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Indian Dental Academy: will be one of the most relevant and exciting training center with best faculty and flexible training programs for dental professionals who wish to advance in their dental practice,Offers certified courses in Dental implants,Orthodontics,Endodontics,Cosmetic Dentistry, Prosthetic Dentistry, Periodontics and General Dentistry.

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Shade selection/ orthodontics training courses Shade selection/ orthodontics training courses Presentation Transcript

  • INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  History of theories in colour vision  Description of colour – different systems  Shade selection › Visual shade selection (lighting & vision)  Shade selection systems › Instrumental colour analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • An understanding of the process in which the colour and translucency of restorations are planned and obtained so as to replicate the colour and contours of its adjacent teeth is important for achieving an esthetic restoration. Errors, especially in the colour replication process, have been a problem and a source of frustration for the clinician and technician, thereby leading to dissatisfaction to the patient. www.indiandentalacademy.com View slide
  •  Although Aristotle and other ancient scientists had already written on the nature of light and colour vision, it was not until Newton that light was identified as the source of the colour sensation.  In 1801 Thomas Young proposed his trichromatic theory, based on the observation that any colour could be matched with a combination of three lights. This theory was later refined by James Clerk Maxwell and Hermann von Helmholtz.  In 1810, Goethe published his comprehensive Theory of Colours. www.indiandentalacademy.com View slide
  •  At the same time as Helmholtz, Ewald Hering developed the opponent process theory of colour, noting that colour blindness and afterimages typically come in opponent pairs (red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white).  Ultimately these two theories were synthesized in 1957 by Hurvich and Jameson, who showed that retinal processing corresponds to the trichromatic theory, while processing at the level of the lateral geniculate nucleus corresponds to the opponent theory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Professor Albert H. Munsell in the first decade of the 20th century developed the Munsell Colour System  Several earlier colour order systems had placed colours into a three dimensional colour solid of one form or another, but Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and was the first to systematically illustrate the colours in three dimensional space. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  In 1931, an international group of experts known as the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) developed a mathematical colour model, which mapped out the space of observable colours and assigned a set of three numbers to each.  Latest colour system: Published in 2002 by the CIE Technical Committee 8-01 (Colour Appearance Modelling for Colour Management Systems), as of 2008 CIECAM02 is the most recent colour appearance model ratified by the CIE, and the successor of CIECAM97s. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Just as a solid is described in three axes of physical form, colour has three primary attributes that allow it to be described with precision.  Colour is a phenomenon of light or visual perception that permits the differentiation of otherwise identical objects.  There are three factors upon which colour is dependent: 1. The observer, 2. The object, and 3. The light source. Herbert T. Shillingburg, Jr., Sumiya Hobo, Lowell D. Whitsett, Richard Jacobi, Susan E. Brackett. Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 1. A phenomenon of light or visual perception that enables one to differentiate otherwise identical objects 2. The quality of an object or substance with respect to light reflected or transmitted by it. Color is usually determined visually by measurement of hue, saturation, and luminous reflectance of the reflected light 3. A visual response to light consisting of the three dimensions of hue, value, and saturation Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms – 8 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Two systems have been extensively used: › The visually descriptive Munsell colour order system › The more quantitative CIELAB colour system www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  This system has been a popular method of visually describing colour. The three attributes of colour in this system are called Hue, Chroma, and Value.  To facilitate communication with the technician, it is essential that the clinician be thoroughly familiar with these terms and their definitions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Often referred to as the basic colour, hue is the quality of sensation according to which an observer is aware of the varying wavelengths of radiant energy. The dimension of colour dictated by the wavelength of the stimulus that is used to distinguish one family of colour from another—as red, green, blue, etc. The attribute of colour by means of which a colour is perceived to be red, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc. White, black, and grays possess no hue. Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms - 8 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The hue of an object can be Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo or Violet , and is determined by the wavelength of the reflected and/or transmitted light observed. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The place of the wavelength in the visible light range of the spectrum determines the hue of the colour. The shorter the wavelength, the closer the hue is to the violet portion of the spectrum; the longer the wavelength, the closer it is to the red portion. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • In younger permanent dentition, hue tends to remain similar throughout the mouth. With ageing, variations in hue often occur because of intrinsic and extrinsic staining from restorative materials, foods, beverages, smoking, and other influences. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The purity of a colour, or its departure from white or gray The intensity of a distinctive hue; saturation of a hue Chroma describes the strength or saturation of the hue (colour) Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms - 8 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Chroma is the intensity of hue. The term saturation and chroma are used interchangeably in the dental terminologies; both refer to the strength of a given hue or concentration of pigment.  A simple way of visualising differences in chroma is to imagine a bucket of water. When a drop of ink is added, a solution of low chroma results, adding second drop of ink increases the chroma, and so on, until a solution is obtained that is almost all ink and consequently of high chroma. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  In Munsell colour system, the intensity of chroma of a particular Hue is more intense on the outer rim than near the hub of the wheel.  