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The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Presentation Transcript

  • The Cranial Vault Pre-natal and Post-natal Development INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Introduction Four regions of the Craniofacial complex:The o The o The o The o Cranial Vault Cranial Base Naso-maxillary complex Mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Introduction Further – Pre - natal and Post - natal growth Attention to:i. Site and location of growth ii. Type of growth occurring. iii. Determinant or controlling factors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Anatomy – in Brief Synonyms:Calvaria not calvarium Cranial vault Desmocranium Calva www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Anatomy – in Brief Norma Norma Norma Norma Norma Verticalis – Above Basalis – Below Lateralis – Side Occipitalis – Back Frontalis - Front www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Anatomy – in Brief Span – Superciliary ridges & glabella or frontal bone Squamous occipital bone Part of Squamous temporal bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Anatomy – in Brief When viewed from above:a. Ellipsoidal (roughly) b. Bones – Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Greater wing of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • c. Anatomy – in Brief Sutures Frontal (metopic) Coronal Sagittal Lambdoid Parietal with Sphenoid Parietal with Temporal Bregma Lambda www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Anatomy – in Brief SCALP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Derivative of Mesenchyme and Mesoderm Capsular membraneEndomeninx – Neural crest origin Ectomeninx – Neural crest and paraxial mesoderm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Ectomeninx Duramater Superficial membrane Vault www.indiandentalacademy.com Base
  • Pre-Natal Growth Endomeninx Piamater Arachanoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Close relation between ectomeninx and endomeninx except in areas of venous sinuses. Fibres of Falx cerebri, Falx cerebelli and Tentorium cerebelli. Shape of brain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Site site of future bones Ossification Intra membranous Controlling factor Brain growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Ectomeninx: Mesoderm – Frontal, Parietal, sphenoid, petrous temporal & occipital. Neural crest – Lacrimal, nasal, squamous temporal, zygomatic, maxilla & mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Frontal Bone Primary centre Super ciliary arch Secondary centers zygomatic process, nasal spine, trochlear fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Parietal bone Region of Parietal eminence Occipital bone (Squamous part) Just above superior nuchal line Temporal bone (Squamous part) Root of zygoma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Tympanic ring of temporal bone 4 centers in lateral wall of tympanum Formation of Sutural/Incal bones Unusual centers of ossification www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth Ossification centers appear around 8th week IU. Fontanelles Close at various times- 2 months to 2 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Pre-Natal Growth -Control 3 questions posed by Van Limborgh:Relationship between skull and primordia of other organs? Co-ordination of endochondral and intramembranous ossification? Co-ordination of growth of skull and other organs? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth -Control Intrinsic genetic factors Epigenetic factors Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Cranial differentiation General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Pre-Natal Growth -Control Shift of belief:Genetic influence Examples- Primordia of eye. - Brain. www.indiandentalacademy.com Epigenetics
  • Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Cranial differentiation General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Related to Growth of the Brain Maximum growth upto the 5th year of life – (91% as shown by Davenport) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Various Theories of Growth, and how they relate to the cranial vault. Sicher’s Sutural dominance theory Scott’s Cartilaginous theory Moss’ FMH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Intrinsic Genetic control Growth Sicher’s Theory Local epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Scott’s theoryInherent growth potential of Cartilages Sutures respond secondarily www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Intrinsic Genetic control Chondrocranial Growth Local epigenetic factors General epigenetic factors Desmo- Sutures cranial Periosteal Growth growth Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Moss’ FMH Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Ultimate Result www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Sicher – Intrinsic control Hydrocephalus, anencephaly, microcephaly Scott – Cartilage not responsive to pressure or tension, but intra membranous bone is. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Post-Natal Growth Synchondrosis Sutures Sarnat, Burdi, Baume, Petrovic etc. Also explains why growth of cranial base is less influenced by brain growth than growth of Cranial vault - Van Limborgh www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Moss’ explanation for brain growth controlling growth of the cranium… Hydrocephalus, synostosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth V A U L T Brain B A S E www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Cranial base www.indiandentalacademy.com Normal
  • Post-Natal Growth Van Limborgh's Summarization:1. Intrinsic control of growth at synchondroses 2. Intrinsic control of sutural growth is less 3. Synchondroses Growth centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth 4. Sutural growth controlled in part by growth of cranial base 5. Periosteal bone growth (vault) controlled epigenetically by adjacent structures 6. Growth of cranial vault also controlled by local environmental factors (muscle forces inclusive) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Intrinsic Genetic control Chondrocranial Growth Local epigenetic factors General epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Growth of the cranial vault – direct influence of Neurocranial capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Post-Natal Growth Also – Periosteal growth – increase in thickness - Growth of Diploë www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Thickening not uniform:Inner table Brain Outer table mechanical influences and functional stresses (Benninghoff) Growth of the frontal sinus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Post-Natal Growth Periosteal bone formation Change of shape of the bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Distortion of head during birth – Fontanelles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Development of the outer superstructure of the skull – especially at mastoid, temporal and nuchal lines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Synostosis syndromes Courzon’s syndrome Apert’s syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Other conditions – Hydrocephalus, Anencephaly, Microcephaly www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Various conditions – cretinism, progeria, trisomy 21, cleidocranial dysostosis, Anterior fontanelles remain open Bossing of forehead Brachycephalic skull www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Clinical Implications Herniation of dura mater into the nose Dura remains in contact with the ectoderm in the region of the anterior neuropore. Ventral bending of the fronto-nasal process brings this junction close to the future nose. Nasal capsule forms around this, and the junction sinks forming the foramen caecum www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Clinical Implications The dura then separates from the ectoderm, and foramen caecum closes. If this foramen fails to close, dura can herniate in to the nose. Also formation of dermoid cysts, sinus or encephalocele. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Clinical Implications Abnormal external forces applied to the cranial vault, as by headboards, by primitive tribes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • References Orthodontics – Principles and practice T.M. Graber Contemporary Orthodontics W.Proffit Craniofacial embryology G.Sperber Essentials of Facial growth D. Enlow Gray’s Anatomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com