The straight wire concept /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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The straight wire concept /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. The Straight Wire Concept INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. The straight wire concept “The birth of a new concept is never an all or none phenomenon. It is a slow evolution with contributions from many. A new principle is an inexhaustible source of new views” “Nothing in education is more astonishing than the amount of ignorance it accumulates in the form of inert facts.. However , it is the amalgamation of these inert facts, put forward by the genius’ of our profession, that has led to the high standard of the Preadjusted Appliance system which it has acquired today” “The beauty of this concept is that a more consistent, more ideal result can be obtained with less physical and mental drain on the operator in less overall time and minimal discomfort to the patient.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. The Straight Wire Concept “The straight wire concept is not a product of serendipity, but is a poetry in design. It is an appliance fully programmed to combine simplicity and effectiveness required for the road to success” The genesis of the straight wire appliance was not a result of a single stray discovery, but rather the result of numerous experiments. Many individual innovations were distilled and combined to form this intricate design. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET  E- ARCH (1900)  PIN AND TUBE APPLIANCE (1910)  RIBBON ARCH BRACKET (1915)  EDGEWISE BRACKET(1925) # SINGLE WIDTH BRACKET # 2 SINGLE WIDTH BRACKETS # TWIN BRACKETS # LEWIS BRACKET # VERTICAL SLOT LEWIS BRACKET # LANG BRACKET # TIP EDGE BRACKET # CONVERTIBLE BRACKET # EDGELOCK / SELF LIGATING BRACKET www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET THE E- ARCH         THE FIRST FIXED APPLIANCE DESIGNED BY ANGLE IN 1900 USED STATIONARY ANCHOAGE TIPPED TEETH INTO NEW POSITION EXCPANDED THE ARCH X MESIO DISTAL TOOTH MOVEMENTS X INDIVIDUAL TOOTH MOVEMENTS X ROOT MOVEMENTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET THE PIN AND TUBE APPLIANCE        BANDS ON ALL TEETH TUBES SOLDERED TO BANDS ARCH WIRE SOLDERED TO TUBE WITH PINS COULD BRING ROOTS INTO AXIAL ALIGNMENT VERY DIFFICULT TO PARALLEL TUBE AND PINS SOLDERING AND UNSOLDERING PINS ROTATIONAL www.indiandentalacademy.com ADJUSTMENTS
  7. 7. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET THE RIBBON ARCH BRACKET         THE FIRST BRACKET DEVISED IN 1915 BY ANGLE BIG STEP IN EVOLUTION OF BRACKETS ROTATIONAL MOVEMENTS BUCCO-LINGUAL AND INCISOGINGIVAL MOVEMENTS X DISTAL TIPPING OF BUCCAL SEGMENT X MESIODISTAL AXIAL MOVEMENT X ARCH WIRE DID’NT PROVIDE STABILIZATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET THE EDGEWISE BRACKET     FINAL BRACKET DESIGN BY ANGLE (1925) BASED ON HIS “LINE OF OCCLUSION” CONCEPT BRACKET WITH RECTANGULAR SLOT 0.022”X0.028” ORIENTATION OF WIRE AT 90* ALONG THE EDGE OF THE RECTANGULAR WIRE  MOVEMENT IN ALL 3 PLANES OF SPACE TWIST AND TORQUE POSSIBLE  GOLD BRACKET AND WIRE DEFORMED  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET SINGLE WIDTH BRACKETS  THESE WERE ANGLES ORIGINAL EDGEWISE BRACKET DESIGN BRACKET WIDTH WAS 0.050”  ROTATIONAL MOVEMENTS WERE DIFFICULT  TO OVERCOME THIS LIMITATION ANGLE SOLDERED EYELETS ONTO BANDS THESE EYELETS WERE TIED WITH LGATURES TO ALLOW ROTATION   REPEATED ADJUSTMENT OF LIGATURES RELAPSE IF TIES NOT CONTINUED www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET TWO SINGLE WIDTH BRACKETS  GREAT ROTATIONAL CONTROL  ALIGNMENT OF BOTH BRACKETS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET TWIN BRACKETS          “SIAMESE TWIN BRACKETS”SWAIN 2 BRACKETS ON A COMMON BASE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE 2 BRACKETS -0.050” EXCELLENT ROTATIONAL CONTROL POSITIVE CONTROL ON THE TOOTH 4 SIZES- EXTRAWIDE,STANDARD, INTERMEDIATE,JUNIOR DECREASED INTERBRACKET SPAN THUS DECREASE RESILIENCY OF www.indiandentalacademy.com THE WIRE DIFFICULTY IN CLOSING LOOPS
