Surveyor and surveying / dentistry dental implants

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  • 1. SURVEYORS ANDSURVEYORS AND SURVEYING.SURVEYING. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. • Until 1950s most RPD were designed andUntil 1950s most RPD were designed and constructed by time honored method of “eyeconstructed by time honored method of “eye balling”.A prosthesis made on the basis ofballing”.A prosthesis made on the basis of educated guesses.educated guesses. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. • The turning point in the partial dentureThe turning point in the partial denture construction from guess work based onconstruction from guess work based on clinical experience to scientifically basedclinical experience to scientifically based procedure was the appearance of dentalprocedure was the appearance of dental surveyors in 1918.surveyors in 1918. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. • A dental surveyor has been designed asA dental surveyor has been designed as an instrument used to determine thean instrument used to determine the relative parallelism of two or morerelative parallelism of two or more surfaces of the teeth or other parts of thesurfaces of the teeth or other parts of the arch.arch. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. • Dr.A.J.Fortunati is thought to be first personDr.A.J.Fortunati is thought to be first person to employ a mechanical device to determineto employ a mechanical device to determine the relative parallelism of tooth surfaces.the relative parallelism of tooth surfaces. • Boston in 1918 he demonstrated a methodBoston in 1918 he demonstrated a method for charting correct clasp placement byfor charting correct clasp placement by using a parallelometer.using a parallelometer. • First such instrument to be producedFirst such instrument to be produced commercially was NEYS instrument.Nextcommercially was NEYS instrument.Next came the WILLS surveyor.came the WILLS surveyor. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. • Basically two types of surveying methodsBasically two types of surveying methods are available.are available. • Surveying by using parallelometer.Surveying by using parallelometer. • Optical surveying by using light beams.Optical surveying by using light beams. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. TERMINOLOGY:-TERMINOLOGY:- SURVEY:-the procedure of locating and delineatingSURVEY:-the procedure of locating and delineating the contour and position of the abutment teeth andthe contour and position of the abutment teeth and associated structures before designing a removableassociated structures before designing a removable partial denture.partial denture. SURVEYING:-An analysis and comparison of theSURVEYING:-An analysis and comparison of the prominence of intraoral contours associated with theprominence of intraoral contours associated with the fabrication of prosthesis.fabrication of prosthesis.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. • Survey line:-a lineSurvey line:-a line produced on a cast byproduced on a cast by surveyor by markingsurveyor by marking at the greatestat the greatest prominence ofprominence of contour in relation tocontour in relation to the planned path ofthe planned path of insertion.insertion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. • SURVEYOR:-A paralleling instrument usedSURVEYOR:-A paralleling instrument used in construction prosthesis to locate andin construction prosthesis to locate and delineate the contours and relative positionsdelineate the contours and relative positions of abutment teeth and associated structures.of abutment teeth and associated structures. • CLASP:-The component of clasp assemblyCLASP:-The component of clasp assembly that engages a portion of the tooth surfacethat engages a portion of the tooth surface and either enters an undercut for retention orand either enters an undercut for retention or remains entirely above the height of contourremains entirely above the height of contour to act as a reciprocatingto act as a reciprocating element.Generally,it is used to stabilize andelement.Generally,it is used to stabilize and retain a removable prosthesis.retain a removable prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. • Cingulum rest:- ACingulum rest:- A portion of a castportion of a cast partial denture thatpartial denture that contacts on naturalcontacts on natural cingulum of tooth.cingulum of tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. • Lingual rest seat:-Lingual rest seat:- The depressedThe depressed prepared on theprepared on the lingual surface of anlingual surface of an abutment to acceptabutment to accept the metal rest ofthe metal rest of partial denture.partial denture. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. • Incisal rest:-A rigidIncisal rest:-A rigid extension of a partialextension of a partial denture that contactsdenture that contacts the incisal rest.the incisal rest. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. • Occlusal rest:-A rigidOcclusal rest:-A rigid extension of aextension of a removable partialremovable partial denture that contactsdenture that contacts the occlusal surfacethe occlusal surface of a tooth or aof a tooth or a restoration,therestoration,the occlusal surfaceocclusal surface which may beenwhich may been prepared to relieve it.prepared to relieve it. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. • PARTIAL DENTURE REST:-A rigid extension of aPARTIAL DENTURE REST:-A rigid extension of a fixed or removable partial denture that preventsfixed or removable partial denture that prevents movement toward the mucosa and transmitsmovement toward the mucosa and transmits functional forces to the teeth.functional forces to the teeth. • RETAINER:-Any type of device used for stabilizationRETAINER:-Any type of device used for stabilization or retention of a prosthesis.or retention of a prosthesis. • DIRECT RETAINER:-That component of removableDIRECT RETAINER:-That component of removable partial denture used to retain and preventpartial denture used to retain and prevent dislodgement,consisting of clasp assembly ordislodgement,consisting of clasp assembly or precision attachment.precision attachment. • INDIRECT RETAINER:-The component of RPD thatINDIRECT RETAINER:-The component of RPD that assists the direct retainers in preventing displacementassists the direct retainers in preventing displacement of distal extension denture base by functioningof distal extension denture base by functioning through lever action on the opposite side of thethrough lever action on the opposite side of the fulcrum line when the denture base moves away fromfulcrum line when the denture base moves away from the tissues in pure rotation around the fulcrum line.the tissues in pure rotation around the fulcrum line. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. • GUIDING-PLANES:-Vertically parallel surfaces onGUIDING-PLANES:-Vertically parallel surfaces on abutment teeth oriented so as to contribute to theabutment teeth oriented so as to contribute to the direction of path of placement and removal ofdirection of path of placement and removal of partial denture.partial denture. • INTERNAL REST:-A pre-fabricated,rigid metallicINTERNAL REST:-A pre-fabricated,rigid metallic extension in a fixed or removable partial dentureextension in a fixed or removable partial denture that fits intimately into the box type rest seat orthat fits intimately into the box type rest seat or keyway portion of a precision attachment in a castkeyway portion of a precision attachment in a cast restoration.restoration. • INTERNAL ATTACHMENT:-An inter lockingINTERNAL ATTACHMENT:-An inter locking device,one component of which is fixed to andevice,one component of which is fixed to an abutment or abutments, and the other is integratedabutment or abutments, and the other is integrated into a removable prosthesis to stabilize and/orinto a removable prosthesis to stabilize and/or retain it.retain it. