STERILIZATION OFENDODONTICINSTRUMENTS        INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY   Leader in Continuing Dental Education     www.indiand...
CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• CLASSIFICATION• STANDARDIZATIONEXPLORING INSTRUMENTSo DG EXPLORER• ORFICE OPENERS MICRO OPENERS ...
ROTARY INSTRUMENTS   LIGHT SPEED   PROFILE SERIES   GREAT TAPER AND ACCESSORY FILES   PROTAPER   QUANTEC   HERO 642...
INTRODUCTIONwww.indiandentalacademy.com
CLASSFICATION• ISO and FDI classified root canal  instruments into four groups• GROUP I- Hand use only• GROUP II- Engine d...
BASED ON THEIR FUNCTION THEY ARE  CLASSIFIED INTO• EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS• DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS• SHAPING INSTRUMENTS• OBTU...
ANSI AND ISO/FDI CLASSIFICATIONGENERAL DESCRIPTION ANSI                   FDI/ISO Root canal files (K-type)          28   ...
INSTRUMENT STANDARDIZATION• Historically very little was done to improve the  quality or standardization of instruments un...
INGLE AND LEVINE  STANDARDIZATIONwww.indiandentalacademy.com
PERCENT CHANGE•   FIRST CAUTIONED BY•   METHOD OF CALCULATION•   DISADVANTAGES•   INSTRUMENTS INTRODUCED TO    OVERCOME TH...
METALS USED IN ENDODONTIC                 INSTRUMENTS• CARBON STEEL• STAINLESS STEEL• Nickel Titantium (Nitinol)       www...
EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS• Endodontic explorer is  the greatest aid in  finding a minute canal  entrance feeling along  the wa...
ORIFICE OPENERS• Canal orifices are so  restrictive that they need  to be flared so that  instruments may enter  easily• O...
GATES GLIDDEN DRILLS• GGs are side-cutting, safe-ended  instruments, and ideally used to cut  dentin as it is withdrawn fr...
• A hand instrument also  designed for apical  preparation is the  FLEXOGATES• A safe-tipped variation  of the traditional...
DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS• BARBED BROACHES AND RASPS:Oldest endodontic instrumentsAlthough similar in design there are some si...
BROACHES                    RASPS• Taper 0.007 to            • Taper 0.015 to 0.020  0.010 mm/mm                 mm/mm• Ba...
RAKE ANGLE  The rake angle may be seen as the direction   of the cutting edge if visualised as a surface.If this surface i...
K-TYPE FILES AND REAMERS• The K-type file and reamer are  the oldest useful instruments  for cutting and machining  dentin...
HEDSTROM FILE• more aggressive than the K-type instrument.• H-type file is ground from a round steel blank.• Modern comput...
MODIFICATIONS OF H FILES•   UNIFILE•   S FILE•   NT FILE•   A FILE         www.indiandentalacademy.com
HYBRID INSTRUMENTS• Many new designs are simply modifications of  the K-type and H-type files.• These files are not made t...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
CANAL MASTER SYSTEM• Most revolutionary concepts in root  canal preparation has been presented  by Drs.Senia and Wiley.• C...
• Non-cutting tip for hand operated is 0.75 mm  and for engine-driven is 2mm.• Hand-operated have cutting head 1mm long  w...
• This instrument incorporates three major  features: Replace the usual cutting tip with a non cutting  tip Cutting segm...
SOTOKAWA’S CLASSIFICATION OF    INSTRUMENT DAMAGE    www.indiandentalacademy.com
ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS• Ultrasonic endodontics is based on a system in  which sound as an energy source (at 20 to 25  kHz)...
• Instruments deliver an irrigant/coolant usually  sodium hypochlorite into the canal space while  cleaning and shaping ar...
SONIC INSTRUMENTS• Like the air rotor handpiece it attaches to the  regular airline at a pressure of 0.4Mpa.• Tap water ir...
• Rispisonic has 8 cutting blades an the  shaper sonic has 16.• SONIC LENGTH• Sonic instruments are primarily for step  do...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• TIP DESIGN  cutting tip or non cutting tip Examples for non cutting tips are Profile, GT and K3 Exampl...
• RADIAL LANDS A Radial land is a surface that projects axially   from the central axis, between flutes as far as   the cu...