  12. 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. EVOLUTION OF THE BRACKET LEWIS’ BRACKET SINGLE WIDTH BRACKETS WITH AUX UPSWEPT ROTATION WINGS FOR ROTATIONAL CONTROL MISCELLANEOUS LANG’S BRACKET VERTICAL SLOTS BROUSSARD’S BRACKET TIP EDGE BRACKET SELF LIGATING BRACKET CONVERTIBLE BRACKETS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Straight wired! www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. BUILDING TREATMENT INTO EDGEWISE BRACKETS  ANGLE (1929)  ANGULATED BRACKETS TO PRODUCE TIPPING ANGULATED POSTERIOR BRACKETS FOR ROOT MOVEMENTS   TWEED (1941)  “ARTISTIC POSITIONING BENDS” IN WIRES FOR CORRECT AXIAL RELATIONSHIPS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. BUILDING TREATMENT INTO EDGEWISE BRACKETS   HOLDAWAY (1952) PUBLISHED A LANDMARK ARTICLE IN 1952 DESCRIBED 3 USES OF BRACKET ANGULATION AIDS IN PARALLELING ROOTS ADJACENT TO EXTRACTION SITES  METHOD OF SETTING UP POSTERIOR ANCHORAGE  TO OBTAIN CORRECT AXIAL INLINATIONS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. HOLDAWAY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. BUILDING TREATMENT INTO EDGEWISE BRACKETS  JOHN STIFTER (1958) BRACKETS WITH MALE AND FEMALE ATTACHMENT  IVAN LEE(1960) BRACKETS OF UPPER ANTERIORS AND LOWER POSTERIORS HAD TORQUED SLOTS  JARABACK (1962) SUGGESTED THAT UPPER ANTERIORS BE TORQUED AND www.indiandentalacademy.com ANGULATED
  20. 20. BUILDING TREATMENT INTO EDGEWISE BRACKETS    IN 1960’S MANUFACTURERSRAISED THE BASE OF UPPER LATERAL INCISORS TO ELIMINATE LATERAL OFFSET MOLAR TUBES WITH 10* OFFSET AND TORQUE FOR ROTATIONAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. MANUFACTURER’S www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. BUILDING TREATMENT INTO EDGEWISE BRACKETS LAWRENCE F. ANDREWS’ STRAIGHT WIRE APPLIANCE (1976) 2 PRESCRIPTIONS  STANDARD (NON EXTRACTION)  TRANSLATION (EXTRACTION)  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. CONCEPT OF THE PEA APPLIANCE      THE CONCEPT OF THE PEA APPLIANCE EVOLVED FROM A SERIES OF 5 STUDIES CONDUCTED BY L.F. ANDREWS. EXAMINATION OF POST TREATMENT OCCLUSION STUDY OF NATURALLY OCCURING OPTIMAL OCCLUSION THE SIX KEYS TO OPTIMAL OCCLUSION CROWN MEASUREMENTS COMPARISON OF TREATED AND NATURAL OCCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. EXAMINATION OF POST TREATMENT OCCLUSION  The first experiment was conducted in 1960  Study models of hundreds of treated cases submitted to the ABO, E. H. Angle Soc and Tweed Foundation considered to be the state of the art in static occlusion in the US. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. EXAMINATION OF POST TREATMENT OCCLUSION     All models showed some common trendsMolars were in Class I relationship Incisors were not rotated No overjet/ crossbite But there were several inconsistencies like Articulation?  Long axes of teeth adjacent to extraction sites  Inclinations and angulations varied  2nd molar not included  Interdental spacing due to incomplete treatment  Rotation of teeth requiring translation  No mounting to check functional occlusion  Co-Cr coordination www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.        STUDY OF NATURALLY OCCURING OPTIMAL OCCLUSION 2 experiment, 1964, Help of nd A.G.Brodie (Univ of Illinois) With the presumption that naturally occuring optimal occlusion is worth emulating. 120 casts of patients with following featuresNever had undergone orthodontic treatment Well aligned teeth, pleasing appearance Excellent occlusion Would not benefit from orthodontic treatment The facial axis and mid point of clinical crown of each tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com was marked
