The era of dental ceramics/ dentistry dental implants


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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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  • Ceramics are
  • Metal ceramic
    1 doesn’t allow light like natural teeth
    Doesn’t reflect light
    Opaque n dense
    Doesn’t show the dentine color
    Ceramics are
  • a core can be loosely defined as a rigid and durable structure designed to closely fit one or more abutment teeth and used as a framework to support a tooth colored, translucent esthetic veneer. 
  • flexural strength of "plain" feldspathic porcelain is around 50-60 MPa (Mega Pascals), that of an aluminous core is  between 120-130MPa. 
    Aluminous cores are made by adding alumina to the glass system before the frit-sintering stage.  This method of manufacture limits the addition of alumina to no more than 40-50% by volume.  On the other hand, glass infused ceramic cores are built using pure alumina, spinel or zirconia which is sintered PRIOR to the introduction of the glass.   Thus these cores achieve a much higher proportion of refractory crystalline filler than is possible with traditional aluminous core techniques. 
  • Esthetic. High strength.
    But no good fit, only anteriors
  • Generally, one shade of material is available. Which is covered by conventional feldspathic porcelain / is stained to obtain proper shading and characterization of the final restoration.
  • Ceramic blend into resins.
    Good fit
    Only anteriors
    consistently precise crowns by eliminating shrinkage, porosity and the inconsistency of brush build-ups
  • Leucite is a crystalline potassium aluminum silicate (K2O Al203 4SiO2) which is used for reinforcement of feldspathic dental porcelains. At room temperature leucite ordinarily has a tetragonal configuration, and when the leucite exists in this form, it is referred to as"low leucite".
    When tetragonal leucite is heated to about 625 °C it undergoes a reversible transformation to a cubic polymorph, with a concomitant volume change of 1.2%. The cubic phase of leucite is known as"high leucite."Upon cooling to room temperature, the cubic leucite crystals revert to the more stable tetragonal polymorph.
  • Apatite Glass Ceramic
    The lithium disilicate ceramics are different from other glass ceramics in that it has an unusually high coefficient of thermal expansion, and ordinary feldspathic glasses cannot be sintered over the lithium disilicate substructure.  Therefore, a new esthetic glass ceramic with a higher thermal expansion had to be invented to overlay the thick framework.  This new layering ceramic is an apatite glass ceramic. The crystals formed on ceramming have the composition Ca10(PO4)6 · 2OH.  This is the same basic constituent in natural tooth enamel. 
  • Slip-cast slurry: A fine particle ceramic dispersed in an aqueous liquid medium is poured into a porous mould which rapidly extracts the liquid causing the formation of a close-packed but weak ceramic particle structure
  • Figure 2. Moisture absorbed into die stone agglomerating or packing alumina particles.
    Figure 3. During sintering the alumina particles fuse together at points of contact producing a highly stable, organized crystalline structure.
    Figure 6. At elevated temperatures, infiltration glass moves inside from external surface to fill air spaces between particles by capillary action.
  • tetragonal configuration
    Principle of strengthening by the incorporation of a crystalline material that is capable of undergoing a change in crystal structure when placed under stresses.
    This crystalline material is usually termed as Partially Stabilized Zirconia(PSZ).
    The energy required for the transformation of PSZ is taken from the energy that allows the crack to propagate.
    One drawback of PSZ is that its refractive index is much higher than that of the surrounding glass matrix.
  • The era of dental ceramics/ dentistry dental implants

    1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
    3. 3.
    4. 4.  What is a core?
    5. 5.  The aluminous core  Glass infused ceramic core  Zirconium Dioxide (zirconia) cores  Y-TZP cores
    6. 6. General ClassificationGeneral Classification 1.Conventional powder ceramics 2.Castable ceramics 3.Pressable ceramics 4.Infiltrated ceramics 5.Machinable ceramics
    7. 7. Conventional powder Ceramics These products are supplied as powders to which the technician adds distilled water to produce a slurry, which is build up in layers on a refractory die/ platinum foil to form the contours of the restoration. The powders are available in different shades and translucencies, and are supplied with characterizing stains and glazes.
