The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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The cranial vault 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. The Cranial Vault Pre-natal and Post-natal Development INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Introduction Four regions of the Craniofacial complex:The o The o The o The o Cranial Vault Cranial Base Naso-maxillary complex Mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Introduction Further – Pre - natal and Post - natal growth Attention to:i. Site and location of growth ii. Type of growth occurring. iii. Determinant or controlling factors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Anatomy – in Brief Synonyms:Calvaria not calvarium Cranial vault Desmocranium Calva www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Anatomy – in Brief Norma Norma Norma Norma Norma Verticalis – Above Basalis – Below Lateralis – Side Occipitalis – Back Frontalis - Front www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Anatomy – in Brief Span – Superciliary ridges & glabella or frontal bone Squamous occipital bone Part of Squamous temporal bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Anatomy – in Brief When viewed from above:a. Ellipsoidal (roughly) b. Bones – Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Greater wing of sphenoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. c. Anatomy – in Brief Sutures Frontal (metopic) Coronal Sagittal Lambdoid Parietal with Sphenoid Parietal with Temporal Bregma Lambda www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Anatomy – in Brief SCALP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Pre-Natal Growth Derivative of Mesenchyme and Mesoderm Capsular membraneEndomeninx – Neural crest origin Ectomeninx – Neural crest and paraxial mesoderm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Pre-Natal Growth Ectomeninx Duramater Superficial membrane Vault www.indiandentalacademy.com Base
  13. 13. Pre-Natal Growth Endomeninx Piamater Arachanoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Pre-Natal Growth Close relation between ectomeninx and endomeninx except in areas of venous sinuses. Fibres of Falx cerebri, Falx cerebelli and Tentorium cerebelli. Shape of brain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Pre-Natal Growth Site site of future bones Ossification Intra membranous Controlling factor Brain growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Pre-Natal Growth Ectomeninx: Mesoderm – Frontal, Parietal, sphenoid, petrous temporal & occipital. Neural crest – Lacrimal, nasal, squamous temporal, zygomatic, maxilla & mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Pre-Natal Growth Frontal Bone Primary centre Super ciliary arch Secondary centers zygomatic process, nasal spine, trochlear fossa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Pre-Natal Growth Parietal bone Region of Parietal eminence Occipital bone (Squamous part) Just above superior nuchal line Temporal bone (Squamous part) Root of zygoma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Pre-Natal Growth Tympanic ring of temporal bone 4 centers in lateral wall of tympanum Formation of Sutural/Incal bones Unusual centers of ossification www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Pre-Natal Growth Ossification centers appear around 8th week IU. Fontanelles Close at various times- 2 months to 2 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Pre-Natal Growth -Control 3 questions posed by Van Limborgh:Relationship between skull and primordia of other organs? Co-ordination of endochondral and intramembranous ossification? Co-ordination of growth of skull and other organs? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Pre-Natal Growth -Control Intrinsic genetic factors Epigenetic factors Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Cranial differentiation General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Pre-Natal Growth -Control Shift of belief:Genetic influence Examples- Primordia of eye. - Brain. www.indiandentalacademy.com Epigenetics
  26. 26. Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Cranial differentiation General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Post-Natal Growth Related to Growth of the Brain Maximum growth upto the 5th year of life – (91% as shown by Davenport) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Post-Natal Growth Various Theories of Growth, and how they relate to the cranial vault. Sicher’s Sutural dominance theory Scott’s Cartilaginous theory Moss’ FMH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Post-Natal Intrinsic Genetic control Growth Sicher’s Theory Local epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Post-Natal Growth Scott’s theoryInherent growth potential of Cartilages Sutures respond secondarily www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Post-Natal Growth Intrinsic Genetic control Chondrocranial Growth Local epigenetic factors General epigenetic factors Desmo- Sutures cranial Periosteal Growth growth Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Post-Natal Growth Moss’ FMH Intrinsic Genetic control Local epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth General epigenetic factors Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Post-Natal Growth Ultimate Result www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Post-Natal Growth Sicher – Intrinsic control Hydrocephalus, anencephaly, microcephaly Scott – Cartilage not responsive to pressure or tension, but intra membranous bone is. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Post-Natal Growth Synchondrosis Sutures Sarnat, Burdi, Baume, Petrovic etc. Also explains why growth of cranial base is less influenced by brain growth than growth of Cranial vault - Van Limborgh www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Post-Natal Growth Moss’ explanation for brain growth controlling growth of the cranium… Hydrocephalus, synostosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Post-Natal Growth V A U L T Brain B A S E www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Post-Natal Growth Cranial base www.indiandentalacademy.com Normal
  40. 40. Post-Natal Growth Van Limborgh's Summarization:1. Intrinsic control of growth at synchondroses 2. Intrinsic control of sutural growth is less 3. Synchondroses Growth centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Post-Natal Growth 4. Sutural growth controlled in part by growth of cranial base 5. Periosteal bone growth (vault) controlled epigenetically by adjacent structures 6. Growth of cranial vault also controlled by local environmental factors (muscle forces inclusive) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Intrinsic Genetic control Chondrocranial Growth Local epigenetic factors General epigenetic factors Desmocranial Growth Local Environmental factors General Environmental factors www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Post-Natal Growth Growth of the cranial vault – direct influence of Neurocranial capsule www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Post-Natal Growth Also – Periosteal growth – increase in thickness - Growth of Diploë www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Post-Natal Growth Thickening not uniform:Inner table Brain Outer table mechanical influences and functional stresses (Benninghoff) Growth of the frontal sinus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Post-Natal Growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Post-Natal Growth Periosteal bone formation Change of shape of the bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Clinical Implications Distortion of head during birth – Fontanelles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Clinical Implications Development of the outer superstructure of the skull – especially at mastoid, temporal and nuchal lines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Clinical Implications Synostosis syndromes Courzon’s syndrome Apert’s syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Clinical Implications Other conditions – Hydrocephalus, Anencephaly, Microcephaly www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Clinical Implications Various conditions – cretinism, progeria, trisomy 21, cleidocranial dysostosis, Anterior fontanelles remain open Bossing of forehead Brachycephalic skull www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Clinical Implications Herniation of dura mater into the nose Dura remains in contact with the ectoderm in the region of the anterior neuropore. Ventral bending of the fronto-nasal process brings this junction close to the future nose. Nasal capsule forms around this, and the junction sinks forming the foramen caecum www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Clinical Implications The dura then separates from the ectoderm, and foramen caecum closes. If this foramen fails to close, dura can herniate in to the nose. Also formation of dermoid cysts, sinus or encephalocele. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Clinical Implications Abnormal external forces applied to the cranial vault, as by headboards, by primitive tribes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. References Orthodontics – Principles and practice T.M. Graber Contemporary Orthodontics W.Proffit Craniofacial embryology G.Sperber Essentials of Facial growth D. Enlow Gray’s Anatomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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