• The cutting angle on the other hand is the   angle formed by the cutting edge and a radius   when the file is sectioned ...
• PITCH : is the number of spirals or threads  per unit length. the result of a constant pitch and constant helical   angl...
ROTARY INSTRUMENTS DESIGNS  www.indiandentalacademy.com
LIGHT SPEED INSTRUMENTS• so named because of the “light” touch  needed as the “speed” of  instrumentation” is increased• T...
• Success with the LightSpeed, however, is  predicated on straight-line access, an  adequate coronal preflare, and establi...
• The LightSpeed instrument  has a cross-sectional U  blade design in which flat  radial lands with neutral  rake angles e...
PROFILE INSTRUMENTS• Includes orifice shapers, Profile 0.04 and  0.06 tapers, and Great taper files.• These instruments sh...
• Radial lands are  separated by three U-  shaped flutes that provide  space for the  accumulation of debris.• U-shaped co...
• Parallel core to enhance flexibility. Noncutting  tips are designed to follow a pilot hole and  guide the instrument thr...
ORIFICE SHAPERS• 19mm in length with a cutting length of  approximately 9mm.• Comes in 0.06 and 0.07 mm/mm tapers.• Are de...
PROFILE GT ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• Designed by Dr. Steven Buchanan they are also  available as hand files.• Manufactured in 0....
• The open flute angles at the shank end also  tend to reduce the file’s ability to thread into  the canal a typical probl...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
ACCESSORY GT FILES• Set of 3 accessory GT files is available for  unsually large root canals having apical  diameters grea...
PROTAPER• Drs. Clifford Ruddle, John West, Pierre Mactou  and Ben Johnson and Gilbert Rota co-  developed Protaper system•...
• Shaping files are S-X, S-1 and S-2• S-X has a increased taper rate taper of from D 0  to D9 than do the other two shaper...
• But unlike the consistent increase of taper per  millimeter in the ISO instruments the Protaper  shapers have increasing...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
• FINISHING FILES: finishing files have been  designed to plane away the variations in canal  diameter in the apical one t...
QUANTEC SYSTEM• Consists of a series of 10 graduated nickel-  titanium tapers from 0.02 through 0.06 with  ISO tip sizing....
• Proponents of the graduating tapers technique  claim that, theoretically, using a series of files  of a single taper, wh...
• In contrast and in accordance with the  graduating tapers technique, by  restricting the surface contact between  instru...
• The Quantec rotary instruments are uniquely  engineered with slightly positive rake or blade  angles on each of their tw...
• Quantec’s wide radial lands are purported to  prevent crack formation in the blades and aid in  deflecting the instrumen...
• The LX noncutting tip, on the other hand, is  a nonfaceted bullet-nosed tip,acting as a  pilot in the canal and deflecti...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
RAPID BODY SHAPERS• Rapid Body Shaper (RBS) consists of a series  of four nickel-titanium rotary engine reamers  These ins...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
POW R ROTARY FILES• also with a nonledging Roane bullet tip,  are available in both 0.02 and 0.04  tapers and, owing to th...
HERO 642• Has a trihelical hedstrom design with rather  sharp flutes• Due to progressively increasing distance  between th...
RaCe• These instruments come in the following  taper/size combinations: as Pre RaCe  instruments0.10/40to 30,0.08/35,0.06/...
K3 ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• K3 system was designed by Dr.John  McSpadden• K3 canal shaping files comes in a fixed  taper of 0.0...
• A variable core diameter  this feature enhances  flexibility; over the entire  cutting length.• A series of three radial...
• Asymmetrically placed three radial lands and  unequaled land widths, flute widths, and flute  depths.• Asymmetrical flut...
• The proportion of the core diameter to the  outside diameter is greatest at the tip where  strength is most needed. The ...
ENDOSEQUENCE FILE• These files come in a pack of four files each in  0.04 and 0.06 tapers in sizes extrasmall/small,  medi...
• Good cutting efficiency.• Flexibility of the file is  outstanding. The ability  to create a file that  stays centered wi...
OBTURATING INSTRUMENTS• Significant instruments for obturation are  Spreaders , Pluggers and Lentulo spirals.• The spreade...
STERILIZATION OF INSTRUMENTS• Methods for sterilization in endodontic  practice inclde steam or chemical vapor under pres...
CONCLUSION• We expect many more endodontic  instruments come in our path to make  our treatment part more ideal.        ww...
