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Symposium oral micro flora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Symposium oral micro flora /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call

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  • 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Oral cavity is situated at the beginning of the gastrointestinal tract. Because the mouth is warm and moist and has a regular supply of fresh food ,it makes an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms. The oral cavity contains several hundred different bacteria, fungi and protozoans, in time , an ecological balance is reached these organisms throughout life. that remains www.indiandentalacademy.com fairly amoung stable
  • 4. The ecological condition with in the mouth will vary during the change from the primary to the permanent dentition, following extraction of teeth, the insertion treatment, of prosthesis, and any dental including scaling polishing and filling. Transient fluctuations in the stability of the oral ecosystem may be induced by the frequency and type of food ingested, variation in the salivary flow and periods of antibiotic therapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. The complexity of the oral flora of the adult is perhaps its chief characteristics this is due to the following reasons. Dental plaque Chronic periodontal disease Caries lesion Unsatisfactory restoration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. As teeth are lost so the number of available sites for microbial bacteria colonization decreases decreases disproportionately. ,number of Edentulous patients harbor few spirochetes and bacteriods but their carriage for yeast increases. Yeast is normally found on the dorsum of the tongue and upper buccal sulcus. Denture provides a protected environment in which yeast can multiply, covering the soft palate and the acrylic denture surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. IMPRESSION PROCEDURES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. According to the studies conducted to asses the carriage and persistence of oral flora on irreversible hydrocolloide and elastomeric impression material, it was documented that, Retention of bacteria on the irreversible hydrocolloide was two to five fold more than elastomeric impression surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. The number of viable cocci ,rods and spirocheates retained, within five hours decreased 65% to 98%. lactobacilli streptococci www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. In case of disinfected irreversible hydrocolloid the organisms were totally destroyed in less than three minutes. It is concluded that the total bacterial load of impression surface is relatively low and decreases rapidly after impression making. How ever disinfection of the impression surface is mandatory to prevent cross-infection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. Based on the studies conducted to identify and enumerate viable bacteria in unopened containers of irreversible hydrocolloide impression materials and gingival retraction cords. It was found that contamination frequency of irreversible hydro colloids was found to be 50% which was significantly higher than retraction cord which was found to be contaminated in 5%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. The organisms which were isolated were mainly bacillus species 70%, gram positive cocci staphylococci 30%, streptococci10%, mould10%. Most organisms isolated were commonly environmental contaminants which during routine use, may present a hazard to immuno-compromised patients . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. In a study to asses subgingival/marginal micro the flora changes in during the fixed prosthodontic procedures and the effect of adjunctive rinsing with 0.12% chlorhexidine. Subgingival and marginal plaque were analyzed at baseline, before crown preparation (2 weeks), before crown cementation (5 weeks), and 2 weeks after cementation (7 weeks). The fixed prosthodontic procedures did not alter the normal subgingival and marginal micro biota . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. Adjunctive rinsing twice daily with 0.12% chlorhexidine had a significantly greater effect in reducing putative periodontal pathogens compared with the control regimen.  This medication was a useful adjunct to regular oral hygiene during fixed prosthodontic procedures by permitting the establishment and maintenance of a microflora compatible with periodontal health. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. TOOTH PREPARATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. oThe quality of dental unit water is of considerable patients importance and regularly dental exposed to since personal water are and aerosols generated from the dental unit. oDental water may be ingested in the form of aerosols or directly contaminated surgical wounds . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. oDental aerosol ,irrigants and coolant water entering the patients mouth during dental procedure often contain large number of organisms in the range of 104 to 108 colony forming units . oThe organisms found in the dental unit water are fungi, free living amoeba, protozoa, nematods ,saprophytes, opportunistic gram negative pathogens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. oOf concern is the respiratory pathogens that cause pneumonia, a mild flu like respiratory infections . oMycobacterium species can cause disseminated infections in HIV seropositive patients following ingestion and colonization in the gut. oHigh number of non tuberculosis mycobacterium may have a potential for colonization , infection or immunization. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. oAbnormal nasal flora in dental personal has been linked to water system contamination. As a result of inhalation of aerosols generated by the dental equipments on a daily and long term basis. oClinical dental team experience an increase incidence of respiratory infection than the general population. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. CHANGE IN THE BACERIAL FLORA IN SUBGINGIVAL RESTORATION DUE TO VARIOUS RESTORATIVE MATERIAL  The relationship between subgingival dental restorations and periodontal health was investigated for three different restorative material namely amalgam, GIC, and composite.  No significant changes in the composition of the subgingival microflora were observed in amalgam, glass ionomer cement, and control groups. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. Conversely, in the composite resin group, there was a significant increase in the total bacterial counts, and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in Grampositive, aerobic bacteria, which was associated with a significant (p<0.05) increase in the Gram-negative, anaerobic microbiota. Which indicates that composite resin restorations may have some negative effects on the quantity and quality of subgingival plaque. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. CONCLUSION The oral cavity is one of the sites of the body which contains a vast variety of microorganisms. The organisms present at any one time exist in balance with one another, and any change in this balance may result in disease. Care should be taken not to disturb the ecological balance of these microorganism during the various clinical procedures. ‘AN OUNCE OF PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN A POUND OF CURE’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. REFERENCES 1. Oral Microbiology 4 th edition Philip Marsh, Michael V Martin. 2. Carriage of oral flora on irreversible hydrocollid and elastomeric impression materialLakshman P, Samaranayake, Meena Hunjan & kelvin j jennings. JPD 1991;65:244-9 3. Bacterial contamination in irreversible hydrocollid impression material and gingival retraction cordChristopher D Rice, Mark A, Dykstra and Ronald E Gier JPD 1991; 65:496-9. 4. Microbial contamination in four brands of irreversible hydrocollid impression material-Christopher D Rice, Mark A, www.indiandentalacademy.com Dykstra and Ronald E Gier. JPD 1991; 65:419-23.
  • 26. 5. Clinical and microbiological effects of different restorative materials on the periodontal tissues adjacent to subgingival class V D'ercole, restorations- Michele Giuseppe Perinetti. Paolantonio, Journal Of Simonetta Clinical Periodontology 2004; 31(3): 200. 6. Gingival enhancement in fixed prosthodontics. Part II: Microbiologic findings. Flemmig TF; Sorensen JA; Newman MG; Nachnani S, JPD 1991 Mar, 65(3):365-72. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. 7. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines : the scientific argument .Caroline L and Johnson International dental journal 1998;48:35968 8. Antibictorial property of one convention and three high coper and dental amalgams JPD 1984;52:199-203. 9. The gingival response to well finished composite resin restoration JPD 1978;42:626-32. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • 32. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. HUMAN ORAL FLORA Gram-positive facultative cocci Gram-negative facultative rods Staphylococcus epidermidis Staph. aureus Streptococcus mutans Strep. sanguis Strep. Mitis Strep. Salivarius Strep. Faecalis Beta-hemolytic streptococci Enterobacteriaceae Hemophilus influenzae Eikenella corrodens Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. Gram-positive anaerobic cocci Gram-positive anaerobic rods Peptostreptococcus sp Actinomyces israelii A. odonotolyticus A. Viscosus Lactobacillus Gram- negitive anaerobic cocci Gram-negative aerobic or facultative cocci Diphtheroids Corynebacterium Eubacterium Neisseria sicca N. Flavescens www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. Gram-negative anaerobic cocci Gram-negative anerobic rods Veillonella alcaescens Bacteroides asaccharolyticus V. parvula B. Gingivalis B. Fragilis Fusobacterium periodonticum F.nucleatum www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. Spirochetes Yeasts Treponema denticola T. Microdentium Candida albicans Geotrichum sp. Protozoa Mycoplasma Entamoeba gingivalis Tirchomonas tenax Mycoplasma orale M. pneumoniae www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. BACTERIA IN GINGIVITIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. BACTERIA IN CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com