  28. 28. THE SIX KEYS TO OPTIMAL OCCLUSION      The third and most important experiment in the development of the preadjusted appliance The 6 keys individually were not new but put together were of special value asComplete set of indicators of optim al occlusion. Judged by tangible landmarks Judged from facial/ occlusal view www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. TERMINOLOGY  Andrews  Clinical Plane Crown www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. TERMINOLOGY  Crown Angulation  Crown Inclination  FACC  FA Point  Class  Type www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Six Keys  Key 1 Molar Interarach relationship  Mesiobuccal cusp of the permanent maxillary molar occludes in the buccal groove of the perm mand molar Distal marginal ridge of the upper 1st molar occludes with the mesial marginal ridge of the lower 2nd molar Mesiopalatal cusp of the upper 1st molar occludes in the central fossa of the lower ist molar Buccal cusps of upper premolars in the embrasures of the lower premolars Palatal cusps of upper premolars in a cuspfossa relationship with lower pms Upper canines in cusp embrasure with lower canines Upper anteriors overlap the lower anteriors       www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Six Keys  Key 2 Crown Angulations      Essentially all crowns have positive angulation Gingival potion of FACC distal to occlusal portion All crowns of tooth type have similar angulations Tip pattern is consistent for all individuals Important esp anteriorly www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Six Keys  Key 3Crown Inclination         Maxillary incisors have positive inclination Mandibular incisors have slight negative inclination Interincisal angle<180* Max incisor +ve inclination > mand incisor –ve incl Upper Central> Lateral Upper 345 –ve Upper 67 more –ve Mand= progresively -ve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Six Keys  Key 4Absence of rotations Key 5Tight contacts Key 6slight to flat curve of spee www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. CROWN MEASUREMENTS  4th study involved the measurement of crowns in the sample for- • Bracket area of tooth type Vertical crown contour Crown angulation Crown inclination Maxillary molar offset Horizontal crown contour Facial prominence Depth of Curve of Spee • • • • • • • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. CROWN MEASUREMENTS Upper Angulation Inclination Prominence Molar Offset Lower Angulation Inclination Prominence Curve of Spee 1 5 7 2.1 2 9 3 1.65 3 11 -7 2.5 1 2 -1 1.2 2 2 -1 1.2 3 5 -11 1.9 www.indiandentalacademy.com 4,5 2 -7 2.4 6 5 -9 2.9 10* 4,5 6 2 2 -17,-22 -30 2.35 2.5 0-2.5
  38. 38. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. COMPARISON OF TREATED AND NATURAL OCCLUSION  The 5th study compared 1150 treated cases with the measurements and the six keys.  KEY 1- Most cases showed Angle’s Class I molar relationship.   However, The distal marg ridge of upper 6 x mmr of lower 7 Pm’s and canines didn’t show a cusp- embrasure relationship www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. COMPARISON OF TREATED AND NATURAL OCCLUSION  KEY 2- Values= +/- 2 was considered incorrect 91% of cases had 1 or more teeth with incorrect angulation Upper laterals and canines showed –ve ang Upper 6 ranged from -ve in non ext to +ve in ext cases  KEY 3- Values +/- 2 was considered incorrect Interincisal angle on FACC > 180* in 78% cases Upper 456 not always -ve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. COMPARISON