REFERENCES• PATHWAYS OF THE PULP-COHEN 6thAND  8thEDITIONS• ENDODONTICS-INGLE.BAKLAND 3rd,4th ,  5thEDITION• ENDODONTIC PR...
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Sterilization of endodontic instruments /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Sterilization of endodontic instruments /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. STERILIZATION OFENDODONTICINSTRUMENTS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• CLASSIFICATION• STANDARDIZATIONEXPLORING INSTRUMENTSo DG EXPLORER• ORFICE OPENERS MICRO OPENERS GATES GLIDDDEN DRILLS• DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS BARBED BROACHES AND RASPS• SHAPING INSTRUMENTS K files and reamers K flex files Flex o files www.indiandentalacademy.com Canal master
  3. 3. ROTARY INSTRUMENTS LIGHT SPEED PROFILE SERIES GREAT TAPER AND ACCESSORY FILES PROTAPER QUANTEC HERO 642 RACE K3 ENDOSEQUENCE• OBTURATING INSTRUMENTS SPREADERS PLUGGERS• STERILIZATION OF INSTRUMENTS• CONCLUSION• REFERENCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. CLASSFICATION• ISO and FDI classified root canal instruments into four groups• GROUP I- Hand use only• GROUP II- Engine driven latch type• GROUP III- Engine driven latch type – drills• GROUP www.indiandentalacademy.com IV- Root canal points – gutta
  6. 6. BASED ON THEIR FUNCTION THEY ARE CLASSIFIED INTO• EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS• DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS• SHAPING INSTRUMENTS• OBTURATING INSTRUMENTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. ANSI AND ISO/FDI CLASSIFICATIONGENERAL DESCRIPTION ANSI FDI/ISO Root canal files (K-type) 28 3630/1 Hedstrom files ( H-type) 58 3630/1 Barbed broaches and rasps 63 3630/1 Root canal enlargers 3630/2 Condensers, pluggers 71 3630/3 Spreaders Absorbent points 73 7551 Obturating points 78 6877 Root canal sealers www.indiandentalacademy.com 57 6876
  8. 8. INSTRUMENT STANDARDIZATION• Historically very little was done to improve the quality or standardization of instruments until the 1950’s.• In 1958 Ingle and Levine first proposed standardization• 1962 working committee on standardization has been formed• In 1976 first approved specification for root canal instruments was published. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. INGLE AND LEVINE STANDARDIZATIONwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. PERCENT CHANGE• FIRST CAUTIONED BY• METHOD OF CALCULATION• DISADVANTAGES• INSTRUMENTS INTRODUCED TO OVERCOME THIS• SOLUTION TO OVERCOME THIS PROBLEM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. METALS USED IN ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS• CARBON STEEL• STAINLESS STEEL• Nickel Titantium (Nitinol) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS• Endodontic explorer is the greatest aid in finding a minute canal entrance feeling along the walls and into the floor of the chamber in the area where the orifices are expected to be www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. ORIFICE OPENERS• Canal orifices are so restrictive that they need to be flared so that instruments may enter easily• Orifice openers from hand operated Micro openers to contra- angled powered reamers with a greater taper (0.04, 0.06) and Gates-Glidden drills www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. GATES GLIDDEN DRILLS• GGs are side-cutting, safe-ended instruments, and ideally used to cut dentin as it is withdrawn from the canal.• Consists of 6 instruments• Recommended speed is 750-1000 rpm• A hand instrument also designed for apical preparation is the FLEXOGATES• A safe-tipped variation of the traditional Gates-Glidden drill, the Flexogates is still to be tested clinically. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. • A hand instrument also designed for apical preparation is the FLEXOGATES• A safe-tipped variation of the traditional Gates- Glidden drill, the Flexogates is still to be tested clinically www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS• BARBED BROACHES AND RASPS:Oldest endodontic instrumentsAlthough similar in design there are some siginificant differences in taper and barbs of different heights and shapes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. BROACHES RASPS• Taper 0.007 to • Taper 0.015 to 0.020 0.010 mm/mm mm/mm• Barb height should • Barb equal to one be half the core third the diameter of diameter the tip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. RAKE ANGLE The rake angle may be seen as the direction of the cutting edge if visualised as a surface.If this surface is turned in the same direction as the force applied the rake angle is positive.If the blade performs a scraping action faced away from the direction of the force the rake angle is said to be negative. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. K-TYPE FILES AND REAMERS• The K-type file and reamer are the oldest useful instruments for cutting and machining dentin.• Made from a steel wire that is ground to a tapered square or triangular cross section.• This wire is twisted to generate a file or a reamer. During this process the steel is work hardened.• If the core is twisted more or the instrument is thicker the www.indiandentalacademy.com work hardening increases.