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. • BLOCK-OUT:-1.Elimination of undesirable underBLOCK-OUT:-1.Elimination of undesirable under cuts on the cast.cuts on the cast. • 2.The process of applying wax or another similar2.The process of applying wax or another similar temporary substance to undercut portions of casttemporary substance to undercut portions of cast so as to leave only those undercuts essential to theso as to leave only those undercuts essential to the planned construction of prosthesis.planned construction of prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. SIGNIFICANCE OF SURVEY LINESSIGNIFICANCE OF SURVEY LINES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. • All rigid components of the partial dentureAll rigid components of the partial denture must be kept occlusal it.must be kept occlusal it. • Normally only the terminal third of theNormally only the terminal third of the retentive clasp is placed gingival to the surveyretentive clasp is placed gingival to the survey line.line. • The survey line also helps locate areas ofThe survey line also helps locate areas of undesirable tooth undercuts that must beundesirable tooth undercuts that must be avoided or eliminated by contouring oravoided or eliminated by contouring or placing restoration on the teeth.placing restoration on the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. • HEIGHT OF CONTOURHEIGHT OF CONTOUR • The term first used by KENNEDY.The term first used by KENNEDY. • It represents the greatest bulge of diameterIt represents the greatest bulge of diameter of a crown when viewed from a specificof a crown when viewed from a specific angle or changes as the vertical position ofangle or changes as the vertical position of the tooth changed.the tooth changed. • Tipping or tilting the cast will cause theTipping or tilting the cast will cause the height of contour to move accordingly.height of contour to move accordingly. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. • DE VAN 1935 usedDE VAN 1935 used some clarifying termssome clarifying terms to describe retention.to describe retention. • He referred to theHe referred to the surface of a tooth thatsurface of a tooth that is occlusal to theis occlusal to the height of contour asheight of contour as SUPRA BULGE andSUPRA BULGE and surface incliningsurface inclining cervically as INFRAcervically as INFRA BULGE.BULGE. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. • A survey line is a line drawn round theA survey line is a line drawn round the greatest contour of a tooth in relation to thegreatest contour of a tooth in relation to the common path of placement or removalcommon path of placement or removal (DAVID M WATT)(DAVID M WATT) • A survey line is indicated those parts of teethA survey line is indicated those parts of teeth that can be used to used for retention ,thosethat can be used to used for retention ,those parts of the teeth on the occlusal side of theparts of the teeth on the occlusal side of the line can not be used.line can not be used. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. BLATTERFEIN’SBLATTERFEIN’S CLASSIFICATION OF BUCCALCLASSIFICATION OF BUCCAL &LINGUAL SURVEY LINES.&LINGUAL SURVEY LINES. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. • NEAR ZONE & FAR ZONE:-NEAR ZONE & FAR ZONE:- • If the buccal and lingual tooth surfaces areIf the buccal and lingual tooth surfaces are divided into two halves by vertical linedivided into two halves by vertical line through long axis, the near zone is that halfthrough long axis, the near zone is that half which lies nearer to the saddle and far zonewhich lies nearer to the saddle and far zone is more remote from the saddle.is more remote from the saddle. • DIAGONAL SURVEY LINE:-DIAGONAL SURVEY LINE:- • Lies nearer the occlusal surface than theLies nearer the occlusal surface than the gingival margin in the near zone of thegingival margin in the near zone of the tooth, but opposite condition exists in the fartooth, but opposite condition exists in the far zone.zone. • Commonly found in buccal surfaces ofCommonly found in buccal surfaces of canines and premolars,canines and premolars, www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. • MEDIUM SURVEY LINE:-MEDIUM SURVEY LINE:- • This appears on the buccal or lingual surfaceThis appears on the buccal or lingual surface of the tooth, approximately equidistance fromof the tooth, approximately equidistance from the occlusal surface and gingival margin inthe occlusal surface and gingival margin in the near zone and slightly nearer the gingivalthe near zone and slightly nearer the gingival margin in the far zone.margin in the far zone. • This indicates the use of occlusallyThis indicates the use of occlusally approaching clasp.approaching clasp.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. HIGH SURVRY LINE & LOWHIGH SURVRY LINE & LOW SURVEY LINESURVEY LINE • High survey line:-appears much nearer to theHigh survey line:-appears much nearer to the occlusal than gingival of the tooth in both near andocclusal than gingival of the tooth in both near and far zone.far zone. • It may arise as a result of abnormal tooth formIt may arise as a result of abnormal tooth form where occlusal surface has a considerable longerwhere occlusal surface has a considerable longer perimeter thanperimeter than cemento-enamel junction.cemento-enamel junction. More commonly it results from inclination of tooth.More commonly it results from inclination of tooth. It frequently found on the buccal surfaces of theIt frequently found on the buccal surfaces of the uppers.uppers. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. • LOW SURVEY LINE:-frequently occurs as aLOW SURVEY LINE:-frequently occurs as a result of marked inclination of the tooth,result of marked inclination of the tooth, when it is associated with the high surveywhen it is associated with the high survey line of the opposite side.line of the opposite side. • A tooth surface with the low survey lineA tooth surface with the low survey line cannot bear retentive clasp arm.cannot bear retentive clasp arm. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. SURVEYING BYSURVEYING BY PARALLALOMETERS.PARALLALOMETERS. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. PARTS OF SURVEYORSPARTS OF SURVEYORS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. • 1.Platform:-on which the base is moved.1.Platform:-on which the base is moved. • 2.Vertical arm:-supports the super structure.2.Vertical arm:-supports the super structure. • Horizontal arm:-from which the surveyingHorizontal arm:-from which the surveying tools suspends.tools suspends. • Table to which the cast is attached.Table to which the cast is attached. • Base on which the table swivels.Base on which the table swivels. • Paralleling tool or guideline marker.Paralleling tool or guideline marker. • Mandrel for holding special tools.Mandrel for holding special tools. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. • TOOLS OF SURVEYOR:-TOOLS OF SURVEYOR:- • Analyzing rodAnalyzing rodmetal rod with parallelmetal rod with parallel sides.Used to analyze the cast to establishsides.Used to analyze the cast to establish the path of insertion.the path of insertion. • Undercut gaugesUndercut gaugesavailable in threeavailable in three colors.Used to measure the undercut on thecolors.Used to measure the undercut on the cast.cast. silver color:-0.01 inch or 0.25mm undercut.silver color:-0.01 inch or 0.25mm undercut. gold color-0.02 inch or 0.50 mm undercut.gold color-0.02 inch or 0.50 mm undercut. black color-0.03inch or 0.75 mm undercut.black color-0.03inch or 0.75 mm undercut. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. • CARBON MARKER-used to scribe the lineCARBON MARKER-used to scribe the line on the cast.on the cast. • Wax knifeWax knifeused in the late stages of RPDused in the late stages of RPD construction to eliminate or block out areasconstruction to eliminate or block out areas of undesirable undercuts with wax on theof undesirable undercuts with wax on the cast before the frame work is made.cast before the frame work is made. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. PURPOSESUSES OFPURPOSESUSES OF SURVEYORSSURVEYORS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. SURVEYING THE DIAGNOSTICSURVEYING THE DIAGNOSTIC CASTCAST www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. 1.To determine the most desirable path of1.To determine the most desirable path of placement that will eliminate or minimizeplacement that will eliminate or minimize interference to placement and removal.interference to placement and removal. • 2.To identify proximal tooth surfaces that2.To identify proximal tooth surfaces that are or need to be made parallel so thatare or need to be made parallel so that they act as guiding planes duringthey act as guiding planes during placement and removal.placement and removal. • 3.To determine whether tooth and bony3.To determine whether tooth and bony areas of interference will need to beareas of interference will need to be eliminated surgically or by selecting aeliminated surgically or by selecting a different path of placement.different path of placement.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. • 4.To locate and measure areas of the teeth4.To locate and measure areas of the teeth that may be used for the retention.that may be used for the retention. • 5.To determine the most suitable path of5.To determine the most suitable path of placement that will permit locating retainersplacement that will permit locating retainers and artificial tooth to the best estheticand artificial tooth to the best esthetic advantage.advantage. • 6.To permit an accurate charting of the6.To permit an accurate charting of the mouth preparations to be made.mouth preparations to be made. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. • 7.To delineate the height of contour on7.To delineate the height of contour on abutment teeth.abutment teeth. • 8.To record cast position in relation to the8.To record cast position in relation to the selected path of placement for futureselected path of placement for future reference.reference. • 9.Contouring the wax patterns.9.Contouring the wax patterns. • 10.Surveying the ceramic veneer crown.10.Surveying the ceramic veneer crown. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. • 12.Placing internal rests.12.Placing internal rests. • 13.Machining the the cast restorations.13.Machining the the cast restorations. • 14.Surveying and blocking out the master14.Surveying and blocking out the master cast.cast. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE.STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. COLOR CODING.COLOR CODING. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. • A color coding system for the various parts ofA color coding system for the various parts of the removable partial denture as well as forthe removable partial denture as well as for other items of information that should beother items of information that should be included on the diagnostic casts helpsincluded on the diagnostic casts helps prevent confusion on the part of a dentalprevent confusion on the part of a dental laboratory technician or any one trying tolaboratory technician or any one trying to understand the design being proposed.understand the design being proposed. • There is not at present a universallyThere is not at present a universally accepted color coding system. As result, anyaccepted color coding system. As result, any system agreed to understood by laboratorysystem agreed to understood by laboratory and submitting dentist is consideredand submitting dentist is considered acceptable.acceptable. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. • Brown crayon pencilBrown crayon pencil out line the metallic portion.out line the metallic portion. • Blue crayon pencilBlue crayon pencil out line the acrylic portion ofout line the acrylic portion of the denture base.the denture base. • Red crayon pencilRed crayon pencil to indicate areas on the teethto indicate areas on the teeth that will be prepared.that will be prepared. • Solid redSolid red rests and rest seats.rests and rest seats. • Black pencil and carbon markerBlack pencil and carbon marker used to denoteused to denote the survey linesthe survey lines www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE.STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. • Examine theExamine the occludedoccluded diagnosticdiagnostic casts.casts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. • Indicate the proposedIndicate the proposed rest areas by shortrest areas by short vertical lines on thevertical lines on the cast below the toothcast below the tooth with black pencil.with black pencil. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. • Indicate by outliningIndicate by outlining in red any cuspalin red any cuspal relief that will berelief that will be needed to provideneeded to provide adequate occlusaladequate occlusal clearance for restclearance for rest spaces.spaces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53. • Examine the lingualExamine the lingual aspect of theaspect of the occluded casts foroccluded casts for adequate space foradequate space for cingulum rests,cingulum rests, indirect retainers.indirect retainers. Use black pencil forUse black pencil for marking.marking. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. • 2.Indicate with pencil,2.Indicate with pencil, using the followingusing the following symbols, the type ofsymbols, the type of tooth replacement.tooth replacement. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55. • Tube tooth.Tube tooth. TT • FacingFacing F.F. • Metal ponticMetal pontic M.M. • Rein forced acrylic ponticRein forced acrylic pontic RAP.RAP. • Place these symbols on the soft tissuePlace these symbols on the soft tissue portion of the cast, adjacent to theportion of the cast, adjacent to the edentulous area.edentulous area. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. • 3.Place the cast on the cast holder at3.Place the cast on the cast holder at horizontal tilt. Examine the teeth to behorizontal tilt. Examine the teeth to be clapsed for favorable retentive undercutsclapsed for favorable retentive undercuts as well as the shape and contour of theas well as the shape and contour of the proposed abutment teeth.proposed abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. If the shape and contour of these teethIf the shape and contour of these teeth necessitate recontouring indicate the locationnecessitate recontouring indicate the location and extent of proposed alteration with redand extent of proposed alteration with red crayon pencil.crayon pencil. Determine the most favorable tilt of the castDetermine the most favorable tilt of the cast that will permit convent and properthat will permit convent and proper placement of clasps,minor connectorsplacement of clasps,minor connectors anterior teeth, and denture base areas.anterior teeth, and denture base areas. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. CAST TILTING.CAST TILTING. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. • Tilting is changing theTilting is changing the position of the cast,position of the cast, which thus changeswhich thus changes the long axis of eachthe long axis of each tooth on the casttooth on the cast relative to therelative to the horizontal plane.horizontal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. • Change in the tiltChange in the tilt then changes thethen changes the position of surveyposition of survey line and locationline and location and extent of theand extent of the undercut.undercut. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. • Tilting is used to obtain the most favorableTilting is used to obtain the most favorable path of insertion.path of insertion. • Tilting is used to increase the desirableTilting is used to increase the desirable undercuts and to decrease undesirableundercuts and to decrease undesirable undercuts.undercuts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. • Through tilting, it isThrough tilting, it is possible to increasepossible to increase the undercuts on sidethe undercuts on side of the tooth whileof the tooth while decrease them ondecrease them on other side of theother side of the tooth.tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. • It is important to remember that whenIt is important to remember that when tilting one must examine effect of tilt totilting one must examine effect of tilt to establish a more desirable undercuts onestablish a more desirable undercuts on other teeth involved in the design.other teeth involved in the design. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. • Tilting can alsoTilting can also used to distributeused to distribute availableavailable undercuts toundercuts to produce moreproduce more uniform retentionuniform retention through out thethrough out the availableavailable abutment.abutment. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65. BASIC CAST TILTS.BASIC CAST TILTS. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. • The basic position orThe basic position or tilt of the cast ontilt of the cast on surveyor should besurveyor should be the horizontal tilt.the horizontal tilt. • In the horizontalIn the horizontal tilt,occlusal surfacestilt,occlusal surfaces of the teeth at or nearof the teeth at or near parallel to theparallel to the horizontal plane.horizontal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. • In the anterior tilt, theIn the anterior tilt, the anterior teeth areanterior teeth are tilted downwards.tilted downwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. • The anterior tiltThe anterior tilt increase the mesialincrease the mesial undercut on teeth.undercut on teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69. • In the posterior tilt,theIn the posterior tilt,the portion of the castportion of the cast tilted downwards.tilted downwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70. • The posterior tilt willThe posterior tilt will increase the distalincrease the distal undercuts, andundercuts, and decrease the mesialdecrease the mesial undercuts.undercuts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71. • In the right lateral tiltIn the right lateral tilt right portion of theright portion of the cast tiltedcast tilted downwards.downwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72. • The right lateral tiltThe right lateral tilt increase undercuts onincrease undercuts on buccal surfaces ofbuccal surfaces of right side.right side. • Buccal under cuts areBuccal under cuts are reduced on left side.reduced on left side. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. • In the left lateral tiltIn the left lateral tilt the left portion of thethe left portion of the cast tilted downwards.cast tilted downwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74. • Left lateral tilt willLeft lateral tilt will increase undercuts onincrease undercuts on buccal surface of leftbuccal surface of left and will decreaseand will decrease undercuts on buccalundercuts on buccal surfaces of right.surfaces of right. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 75. DETEERMINATION OF PATH OFDETEERMINATION OF PATH OF INSERTIONINSERTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 76. • The tilt of the cast on the surveyor is contemplatedThe tilt of the cast on the surveyor is contemplated to determine at what angle the partial denture willto determine at what angle the partial denture will seat over the remaining teeth and any otherseat over the remaining teeth and any other obstructions that may present.obstructions that may present. • This angle that the prosthesis takes as it goes toThis angle that the prosthesis takes as it goes to place is referred to as the PATH OF INSERTION.place is referred to as the PATH OF INSERTION. • Any exaggerated tilt may be avoided because aAny exaggerated tilt may be avoided because a patient would be unable to open the mouthpatient would be unable to open the mouth sufficiently to accommodate this tilt.sufficiently to accommodate this tilt. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77. • Numerous factors inhibiting or influencing theNumerous factors inhibiting or influencing the seating of restoration are considered.seating of restoration are considered. • The path of insertion will always be parallel to theThe path of insertion will always be parallel to the vertical arm of the surveyor and determined by thevertical arm of the surveyor and determined by the tilt of the cast on the surveying table.tilt of the cast on the surveying table. • The path of insertion is referred to most often as if itThe path of insertion is referred to most often as if it were a single entity.were a single entity. • Most influential factor as to whether a partialMost influential factor as to whether a partial denture will have one or most paths of insertion isdenture will have one or most paths of insertion is whether edentulous space is tooth bounded orwhether edentulous space is tooth bounded or distal extension typedistal extension typewww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78. • If the edentulous space is tooth bounded itIf the edentulous space is tooth bounded it will have only one path of insertion.will have only one path of insertion. • If the edentulous space is distal extensionIf the edentulous space is distal extension bases on both sided the path of insertion arebases on both sided the path of insertion are multiple.multiple. • If it is both tooth bounded and tissueIf it is both tooth bounded and tissue bounded the path of insertion is determinedbounded the path of insertion is determined by modification space.by modification space. • The component of the denture that governsThe component of the denture that governs the path of insertion is the minor connectorthe path of insertion is the minor connectorwww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 79. • The minor connector is normally the onlyThe minor connector is normally the only portion of the prosthesis that contacts theportion of the prosthesis that contacts the guiding planes on the teeth;it should be inguiding planes on the teeth;it should be in continual contact with the guiding planescontinual contact with the guiding planes through out process of seating and removingthrough out process of seating and removing the partial denture.the partial denture. • The body and the shoulders of the clasp mayThe body and the shoulders of the clasp may exert some influence on the path of insertionexert some influence on the path of insertion www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80. • Path of insertion isPath of insertion is straight downwards.straight downwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81. • Path of insertion isPath of insertion is upward andupward and backwards.backwards. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82. • Path of insertion isPath of insertion is upward and forward.upward and forward. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83. FACTORS INFLUENCING THEFACTORS INFLUENCING THE PATH OF INSERTIONPATH OF INSERTION.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84. • The following four factors must be consideredThe following four factors must be considered before path of insertion is selected:before path of insertion is selected: • 1.Retentive undercuts.1.Retentive undercuts. • 2.Interferences.2.Interferences. • 3.Esthetics.3.Esthetics. • 4.Guiding planes.4.Guiding planes.