OF TREATED AND NATURAL OCCLUSION  KEY 4- Rotational errors were measured using angle between contact points and arch form. Values= +/- 2 was considered incorrect 67% of cases had rotations esp. teeth that were translated  KEY 5- 47% showed spacing due to incorrect angulation  KEY 656% showed excessive curve of spee www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. CONCLUSIONS  FEW TREATED CASES FOLLOWED THE 6 KEYS  INTER ORTHODONTIST TREATMENT PRIORITIED VARIED  NO CHANGE IN 10 YEARS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. PRINCIPLES      ALL TEETH OF SAME TYPE WERE SIMILAR IN SIZE AND SHAPE SIZE OF CROWN HAS NO EFFECT ON ANGULATION, INCLINATION OR PROMINENCE MOST PEOPLE HAVE NORMAL TEETH REGARDLESS OF OCCLUSION JAWS MUST BE CORRECTLY RELATED FOR OPTIMAL OCCLUSION DENTITIONS WITH NORMAL TEETH IN JAWS THAR ARE/ CAN BE CORRECTLY RELATED CAN BE BROUGHT TO OPTIMAL OCCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 1. BRACKET BASES PERPENDICULAR TO THE STEM  PROBLEMS IN SLOT INCLINATION PROBLEMS IN OCCLUSO-GINGIVAL POSITION  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 2. BRACKETS NOT CONTOURED OCCLUSOGINGIVALLY   PROBLEMS IN SLOT INCLINATION PROBLEMS IN OCCLUSO-GINGIVAL POSITION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 3. BRACKETS NOT CONTOURED MESIO DISTALLY  PROBLEMS IN SLOT SITING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 4. SLOTS NOT ANGULATED    EACH CROWN HAS ANGULATION. WHEN A FULL SIZE WIRE IS INSERTED RESULTANT ANGULATION INCORRECT. IF BRACKET ANGULATED ONLY 2 POINT CONTACT. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 5. 6.  BRACKETS STEMS OF EQUAL PROMINENCE MAXILLARY MOLAR OFFSET NOT BUILT IN IST ORDER BENDS REQUIRED. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. 7.       SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE ANGULAGTION LANDMARKS DIFFERED LONG AXIS OF CROWN – NOT VISIBLE LONG AXIS OF TOOTHNOT VISIBLE INCISAL EDGETOO FAR AWAY, MAY BE CHIPPED LATERAL CURVED CUSP TIPS? MARGINAL RIDGES – TOO FAR AWAY CONTACT POINTS– NOT VISIBLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 8. INCLINATION   LANDMARKS DIFFERED LONG AXIS OF CROWN –NOT VISIBLE BRACKET HEIGHT FRON CUSP TIP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE 8. EXCESSIVE WIRE BENDING REQUIRED     TO INITIATE/ MAINTAIN TOOTH MOVEMENT TO COMPENSATE FOR SLOT SITING ERRORS TO COMPENSATE FOR ERRORS IN WIRE BENDING TO COMPENSATE FOR SIDE EFFECTS OFWIRE BENDING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.    SHORTCOMINGS OF THE STANDARD EDGEWISE APPLIANCE PRIMARY BENDS 1ST ORDER -46 BENDS 2ND ORDER3RD ORDERERRORS- 30 BENDS SECONDARY BENDS FOR ERRORS IN SLOT SITING WIRE BENDING JUDGEMENT TERTIARY BENDS LOOPS, STOPS ETC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. DESIGN FEATURES OF THE NEW APPLIANCE  SLOT SITING FEATURES  CONVENIENCE  AUXILLIARY FEATURES FEATURES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. SLOT SITING FEATURES  MID TRANSVERSE PLANE THE MID TRANSVERSE PLANE OF THE SLOT, STEM AND CROWN MUST COINCIDE  BASE SHOULD HAVE SAME INCLINATION AS THE FACIAL PLANE  BASE CONTOURED OCCLUSO GINGIVALLY TO MATCH CROWN CURVATURE THESE FEATURES ELIMINATEDX 2ND ORDER BENDS FOR OCC-GIN DISHARMONY X 3RD ORDER BENDS FOR INCLINATION X OTHER BENDS FOR SIDE EFFECTS  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. SLOT SITING FEATURES  MID SAGGITAL PLANE  THE MID SAGGITAL PLANE OF THE SLOT, STEM AND CROWN MUST COINCIDE  THE PLANE OF BASE AT BASE POINT SHOULD BE IDENTICAL TO FACIAL PLANE AT FA POINT  BASE CONTOURED MESIODISTALLY TO FIT EACH TOOTH  VERTCAL COMPONENTS PARALLELTO EACH OTHER THESE FEATURES ELIMINATEDX 1ST ORDER BENDS FOR MOLAR OFFSETS AND M-D SLOT SITING X 2ND ORDER BENDS FOR OCC-GIN DISHARMONY AND ANGULATION X