  20. 20. HEDSTROM FILE• more aggressive than the K-type instrument.• H-type file is ground from a round steel blank.• Modern computer-assisted machining technology had made it possible to develop H- type instruments with very complex forms. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. MODIFICATIONS OF H FILES• UNIFILE• S FILE• NT FILE• A FILE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. HYBRID INSTRUMENTS• Many new designs are simply modifications of the K-type and H-type files.• These files are not made to any national or international standards, but their size designation often follows the specifications for K-type or H-type files.• By changing the cross sectional geometry of a K-type instrument from a square to rhomboid it has been possible to create an instrument that is more flexible because one cross section is smaller than the cross section determining the size. These types of files are known as “flex files”. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. CANAL MASTER SYSTEM• Most revolutionary concepts in root canal preparation has been presented by Drs.Senia and Wiley.• Canal Master System employs both hand and engine-driven instruments on unique design which reportedly facilitates instrumentation of curved canals.• Hand version instrument for apical preparation and engine-driven for flaring www.indiandentalacademy.com the coronal section of the canal.
  25. 25. • Non-cutting tip for hand operated is 0.75 mm and for engine-driven is 2mm.• Hand-operated have cutting head 1mm long with color handles corresponding to standardized instrument sizes 20 through 80.• Engine-driven have cutting head 2mm have color-coded latch type attachments . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. • This instrument incorporates three major features: Replace the usual cutting tip with a non cutting tip Cutting segment of the instrument is reduced from the standard 16mm to1 to 2mm. Diameter of the instrument’s smooth round shat remains constant and is reduced to increase its flexibility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. SOTOKAWA’S CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENT DAMAGE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS• Ultrasonic endodontics is based on a system in which sound as an energy source (at 20 to 25 kHz) activates an endodontic file resulting in three-dimensional activation of the file in the surrounding medium.• These handpieces uses K files as canal instrument.• Richman must be credited with the first use of ultrasonics in endodontics• Martin and Cunningham were the first to develop a device, test it, and see it marketed in 1976. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. • Instruments deliver an irrigant/coolant usually sodium hypochlorite into the canal space while cleaning and shaping are carried out by a vibrating a K file. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. SONIC INSTRUMENTS• Like the air rotor handpiece it attaches to the regular airline at a pressure of 0.4Mpa.• Tap water irrigant/coolant is delivered into the preparation from the handpiece.• The three choices of the file that are used with this system are Rispisonic , Shapersonic and Triosonic.• Rispisonic is developed by Dr.Retano spina in Italy• Shapersonic is by Dr.J.M.Laurichesse in France www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. • Rispisonic has 8 cutting blades an the shaper sonic has 16.• SONIC LENGTH• Sonic instruments are primarily for step down enlarging not penetration• At the dental school in Wales, Dummer et al found the Rispi sonic and shaper sonic files to the most successful the Trio Sonic less so.• In general the Shaper sonic files widened the canals more effectively than the Rispi Sonic files whilst the Heliosonic files were particularly ineffective www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• TIP DESIGN cutting tip or non cutting tip Examples for non cutting tips are Profile, GT and K3 Examples for cutting tips are Protaper and RaCe• TAPERTwo designs first we can instrument by using files of the same taper but with varying apical tip diametersEx: ISO 0.02 taper hand files,Profile 0.04,0.06 tapers. second is files with same apical size but their taper varies from 0.04 to 0.12Ex: Quantec www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. • RADIAL LANDS A Radial land is a surface that projects axially from the central axis, between flutes as far as the cutting edge.Another way of evaluating radial land is blade support.Rotary files has full radial lands. Ex: Profile, GT.Or their lands were recessed Ex: Quantec• RAKE ANGLE the rake angle is the angle formed by the cutting edge and a cross section taken perpendicular to the long axis of the instrument www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. • The cutting angle on the other hand is the angle formed by the cutting edge and a radius when the file is sectioned perpendicular to the cutting edge.Examples for rotary files with negative rake angles: Profile, Protaper, Etc.Files with slightly positive rake angle: K3• HELICAL ANGLE: is the angle that the cutting edge makes with the long axis of the fileVariable helical angle debris will be