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85. • RETENTIVE UNDERCUTS:RETENTIVE UNDERCUTS: • The first unchangeable rule to rememberThe first unchangeable rule to remember when surveying diagnostic cast forwhen surveying diagnostic cast for removable partial denture is that retentiveremovable partial denture is that retentive undercuts must be present on abutmentundercuts must be present on abutment teeth at horizontal tilt.teeth at horizontal tilt. • The surveying procedure is always startedThe surveying procedure is always started with the cast to be analyzed positioned in thewith the cast to be analyzed positioned in the cast holder so that the occlusal surfaces ofcast holder so that the occlusal surfaces of the remaining teeth are parallel to thethe remaining teeth are parallel to the surveying table or base of the surveyor.surveying table or base of the surveyor.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86. • With the analyzing rod attached to the verticalWith the analyzing rod attached to the vertical arm,each abutment tooth is examined for thearm,each abutment tooth is examined for the presence of retentive undercuts.presence of retentive undercuts. • The occlusal surfaces of the teeth must be viewedThe occlusal surfaces of the teeth must be viewed first in the horizontal plane because dislodgingfirst in the horizontal plane because dislodging forces applied to the partial denture are alwaysforces applied to the partial denture are always perpendicular to the occlusal plane.perpendicular to the occlusal plane. • Resistance to this dislodging force must be presentResistance to this dislodging force must be present when the cast is at a horizontal position.when the cast is at a horizontal position. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87. • If retentive undercuts are not present theyIf retentive undercuts are not present they must be created.The obvious method is bymust be created.The obvious method is by the use of full crown usually a full crown orthe use of full crown usually a full crown or porcelain bonded to metal.porcelain bonded to metal. • If either of these these types of crowns areIf either of these these types of crowns are planned, it must be placed on the surveyorplanned, it must be placed on the surveyor as it is being formed and contoured to satisfyas it is being formed and contoured to satisfy the requirement of partial denture.the requirement of partial denture. • Enamel surfaces contoured in limitedEnamel surfaces contoured in limited circumstances to provide or improvecircumstances to provide or improve retentive undercuts.retentive undercuts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88. • Ideally proposed abutment teeth shouldIdeally proposed abutment teeth should have 0.010 inch undercut at the mosthave 0.010 inch undercut at the most desirable location,either the distobuccal ordesirable location,either the distobuccal or mesiobuccal line angle and in the gingivalmesiobuccal line angle and in the gingival third of clinical crown of the tooth.third of clinical crown of the tooth. • Once retentive undercuts have been foundOnce retentive undercuts have been found at the horizontal tilt,the tilt may be changedat the horizontal tilt,the tilt may be changed to alter the amount of undercut on any givento alter the amount of undercut on any given tooth.tooth. • It must be remembered changing the tilt toIt must be remembered changing the tilt to alter the amount of undercut on one toothalter the amount of undercut on one tooth will affect the undercuts on the remainingwill affect the undercuts on the remaining teeth.teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89. • The tilt is given because the retentive andThe tilt is given because the retentive and reciprocal arms are placed gingival orreciprocal arms are placed gingival or occlusal third of the abutment, which in turnocclusal third of the abutment, which in turn helps in the esthetic result and also helps inhelps in the esthetic result and also helps in reducing the torquing or rotational forces.reducing the torquing or rotational forces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90. INTERFERENCESINTERFERENCES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 91. • INTERFERENCES IN MANDIBLE:INTERFERENCES IN MANDIBLE: • Tissues lingual to the remaining teeth that will beTissues lingual to the remaining teeth that will be crossed by the major connector during insertion.crossed by the major connector during insertion. • One of the greatest errors in planning is attemptingOne of the greatest errors in planning is attempting to position the major connector to avoid a lingualto position the major connector to avoid a lingual torus especially if a lingual bar is planned as thetorus especially if a lingual bar is planned as the major connector.major connector. • Relief or nonrigid connector is the alternativeRelief or nonrigid connector is the alternative planning for the framework.But the thickness of theplanning for the framework.But the thickness of the bar is compromised and damage to the remainingbar is compromised and damage to the remaining teeth if nonrigid connector is used.teeth if nonrigid connector is used. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 92. • Another frequent problem commonly seen isAnother frequent problem commonly seen is lingually inclined teeth.lingually inclined teeth. • If the lingually inclined teeth are bilateral,theIf the lingually inclined teeth are bilateral,the space available for the major connector isspace available for the major connector is reduced.This influences the tongue space.reduced.This influences the tongue space. • One answer to this problem would be to planOne answer to this problem would be to plan a labial bar major connector in place of linguala labial bar major connector in place of lingual bar.bar. • The bulk of the labial bar causes anThe bulk of the labial bar causes an comfortable and unattractive plumping of thecomfortable and unattractive plumping of the lower lip.lower lip. • Another answer to this problem is contouringAnother answer to this problem is contouring the lingual surfaces or placing thethe lingual surfaces or placing the restorations.restorations. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 93. • INTERFERENCES IN THE MAXILLA:INTERFERENCES IN THE MAXILLA: • One of the major sources of interferences inOne of the major sources of interferences in maxilla is torus palatinus.maxilla is torus palatinus. • Torus interferences with the placement ofTorus interferences with the placement of major connector.major connector. • Usually the design of major must be changedUsually the design of major must be changed to avoid the torus;if not possible surgicalto avoid the torus;if not possible surgical intervention must be accomplished.intervention must be accomplished. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 94. • Bony exostoses or undercuts buccal to theBony exostoses or undercuts buccal to the posterior edentulous ridge are encounteredposterior edentulous ridge are encountered frequently.frequently. • Surgical procedures are followed for thoseSurgical procedures are followed for those undercuts.undercuts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 95. • Buccally or facially tipped teeth are alsoBuccally or facially tipped teeth are also source of interferences.source of interferences. • If these buccally tilted teeth are present onIf these buccally tilted teeth are present on one side of the arch tilting the surveyingone side of the arch tilting the surveying table away from the teeth may lower thetable away from the teeth may lower the height of contour sufficiently to permit theheight of contour sufficiently to permit the clasp to be located in a nearly ideal position.clasp to be located in a nearly ideal position. • If these inclined teeth are present both sidesIf these inclined teeth are present both sides of arch,changing the tilt of the cast will haveof arch,changing the tilt of the cast will have no helpful effect.no helpful effect. • If the tipping is not severe,contour theIf the tipping is not severe,contour the enamel surface or full crown restoration isenamel surface or full crown restoration is given in case of severe tipping.given in case of severe tipping. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 96. ESTHETICSESTHETICS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 97. • To obtain optimum esthetics,To obtain optimum esthetics, • The metal,usually in the form of clasp arms,The metal,usually in the form of clasp arms, must be concealed as as possible withoutmust be concealed as as possible without compromising necessary support andcompromising necessary support and stability of the prosthesis.stability of the prosthesis. • The artificial teeth must be placed in theThe artificial teeth must be placed in the most natural position possible.most natural position possible. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 98. • Avoiding unnecessary display of theAvoiding unnecessary display of the metal,the tilt of the survey table should bemetal,the tilt of the survey table should be such that the survey line on teeth that aresuch that the survey line on teeth that are visible be as close to the gingival margin.visible be as close to the gingival margin. • The ideal position of the clasp for theThe ideal position of the clasp for the retentive purpose is gingival third of theretentive purpose is gingival third of the tooth.tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 99. • When lost anterior teeth are not replacedWhen lost anterior teeth are not replaced immediately, the space remaining isimmediately, the space remaining is frequently less than the space occupied byfrequently less than the space occupied by the missing because of mesial drifting ofthe missing because of mesial drifting of remaining teeth.remaining teeth. • To counter this esthetic shortcoming,the useTo counter this esthetic shortcoming,the use of dental surveyor is necessary.of dental surveyor is necessary. • When determining the final tilt of the cast, theWhen determining the final tilt of the cast, the space of missing anterior teeth must bespace of missing anterior teeth must be given high prioritygiven high priority www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 100. • Tooth bounded partial denture always determinesTooth bounded partial denture always determines the path of insertion.This means that the surveyorthe path of insertion.This means that the surveyor must be used to determine the whether tooth has tomust be used to determine the whether tooth has to contoured, or disking in the proximal surfaces hascontoured, or disking in the proximal surfaces has to be done to restore the mesiodistal width of theto be done to restore the mesiodistal width of the missing teeth.missing teeth. • The choice is the placement of the full crownThe choice is the placement of the full crown restorations.restorations. • The surveyor is necessary for the determining theThe surveyor is necessary for the determining the amount of recontouring that will be needed reduceamount of recontouring that will be needed reduce these undesirable undercuts and to reestablish thethese undesirable undercuts and to reestablish the space required for optimum results.space required for optimum results. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 101. GUIDING PLANESGUIDING PLANES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 102. • Guiding planes are formed from the proximalGuiding planes are formed from the proximal tooth surfaces of the teeth and aretooth surfaces of the teeth and are contacted by the minor connectors or othercontacted by the minor connectors or other rigid components of the partial denture.rigid components of the partial denture. • These planes guide the prosthesis forThese planes guide the prosthesis for removal and placement.removal and placement. • When denture is completely seated in theWhen denture is completely seated in the mouth, the guide planes are in intimatemouth, the guide planes are in intimate contact with the minor connectors,help tocontact with the minor connectors,help to stabilize against the lateral forces.stabilize against the lateral forces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 103. • They also help to protect the weakened teethThey also help to protect the weakened teeth from destructive forces.from destructive forces. • The surveyor is used to locate the potentialThe surveyor is used to locate the potential surfaces of the teeth that can be convertedsurfaces of the teeth that can be converted to guiding guiding planes by selectiveto guiding guiding planes by selective grinding.grinding. • If the teeth for which guiding planes areIf the teeth for which guiding planes are planned are receive cast restoration, the waxplanned are receive cast restoration, the wax patterns should be shaped by the surveyorpatterns should be shaped by the surveyor with their surfaces parallel to the path ofwith their surfaces parallel to the path of insertion.insertion. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 104. • Once tilt has been selected for givenOnce tilt has been selected for given removable partial denture design, this tiltremovable partial denture design, this tilt should be preserved, so that it can beshould be preserved, so that it can be reestablished accurately to the surveyingreestablished accurately to the surveying table.this procedure is termedtable.this procedure is termed TRIPOIDING.TRIPOIDING. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 105. • RECORDING THE RELATION OF CASTRECORDING THE RELATION OF CAST TO SURVEYOR.TO SURVEYOR. • This helps in returning the cast to theThis helps in returning the cast to the surveyor for future reference.surveyor for future reference. • The need for returning is any wax patterns,The need for returning is any wax patterns, trimming, block out on master cast ortrimming, block out on master cast or locating clasp arms in under cut areas.locating clasp arms in under cut areas. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 106. • FOLLOWING METHODS ARE USED:-FOLLOWING METHODS ARE USED:- • 1.One method to place 3 widely divergent1.One method to place 3 widely divergent dots on the tissue surface of the cast with thedots on the tissue surface of the cast with the tip of the carbon marker, having the verticaltip of the carbon marker, having the vertical of the surveyor in a locked position.of the surveyor in a locked position. • Preferably these dots should not be placedPreferably these dots should not be placed on the areas of the cast involved in frameon the areas of the cast involved in frame work designing.work designing. • Then the dots should be encircled with aThen the dots should be encircled with a colored pencil for easy identification.colored pencil for easy identification. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 107. • On returning the cast the cast to theOn returning the cast the cast to the surveyor, it may be tilted until the tip of thesurveyor, it may be tilted until the tip of the surveyor blade on diagnostic stylus againsurveyor blade on diagnostic stylus again contacts the 3 dots in the same place.contacts the 3 dots in the same place. • This method is tripoiding.This method is tripoiding. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 108. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 109. • Second method is to score two sides andSecond method is to score two sides and dorsal aspect of the base of the cast with adorsal aspect of the base of the cast with a sharp instrument held against the surveyorsharp instrument held against the surveyor blade.blade. • By tilting the cast until all three lines areBy tilting the cast until all three lines are again parallel to the surveyor blade, theagain parallel to the surveyor blade, the original position can be reestablished.original position can be reestablished. • Fortunately the scratch lines will beFortunately the scratch lines will be reproduced in duplication, there byreproduced in duplication, there by permitting any duplicate cast to be related topermitting any duplicate cast to be related to the surveyor in a similar manner,the surveyor in a similar manner, www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 110. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 111. • The third method of locating cast is usingThe third method of locating cast is using thin retentive pins.thin retentive pins. • The pins are placed in the desirable placeThe pins are placed in the desirable place to re-orient the cast in the surveyor.to re-orient the cast in the surveyor. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 112. • 5.Place the carbon5.Place the carbon marker in the verticalmarker in the vertical arm of the surveyorarm of the surveyor and scribe the surveyand scribe the survey line on teeth that willline on teeth that will be contacted thebe contacted the partial denture.partial denture. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 113. • 6.With red pencil6.With red pencil draw in the extent ofdraw in the extent of rest areas to berest areas to be prepared in the mouthprepared in the mouth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 114. • 7.Out line the exact7.Out line the exact positioning of thepositioning of the denture base area.denture base area. Blue pencil indicatesBlue pencil indicates acrylic base; Brownacrylic base; Brown pencil indicates metalpencil indicates metal denture basedenture base www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 115. • 8.With brown pencil8.With brown pencil outline the frame workoutline the frame work design to harmonizedesign to harmonize and join the majorand join the major connector, rest seats,connector, rest seats, indirect retainers andindirect retainers and minor connectors.minor connectors. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 116. • 9.Replace the carbon9.Replace the carbon marker withmarker with appropriate under cutappropriate under cut gaugegauge www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 117. • 10.With the brown10.With the brown pencil draw the clasppencil draw the clasp arm to the actualarm to the actual shape, size, andshape, size, and location desired.location desired. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 118. • 11.Completed11.Completed designed casts.designed casts. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 119. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 120. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 121. SURVEYING THE MASTER CASTSURVEYING THE MASTER CAST www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 122. • The master cast for a removable partialThe master cast for a removable partial denture is made following the completion ofdenture is made following the completion of mouth preparation that was indicated frommouth preparation that was indicated from design drawn on the diagnostic cast.design drawn on the diagnostic cast. • Mouth preparation may have included theMouth preparation may have included the placement of crowns or other restorations onplacement of crowns or other restorations on abutment teeth,the development of theabutment teeth,the development of the guiding planes,contouring the wax enamelguiding planes,contouring the wax enamel surfaces, and the placement of the rest seatsurfaces, and the placement of the rest seat preparations.preparations. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 123. • Before the master cast is sent to theBefore the master cast is sent to the laboratory for construction of removablelaboratory for construction of removable partial denture frame work, it must bepartial denture frame work, it must be surveyed to determine whether he mouthsurveyed to determine whether he mouth preparation accomplished all it as supposedpreparation accomplished all it as supposed to.to. • With the master cast mounted on theWith the master cast mounted on the surveying table at the same tilt at which thesurveying table at the same tilt at which the diagnostic cast was designed.diagnostic cast was designed. • In the event the mouth preparation did notIn the event the mouth preparation did not produce the desired results,either mouthproduce the desired results,either mouth preparation reaccomplished newpreparation reaccomplished new impressions has to made.impressions has to made. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 124. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 125. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 126. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 127. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 128. CONTOURING THE WAXCONTOURING THE WAX PATTRENSPATTRENS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 129. • The surveyor blade is used as a wax carverThe surveyor blade is used as a wax carver during this phase.during this phase. • The proposed path of placement may beThe proposed path of placement may be maintained throughout the preparation of castmaintained throughout the preparation of cast restorations for abutment teeth.restorations for abutment teeth. • Guiding planes on all proximal surfaces ofGuiding planes on all proximal surfaces of wax patterns adjacent to the edentulouswax patterns adjacent to the edentulous areas should be made parallel.areas should be made parallel. • The surfaces of restoration on whichThe surfaces of restoration on which reciprocal and stabilizing components will bereciprocal and stabilizing components will be placed should be contoured to permit theirplaced should be contoured to permit their location well below occlusal surfaces and onlocation well below occlusal surfaces and on non retentive areas.non retentive areas. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 130. • Those surfaces of restorations that are toThose surfaces of restorations that are to provide retention for the clasp arms shouldprovide retention for the clasp arms should be contoured so that retentive clasps may bebe contoured so that retentive clasps may be placed in the cervical third of the crown andplaced in the cervical third of the crown and to the best esthetic advantage.to the best esthetic advantage. • Generally a small amount of undercut 0.02Generally a small amount of undercut 0.02 inch or less is sufficient for retentiveinch or less is sufficient for retentive purposes.purposes. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 131. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 132. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 133. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 134. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 135. CONTOURING CROWNS AND CASTCONTOURING CROWNS AND CAST RESTORATIONSRESTORATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 136. • The working cast with restorations place inThe working cast with restorations place in the dies placed on the surveying table.the dies placed on the surveying table. • A hand piece holder is attached to theA hand piece holder is attached to the vertical arm of the surveyor.vertical arm of the surveyor. • The hand piece will be parallel to theThe hand piece will be parallel to the selected path of insertion and guiding planesselected path of insertion and guiding planes can be refined by moving surveying table socan be refined by moving surveying table so that the mounted stone contacts the guidingthat the mounted stone contacts the guiding plane of the crown restoration.plane of the crown restoration. • A final check also made with analyzing rodA final check also made with analyzing rod to determine the height of contour andto determine the height of contour and retentive undercuts remain as plannedretentive undercuts remain as planned www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 137. PLACING INTERNALPLACING INTERNAL ATTACHMENTS AND RESTSATTACHMENTS AND RESTS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 138. • The surveyor is used to position the intra coronalThe surveyor is used to position the intra coronal retainers or internal attachments, in the wax crownretainers or internal attachments, in the wax crown pattern on abutment teeth as the patterns are beingpattern on abutment teeth as the patterns are being formed.absolute parallelism among all theformed.absolute parallelism among all the attachment is essential.attachment is essential. • Internal rests,exaggerated occlusal rest with verticalInternal rests,exaggerated occlusal rest with vertical walls and flat flours,can be created by usingwalls and flat flours,can be created by using surveyor as a form of drill press.surveyor as a form of drill press. • A hand piece is attached to the vertical arm of theA hand piece is attached to the vertical arm of the surveyor by means of hand piece holder.surveyor by means of hand piece holder. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 139. • With appropriate burs in the hand piece,theWith appropriate burs in the hand piece,the internal rests can be machined in the waxinternal rests can be machined in the wax patterns for crowns on the abutment teeth.patterns for crowns on the abutment teeth. • After the crowns are cast same hand pieceAfter the crowns are cast same hand piece and burs are used to refine the rests.and burs are used to refine the rests. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 140. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 141. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 142. IMPORTANT COSIDERATIONSIMPORTANT COSIDERATIONS IN USE OF DENTAL SURVEYORIN USE OF DENTAL SURVEYOR www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 143. • The ultimate goal in the partial dentureThe ultimate goal in the partial denture service is that it has to go to the placeservice is that it has to go to the place smoothly over the teeth and soft tissue.smoothly over the teeth and soft tissue. • It has to function as it was planned.It has to function as it was planned. • And it has to remain in the place by resistingAnd it has to remain in the place by resisting the dislodging forces.the dislodging forces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 144. OPTICAL SURVEYINGOPTICAL SURVEYING www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 145. • SURVEYING WITH LIGHT BEAMS:-SURVEYING WITH LIGHT BEAMS:- • Parallel light beams are produced by lightParallel light beams are produced by light bulbs with small,dense filaments andbulbs with small,dense filaments and condenser lenses contained in a box.condenser lenses contained in a box. • The light beams are made parallel withThe light beams are made parallel with vertical rod of conventional surveyor byvertical rod of conventional surveyor by fixing the box firmly to an iron bar.fixing the box firmly to an iron bar. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 146. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 147. • The cast is placed on the movable table andThe cast is placed on the movable table and surveyed in a dark room using parallel lightsurveyed in a dark room using parallel light beams.beams. • The survey line is the border of light brightThe survey line is the border of light bright and dark zones-the line where the lightand dark zones-the line where the light beams are tangent to the cast and create abeams are tangent to the cast and create a shadow.shadow. • The geometric location of a conventionalThe geometric location of a conventional lead marked survey line and the one createdlead marked survey line and the one created by the light beams are in same location.by the light beams are in same location.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 148. • By tilting the table to establish various pathsBy tilting the table to establish various paths of insertion,undercuts and survey lines mayof insertion,undercuts and survey lines may be inspected without drawing on the cast.be inspected without drawing on the cast. • After securing the most favorable path ofAfter securing the most favorable path of insertion for design of removable partialinsertion for design of removable partial denture,the table of surveyor is fixed indenture,the table of surveyor is fixed in position and survey lines are marked withposition and survey lines are marked with lead marker.lead marker. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 149. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 150. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 151. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 152. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 153. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 154. • ADVANTAGES OF SURVEYING WITHADVANTAGES OF SURVEYING WITH LIGHT BEAMS:-LIGHT BEAMS:- • One reason preferring optical surveying isOne reason preferring optical surveying is that changes of survey lines and undercutsthat changes of survey lines and undercuts can be easily inspected for different positionscan be easily inspected for different positions of the cast.of the cast. • In addition slight undercuts are may not beIn addition slight undercuts are may not be determined by the lead marker can bedetermined by the lead marker can be observed with optical surveying.observed with optical surveying. • Many light beams provide an advantage overMany light beams provide an advantage over one lead marker.one lead marker.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 155. • Optical surveying requires a dark room, andOptical surveying requires a dark room, and light beams reflecting from cast can createlight beams reflecting from cast can create problem in illumination.problem in illumination. • Using colored artificial stone for the casts orUsing colored artificial stone for the casts or covering reflecting areas with black papercovering reflecting areas with black paper may remedy undesirable refection.may remedy undesirable refection. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 156. RECENT ADVACES IN THERECENT ADVACES IN THE SURVEYORS.SURVEYORS. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 157. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 158. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 159. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 160. SUMMARY.SUMMARY. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 161. • Proper placement and contour of theProper placement and contour of the components of design can be achieved onlycomponents of design can be achieved only through an adequate survey and wellthrough an adequate survey and well planned mouth preparation.planned mouth preparation. • The components of RPD must be selectedThe components of RPD must be selected to control stress to the abutment teeth andto control stress to the abutment teeth and tissues caused forces of occlusion andtissues caused forces of occlusion and movements of distal extension bases.movements of distal extension bases. • Alterations in design may be dictated by theAlterations in design may be dictated by the dentists prudent judgment.dentists prudent judgment. • Compromising the ideal in the location andCompromising the ideal in the location and design of components,however, maydesign of components,however, may jeopardize the potential success of thejeopardize the potential success of the prosthesis.prosthesis. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 162. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com