SECONDARY BENDS FOR SIDE EFFECTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. SLOT SITING FEATURES MID FRONTAL PLANE  THE MID FRONTAL PLANE OF EACH SLOT MUST SUPERIMPOSE ON IT’S CROWN’S PROMINENCE PLANE  ALL SLOTS SHOULD HAVE SAME DISTANCE FROM EMBRASURE LINE THESE FEATURES ELIMINATEDX 1ST ORDER BENDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. CONVENIENCE FEATURES o GINGIVAL TIE WINGS LATERAL TO SEA  NO GINGIVAL IMPINGEMENT EASY LIGATION  o STEMS OF LOWER 456 GINGIVAL • NO OCCLUSAL INTERFERENCES o FACIAL SURFACES OF UPPER 123 PARALLEL TO BASES IN TURN PARALLEL TO CROWN FACE o LIP COMFORT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. AUXILLIARY FEATURES  COUNTER BUCCOLINGUAL TIP IN UPPER 6’S  COUNTER MESIODISTAL TIP  COUNTER ROTATION  TRANSLATION BRACKETS  MAX TRANSLATION BRACKETS  MEDIUM TRANSLATION BRACKETS  MIN TRANSLATION BRACKETS  POWER ARM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. STAGES OF TREATMENT  ANCHORAGE CONTROL  LEVELLING AND ALIGNING  OVERBITE/ OVERJET CONTTROL  SPACE CLOSURE  FINISHING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. ANCHORAGE CONTROL  WITH THE INCREASE IN THE TIP THERE IS A GREATER TENDENCY OF THE ANTERIORS TO PROCLINE  UPPER>LOWER SOLUTIONS  OMEGA LOOP STOPS  MOLAR TIE BACKS  TPA, LINGUAL ARCH, HG  CLASSIII ELASTICS  ARCH WIRE BENT DISTALLY BEHIND MOLAR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. LEVELLING AND ALIGNING  TWO PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PEA  ROLLER COASTER EFFECT  NEED FOR OVERCOMPENSATI ON www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. OVERBITE CONTROL  A. B. DEEP BITE DUE TO CANINE TIP WHEN CANINES WERE UPRIGHT / DISTALLY TIPPED ROLLER COASTER EFFECT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. SPACE CLOSURE  MOST SIGNIFICANT  SLIDING POSSIBLE BECAUSE OF THE STRAIGHT WIRE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. FINISHING       FINISHING REQUIRED MINIMAL WIRE BENDING TO COMPENSATE FOR VARIATIONS IN TOOTH SHAPE, SIZE, ERRANEOUS BRACKET POSITIONING OR OVERCORRECTION TIP CONTROL- ADJUSTMENT MAY BE NEEDED TORQUE CONTROL-NEEDED IN UPPER AND LOWER INCISORS. LOWER MOLARS -VE TORQUE, UPPER MOLARS+VE ROOT TORQUE ARCH WIDTH ADJUSTMENTS ROTATIONAL CONTROL www.indiandentalacademy.com CURVE OF SPEE CORRECTION
  69. 69. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. ORIGINAL PRESCRIPTION M A X M A N TIP TORQUE OFFSET TIP TORQUE OFFSET CENTRAL 5 7 2 -1 LATERAL 9 3 2 -1 CUSPID 11 -7 5 -11 1ST PM 2 -7 2 -17 2ND PM 2 -7 2 -22 1ST MOLAR 5 -9 10 2 -30 0 2ND MOLAR 5 -9 10 2 -33 0 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. MAXILLARY STANDARD TOOTH TIP TORQUE CLASS I TORQUE CLASS II TORQUE CLASS III CENTRAL 5 7 2 12 LATERAL 5 3 -2 8 CUSPID 11 -7 -7 -7 1ST PM 2 -7 -7 -7 2ND PM 2 -7 -7 -7 1ST MOLAR 5 CLASS I 0 CLASS II -9 2ND MOLAR 5 CLASS I -9 0 CLASS II www.indiandentalacademy.com -9 -9
  72. 72. MANDIBULAR STANDARD TOOTH TIP TORQUE CLASS I TORQUE CLASS II TORQUE CLASS III CENTRAL 2 -1 4 -6 LATERAL 2 -1 4 -6 CUSPID 5 -11 -11 -11 1ST PM 2 -17 -17 -17 2ND PM 2 -22 -22 -22 1ST MOLAR 2 -30 -30 -30 2ND MOLAR 2 -35 -35 -35 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. MAXILLARY TRANSLATION TOOTH A N G R O MIN MED 3 13 14 15 2 4 6 -7 -7 -7 4 6 5 4 2 4 6 -7 -7 -7 5 0 -1 -2 2 4 6 -7 -7 -7 6 3 2 1 12 14 16 -13 -14 -15 7 3 2 1 12 14 16 -13 -14 -15 MAX MIN MED T I N MAX MIN MED www.indiandentalacademy.com C MAX
  74. 74. MANDIBULAR TRANSLATION TOOTH A N G R O MIN MED 3 7 8 9 2 4 6 -11 -11 -11 4 4 5 6 2 4 6 -17 -17 -17 5 0 -1 -2 2 4 6 -22 -22 -22 6 0 -1 -2 2 4 6 -30 -14 -15 7 0 -1 -2 2 4 6 -35 -14 -15 MAX MIN MED T I N MAX MIN MED www.indiandentalacademy.com C MAX
  75. 75. Thank You www.indiandentalacademy.com

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