removed in a more efficient manner and the file will be less likely to screw into the canal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. • PITCH : is the number of spirals or threads per unit length. the result of a constant pitch and constant helical angles is a “pulling down” or “sucking down into the canal”.This is particularly significant in rotary files with a constant taper.K3 is the only file that addressed this issue. This file has purposely been designed with constant tapers but with variable pitch and helical angles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. ROTARY INSTRUMENTS DESIGNS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. LIGHT SPEED INSTRUMENTS• so named because of the “light” touch needed as the “speed” of instrumentation” is increased• The set of instruments consists of ISO- sized rotary files from size 20 through 100, including nine half-sizes ranging from 22.5 through 65.• The recommended rpm is between 750 and 2,000, with preference toward the 1,300 to 2,000 range www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. • Success with the LightSpeed, however, is predicated on straight-line access, an adequate coronal preflare, and establishment of working length prior to its introduction into a canal• Comes in sizes 21 mm, 25mm and 31mm.• Determination of half sizes• Diameter of cutting tip varies from 0.25 mm to 2.25mm• Junction of the shank and shaft.• Markings are present at various distances for references. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. • The LightSpeed instrument has a cross-sectional U blade design in which flat radial lands with neutral rake angles enhance planing of the canal walls and centering of the instrument within the canal. The helical blade angle and narrow shaft diameter facilitate debris removal coronally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. PROFILE INSTRUMENTS• Includes orifice shapers, Profile 0.04 and 0.06 tapers, and Great taper files.• These instruments share the same cross sectional geometries and have three radial lands that each contains bidirectional cutting edges.• Radial lands keep the instrument centered in the canal. Their cutting edges are intended to scrape rather than actively engage and screw into dentin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. • Radial lands are separated by three U- shaped flutes that provide space for the accumulation of debris.• U-shaped configuration effectively augers debris coronally and out of the canal during clinical use. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. • Parallel core to enhance flexibility. Noncutting tips are designed to follow a pilot hole and guide the instrument through the canal during preparation procedures.• These files have a built-in safety feature, in which by patented design they purportedly unwind and then wind up backward prior to breaking.• Recommended rotational speed is 275 to 325RPM.• Kavanaugh and Lumley found no significant differences between the 0.04 and 0.06 tapers with respect to canal transportation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. ORIFICE SHAPERS• 19mm in length with a cutting length of approximately 9mm.• Comes in 0.06 and 0.07 mm/mm tapers.• Are designed to replace Gates-Glidden drills for shaping the coronal portion of the canal.• The series compromises 6 instruments that are safe ended and have increasing Do diameters. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. PROFILE GT ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• Designed by Dr. Steven Buchanan they are also available as hand files.• Manufactured in 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.12 tapers all having a constant ISO non cutting tip diameter of 0.20mm to ensure maintenance of a small apical preparation.• They have variably pitched, radiallanded, clockwise cut U-blade flutes that provide reamer like efficency at the shank with K-file strength at their tips• They have closed flute angles at their tips and more open flute angles at their shank ends www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. • The open flute angles at the shank end also tend to reduce the file’s ability to thread into the canal a typical problem that occurs with other rotary design.• MFD is also set at 1mm safely limiting coronal enlargement.• GT files vary by taper but have the same tip diameters and MFDs the flute lengths become shorter as the taper increases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. ACCESSORY GT FILES• Set of 3 accessory GT files is available for unsually large root canals having apical diameters greater than 0.3mm.• Have a taper of 0.12 mm/mm and MFD is 1.5mm and varying tip diameters of 0.35, 0.50, and 0.70mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. PROTAPER• Drs. Clifford Ruddle, John West, Pierre Mactou and Ben Johnson and Gilbert Rota co- developed Protaper system• This system consists of three “shaping” and three “finishing” files.• Distinguishing feature of the Protaper system is the progressively variable tapers of each instrument that develop a “ progressive preparation” in both vertical and horizontal directions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. • Shaping files are S-X, S-1 and S-2• S-X has a increased taper rate taper of from D 0 to D9 than do the other two shapers.