in for final visit of stage II  Initial stages no need to place these bends as it increases friction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Leveling of molar     Tipped back molars should be leveled to allow the placement of rectangular archwires Antitip bend of 10° opposite premolar-molar contact point. Ensures seating of the distal cusp of tipped molars Can be combined with offset and toe-in. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Space closure  By E-links form buccal hook on the first molar to cuspid circle  Available in graded lengths  Usually E-6 or E-5 is selected www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78.  Putting on the brakes: Available space can be closed by protraction of the posterior teeth mesially : a. Application of passive uprighting spring on the canine, b.Tipping surface of the tip edge arch wire slots striking the archwire c.Use of rectangular wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79.  Automatic canine rotational control during retraction   Forces are not applied labial to the surface of canines. Instead pressure is applied at their contact point with the lateral incisor www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Stage II checks         Intervals 6-8 weeks Observe space closure Cut distal ends Check molar widths Labial segment position and inclination excessive Check midlines Check interarchrelationship Avoid overcompression www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81.  Pre Stage III        To align the premolars Rotate anchor molars Level the occlusal plane Original 0.016 round archwire is used Increased flexibility helps to level occlusal plane and elevate premolars Light lingual elastomerics to derotate molars Duration-- 6-8 weeks www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82.   Stage III Objectives:   Maintain all corrections achieved during stage I and stage II Achieve desired axial inclination of all teeth M-D inclinations are corrected by use of uprighting springs Lingual or labial root torque is achieved through torquing auxiliary Tip edge rings maintain and/or influence teeth in final tip angulations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83.      Stage III archwires 0.020” or 0.022” hard round S-S wires- to counteract the reciprocal forces generated by auxiliaries Heavy wire functions as retainer Separation of root moving forces from the archwire permits the precise application of torque and uprighting pressures Maxillary archwire  slight constriction is placed in the archwire (except in RME and class III malocclusion)  No anchor bends but a gentle curve of spee is given to deliver a gingival force www.indiandentalacademy.com Maxillary archwire
  84. 84.  Mandibular archwire  Slightly expanded  Slight anchor bends or Reverse curve of spee  Vertical offsets to compensate for the level of molar tube  In class III Rx –widen the maxillary arch and narrow the mandibular  Cuspid ties are normally not used to allow uprighting of teeth to take place. www.indiandentalacademy.com Mandibular archwire
  85. 85.   Stage III Auxiliaries Torquing auxiliary    Conventional torquing auxiliary Torque bars Curved ribbon sections of 0.022 X0.028” Ni Ti formed with 20° of torque. Individual root torquing auxiliary Nickel titanium torque bar Individual Root Torquing auxiliary www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86.  Deep Groove brackets      For use with torque bars On the maxillary central incisors Conventional preadjusted edgewise slot cast into the bottom of tip edge slots. During stage I and II ,cap fills the groove In stage III,cap is removed and the torque bar is ligated tightly into the Deep groove under the round archwire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Uprighting with Side Winder springs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Third order movement by second order force from a Side Winder spring in the presence of a rectangular archwire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89.  Indications for rectangular archwires    First proposed by Richard Parkhouse Simplifies treatment and increases stability during all uprighting and torquing procedures To establish molar root torque www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90.  Preparation for rectangular Stage III     After completing stage I, 0.016” wire is modified with vertical curvatures instead of anchor bends ,to avoid the use of vertical offset Wire is inserted into the rectangular tube instead of round tubes. This elevates premolar brackets to the level of rectangular tube If premolars are too gingival –initially place the wire into round tube, then into rectangular tube. Once premolars are aligned ,shift to 0.020” or 0.022” round wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Rectangular stage III wire  0.0215”X0.028” rectangular archwire with similar curvature as in round wire  Crimpable hooks are placed midway between canine and lateral incisor brackets facing gingivally www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92.    Mild Curve of spee in maxillary archwire and RCS in mandibular archwire If initial open bite or reduced overbite, flat archwires are made Compensatory buccal crown torque in anterior segment to restore zero torque www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93.  Pretorqued archwire  0.0215” X 0.028” rectangular archwire with lingual crown torque (5° maxillary,8° mandibular) for deep bite cases Centre line markings:  Black—maxillary Red--mandibular www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94.  Round or Rectangular archwires??    Severe anteroposterior discrepancy round wires for stage III Also when molar torque or selective labiolingual root positioning of canine or mandibular incisor is not required Rectangular wires should not be used until the torque has been established by use of torquing auxiliary www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95.  Final finishing     Use of rectangular wire during this stage Beginning with 0.019”X0.025” ,then 0.021”X0.028” for total tooth control. Rectangular wires should pass through the rectangular tube Tip edge rings can maintain or even capture the tip angles in all bracket slots All stage III objectives ,especially anterior root torque must be entirely completed before going to rectangular finishing archwires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Second molar alignment  During Stage III, preliminary alignment by a simple sectional device suggested by Dr Tom Rocke.  Straight 0.016”high tensile S-S sectionals  It runs through the channel of the gingival tie wing of the first molar, without being attached to it.  Mesially ends with a small occlusally inclined loop which hooks over the main archwire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. Occlusal seating  0.019X0.025” braided archwire and seating elastics  3 weeks later www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. Sectioning the main archwire    Cut distal to each canine Molars and premolars, canine to canine tied together to prevent spacing Light rhomboid elastics to allow settling of buccal section www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Tooth Positioners Pre-Fit positioners come in different sizes (for extraction and nonextraction cases) Inappropriate for individual tooth size discrepancies www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Conclusion    The tip edge bracket provides varying degrees of tooth control not previously available in an edgewise type bracket. Control ranges from a simple one-point contact and 100% interbracket distance with a round archwire to predetermined control in three planes with rectangular arch wire and a Tip-Edge ring. It also offers advantages over ribbon-arch (Begg) brackets through ease of manipulation provided by the horizontally facing slot plus predetermined limitation of initial crown tipping and control of final root uprighting. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101.        References Tip Edge guide and the Differential Straight Arch Technique. Peter C Kesling Orthodontics by Graber Vanarsdall. Tip Edge Othodontics.Parkhouse Dynamics of the Tip-Edge bracket.PeterCKesling.AJODO1989;96:16-25 Treatment with Tip-Edge brackets and Differential tooth movement.KeslingPC,Rocke TR,KeslingCK.AJODO1991;99:387-401 The Tip –Edge Concept:Eliminating Unnecessary Anchorage Strain.Kesling CK.JCO1992;26:165-178. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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