    8. 8. e.g. OPTEC H.S.P (Jeneric/Pentron) DUCERAM L.F.C (Ducera Inc) Vita Hi-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik)  Esthetic.  High strength.  But no good fit,  Only anteriors
    9. 9. Castable Ceramics These products are supplied as solid ceramic ingots, which are used for fabrication of cores or full contour restorations using a lost wax and centrifugal casting technique. Followed by heat-treatment to precipitate a crystalline phase
    10. 10. e.g. DICOR (Corning glass, Dentsply). CERAPEARL (Bioceram, Kyocera)  Low abrassiveness  Time consuming
    11. 11. Pressable Ceramics These are also supplied as ingots, these product are melted at higher temperatures [11500 c] and pressed into a mould using a lost wax technique. These pressed form can be made into full contour, or can be used as a substrate for conventional feldspathic porcelain buildup
    12. 12. leucite based e.g. IPS Empress I (Ivoclar vivadent) OPC (Optec Pressable Ceramic) ALCERAM (Cerestore, Innotek dental corp) Lithium disilicate based IPS Empress 2* Optec OPS 3G
    13. 13. Leucite – KAlSi2O6 Low leucite High leucite  used for reinforcement of feldspathic dental porcelains  Varies from 35%-50% by volume Flexural strength – 120 Mpa tetragonal configuration cubic polymorph->tetragonal configuration
    14. 14. Mechanical Strength is Insufficient for construction of All Ceramic Bridges Crowns Inlays Veneers  Good marginal fit
    15. 15. lithium disilicate  pre-cerammed  interlocking nature of the crystals + high density high flexural strength. Highly translucent because of the high optical compatibility between the crystals The glassy matrix minimizes internal scattering of light.
    16. 16.  Strongest of all the glass ceramics (~350- 450MPa).  New layering ceramic an apatite glass ceramic is used  Crowns for molars.  Anterior three unit bridges.
    17. 17. Infiltrated Ceramics These are glass infiltrated core ceramics. This involves slip casting technique for making the core, The contours of the restoration are obtained by individual layering and staining techniques. Refractory die Packing slurry sintering
    18. 18. e.g. In-CERAM Alumina Zirconia Spinell sintering packing
    19. 19. Most Translucent The strength is about three - four times more greater than earlier alumina core materials[350 mpa]. Marginal fit reported to be very good. INCERAM spinell
    20. 20.  Polycrystalline ceramic with out any glass component  Three crystallographic forms  Monoclinic [<1170]  Tetragonal [>1170]  Cubic [>2370] Zirconia
    21. 21.
    22. 22. High strength through very small grains
    23. 23. INCERAM ZIRCONIA Glass-infiltrated Alumina with 35% partially stabilized Zirconia core Good Marginal Fit High strength of 700 Mpa Fracture toughness- 6-8 Mpa.m1/2 Posterior Crowns and FPDs, Post & Core, Implants Strongest And Toughest Of Available Ceramics
    24. 24. Machinable Ceramics These products are supplied as ingots in various shades and are milled into desired form. These machined restorations can be stained and glazed to obtain desired characterization.
    25. 25. a ceramic restoration fabricated by use of a computer aided design - computer aided milling a process of milling a structure using a device that traces the surface of a metal, ceramic or a polymer pattern and transfers the traced spatial positions to a cutting station. C A D -C A M C e r a m ic s C o p y -M il l e d C e r a m ic s M ac h in a ble C er am ic s
    26. 26. CAD-CAM  DCS–PRESIDENT -1991  AUTO MILL – 1994  CEREC 2 – 1994  CEREC 3 – 2000  PROCERA  LAVA  CERCON COPY MILLING  CELAY – 1991  PRO CAM - 1996
    27. 27. CAD – CAM Devices:  DIRECT: Fully integrated CAD – CAM devices for chair side restorative approach. CAD & CAM stations are located at the dental office.  INDIRECT: System that consists of several modules with at least, distinctive CAD & CAM stations.
    28. 28. MATERIALS  Silicate Ceramics  Aluminium oxide ceramics with glass infiltration.  Aluminium oxide ceramics with dense sintering.  Titanium.  Precious alloys  Non precious alloys
    29. 29. Thank you For more details please visit