• D0 has a diameter of 0.19mm. This rises to 1.1mm at D9.• After D9 the rate of taper drops off up to D14 which thins and increases the flexibility of the instrument.• S-1 and S-2 start at tip sizes of 0.17mm and 0.20mm respectively and each file gains in taper up to 1.2mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. • But unlike the consistent increase of taper per millimeter in the ISO instruments the Protaper shapers have increasingly larger tapers each millimeter over the 14mm length of their cutting blades.This is what makes the instrument unique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. • FINISHING FILES: finishing files have been designed to plane away the variations in canal diameter in the apical one third.• Finishing files F-1, F-2, F-3 have tip diameters (D0) of ISO sizes 20, 25, and 30 respectivley.• Their tapers differ as well between D0 and D3 they tapers at rates of 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09mm/mm, respectively.• From D4 to D14 each instrument show a decreased taper that improves flexibilty. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. QUANTEC SYSTEM• Consists of a series of 10 graduated nickel- titanium tapers from 0.02 through 0.06 with ISO tip sizing.• Quantec flare series with increased tapers of 0.08, 0.10. and 0.12 all with tip sizes of ISO 25 are designed to quickly and safely shape the coronal third of the canal.• In contrast to the basic principles of other rotary instrument techniques, this system incorporates a built-in “graduated tapers technique,”whereby a series of varying tapers are used to prepare a single canal. The instruments are used at 300 to 350 rpm in a high-torque, gear-reduction, slow-speed www.indiandentalacademy.com handpiece
  55. 55. • Proponents of the graduating tapers technique claim that, theoretically, using a series of files of a single taper, whether it is a conventional 0.02 taper or a greater taper, will result in decreased efficiency as larger instruments are used, that is, more of the file comes into contact with the dentinal walls, making it more difficult to remove dentin as forces are generated over a larger area.• Ultimately, each instrument will become fully engaged along the canal wall, potentially inhibiting proper cleaning and shaping of the apical canal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. • In contrast and in accordance with the graduating tapers technique, by restricting the surface contact between instrument and wall, an instrument’s efficiency is increased since the forces used are concentrated on a smaller area• In this technique, for example, once a0.02 taper has shaped the canal, a 0.03 taper with the same apical diameter would engage the canal more coronally; by altering the taper from 0.02, to 0.03, and up the scale to 0.06, the efficiency of canal preparation is maximized by restricting surface contact. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. • The Quantec rotary instruments are uniquely engineered with slightly positive rake or blade angles on each of their twin flutes; these are designed to shave rather than scrape dentin (negative rake angle), which most conventional files do• Flute design also includes a30-degree helical angle with flute space that becomes progressively larger distal to the cutting blade, helping channel the debris coronally.• More peripheral mass has been added to these files rather than depending on core strength alone as in other rotary systems. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. • Quantec’s wide radial lands are purported to prevent crack formation in the blades and aid in deflecting the instrument around curvatures• By recessing the wide radial lands behind the blade, there is a concomitant reduction in frictional resistance while maintaining canal centering.• With respect to tip geometry, the clinician has a choice of two designs. The SC safe-cutting tip is specifically designed for small, tight canals,narrow curvatures, and calcified canal systems. This faceted 60-degree tip cuts as it moves apically; as the tip approaches a curve, conceptually, a balance takes place between www.indiandentalacademy.com file deflection and cutting
  59. 59. • The LX noncutting tip, on the other hand, is a nonfaceted bullet-nosed tip,acting as a pilot in the canal and deflecting around severe curvatures in less constricted canals• These LX Quantec instruments are also recommended for enlarging the body and coronal segments and managing delicate apical regions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. RAPID BODY SHAPERS• Rapid Body Shaper (RBS) consists of a series of four nickel-titanium rotary engine reamers These instruments feature the patented nonledging Roane bullet tip and allow the practitioner to rapidly shape the body of the canal without the problems that can occur using Gates-Glidden drills• The RBS instruments develop a parallel-walled canal shape. The RBS series consists of four instruments: No. 1 (0.61 mm at the tip), No. 2 (0.66 mm at the tip), No. 3 (0.76 mm at the tip), and No. 4 (0.86 mm at the tip). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. POW R ROTARY FILES• also with a nonledging Roane bullet tip, are available in both 0.02 and 0.04 tapers and, owing to their taper design, allow the practitioner to clean and shape the middle and apical regions of the canal in a conservative manner• These instruments come in standard ISO instrument sizes as well as in half sizes 17.5, 22.5, 27.5, 32.5, and 37.5 for more precise apical refinement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. HERO 642• Has a trihelical hedstrom design with rather sharp flutes• Due to progressively increasing distance between the flutes there is a reduced risk for binding in the root canal when used.• Recommended speed is 500 to 600rpm• Available in ISO sizes of no 20 to no 45. all sizes are available in 0.02 taper and n0.25, and no.30 are available in 0.04 and 0.06 taper.• Large central core provides extra strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. RaCe• These instruments come in the following taper/size combinations: as Pre RaCe instruments0.10/40to 30,0.08/35,0.06/30 and 40 and as RaCe instruments 0.06/20 to 30,0.04/25 to 35, 0.02/15 to 40 and 50 and 60.• Very flexible instruments.• Their main feature is that the helical angle after some revolutions has short interruptions (becomes 0) whereby the blades are straight for a short distance and parallel to the long axis of the instrument. The purpose of this feature is to redce the screw-in-effect of the www.indiandentalacademy.com instrument
  66. 66. K3 ROTARY INSTRUMENTS• K3 system was designed by Dr.John McSpadden• K3 canal shaping files comes in a fixed taper of 0.02, 0.04, or 0.06.• 0.02 are available in tip sizes 15 to 45 in 21,25,30 mm lengths.• 0.04, 0.06 are available in tip sizes 15 to 60 and in 21,25,30 mm lengths.• Slightly positive “rake” angle. A positive rake angle provides a more effective cutting surface than a negative one. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. • A variable core diameter this feature enhances flexibility; over the entire cutting length.• A series of three radial lands with a relief behind two of three radial lands . This feature reduces friction on the canal wall. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. • Asymmetrically placed three radial lands and unequaled land widths, flute widths, and flute depths.• Asymmetrical flutes allow the K3 to provide superior canal tracking, virtually eliminate transportation, and in preventing the file from screwing into the canal and add peripheral strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. • The proportion of the core diameter to the outside diameter is greatest at the tip where strength is most needed. The proportion then decreases uniformly as the fluting moves up the taper resulting in greater flute depth and increased flexibility while maintaining strength.• An “Axxess” handle design which shortens the file handle by approximately 5mm without affecting the working length of the file. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. ENDOSEQUENCE FILE• These files come in a pack of four files each in 0.04 and 0.06 tapers in sizes extrasmall/small, medium, and large. It includes Expeditor file.• Blank design is ACP• Metal treatment Electropolishing is done.• Fully tapered design• Tip design is a precision tip. A precision tip by definition is a noncutting tip that becomes active right at D-1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. • Good cutting efficiency.• Flexibility of the file is outstanding. The ability to create a file that stays centered without the need for radial lands results in greater flexibility of the file.• It has both variable pitch and variable helical angles.• Speed range is 450 to 600 rpm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. OBTURATING INSTRUMENTS• Significant instruments for obturation are Spreaders , Pluggers and Lentulo spirals.• The spreader is a tapered-and-pointed instrument intended to laterally displace guttapercha for insertion of additional accessory gutta-percha cones• The Plugger is a similar instrument but it has a blunt end.• The lentulo spiral is a safe instrument if used correctly and it is used for the placement of the sealer, cement and calcium hydroxide dressings. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. STERILIZATION OF INSTRUMENTS• Methods for sterilization in endodontic practice inclde steam or chemical vapor under pressure dry heat Glutaraldehyde solutionsRepeated sterilization of stainless steel endodontic files using any heat method described above will not cause corrosion, weakness or an increased rate of rotational failure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. CONCLUSION• We expect many more endodontic instruments come in our path to make our treatment part more ideal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. REFERENCES• PATHWAYS OF THE PULP-COHEN 6thAND 8thEDITIONS• ENDODONTICS-INGLE.BAKLAND 3rd,4th , 5thEDITION• ENDODONTIC PRACTICE-LOUIS I.GROSSMAN-11thEDITION• DCNA-MODERN ENDODONTIC PRACTISE• JOURNAL OF ORAL HEALTH• INTERNET SOURCES www.indiandentalacademy.com

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