In general chroma of teeth increases with age. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The quality by which a light colour is distinguished from a dark colour, the dimension of a colour that denotes relative blackness or whiteness (grayness, brightness). Value is the only dimension of colour that may exist alone. Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms - 8 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The brightness of any object is a direct consequence of the amount of light energy the object reflects and/or transmits.  It is possible for objects of different hues to reflect the same number of photons and thus have the same brightness or value. A common example is the difficulty experienced in trying to tell a green object from a blue object in a black and white photograph. The two objects reflect the same amount of light energy and therefore appear similar in the picture. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  A restoration that has too high a value may be easily detected by an observer and is a common esthetic problem in metal- ceramic restorations.  A light tooth has a high value, a dark tooth has a low value. It is not the quantity of the colour gray, but rather the quality of the brightness on a gray scale. That is, the shade of colour(hue plus chroma) either seems light and bright or dark and dim. It is helpful to regard value in this way because the use of value in restorative dentistry does not involve adding gray but rather manipulating colours to increase or decrease amounts of grayness. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Hues, as used in dentistry, have a relationship to one another that can be demonstrated on a colour wheel. The relationships of primary, secondary, and complementary hues are graphically depicted by the colour wheel. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The Primary Hues- red, yellow, and blue - form the basis of dental colour system, in dentistry the metal oxide pigments used in colouring porcelains are limited in forming certain reds; therefore pink is substituted. The primary hues and their relationships to one another form the basic structure of the colour wheel. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The mixture of any two primary hues forms a secondary hue. When red and blue are mixed they create violet, blue and yellow create green, and yellow and red create orange. Altering the chroma of the primary hues in a mixture changes the hue of the secondary hue produced. Primary and secondary hues can be organised on the colour wheel with secondary hues positioned between primary hues. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Colours directly opposite each other on the colour wheel are termed complementary hues. A pecularity of this system is that a primary hue is always opposite a secondary hue and vice versa. When a primary hue is mixed with a complementary secondary hue, the effect is to cancel out both the colours and produce gray. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. This is the most important relationship in dental colour manipulation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • When a portion of a crown is too yellow, lightly washing with violet(the complementary hue of yellow) produces an area that is no longer yellow. The yellow colour is cancelled out and the area will have an increase in the grayness(a lower value). This is especially useful if the body colour of a crown has been brought too far incisally and more of an incisal colour is desired towards the cervical area. If the cervical area is too yellow and a brown colour is desired, washing the area with violet cancels the yellow. This is followed by application of the desired colour, in this case brown. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Complementary hues also exhibit the useful phenomenon of intensification. When complementary hues are placed next to one another, they intensify one another and appear to have a higher chroma. A light orange line on the incisal edge intensifies the blue nature of an incisal colour. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  After 5 seconds of staring at a tooth or shade guide, the eye accomodates and becomes biased. If a person stares at a particular colour for longer than 5 seconds and then stares away at a white surface or closes his/her eyes, the image appears, but in the complementary hue.  This phenomenon is known as Hue Sensitivity, this adversely affects shade selection. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  An opaque material does not permit light to pass through. It reflects all the light that is shined on it.  A porcelain fused to metal restoration must have a layer of opaque porcelain applied to the metal substructure to prevent colour of the metal from appearing through the translucent body and incisal porcelains. Improper tooth reduction results in two unacceptable results:  An ideally contoured restoration with minimal porcelain thickness and too much opaque porcelain, resulting in a chalky appearance.  A bulky, poorly contoured restoration with ideal porcelain thickness.  Tooth preparation must be sufficient to allow enough room for an adequate bulk of body and incisal porcelains. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Translucent materials allow some light to pass through them. Only some of the light is adsorbed, translucency provides realism to an artificial dental restoration. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • In restorative dentistry, depth is a spatial concept of colour blending combining the concepts of opacity and translucency. In natural dentition, light passes through the translucent enamel and is reflected out from the depths of the relatively opaque dentin. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  White porcelain colourants used in colour modification are opaque. Gray porcelain colourants are a mixture of white and black. A tooth restoration with a white opaque colourant on the surface appears artificial because it lacks the quality of depth that would be seen if the opaque layer were placed beneath a translucent layer of porcelain.  Similarly, a bright restoration(high value) in need of graying(a decrease in value) would appear falsely opaque if it were simply painted gray. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Adding a complementary hue, however, both decreases the value and adds to the translucency.  If characterisation needs to be added to porcelain to represent white hypoplastic spots or gray amalgam stains, white or gray colourants can be used, but with the knowledge that translucency will be reduced in these areas. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Depth may be problematic if translucent composite resins are used to restore class III or IV cavities that extend completely from facial to lingual surfaces. The restoration may appear gray or over translucent. However, if a more opaque composite resin is placed on the lingual portion of the restoration and then overlaid with a translucent resin a natural illusion of depth results. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  The CIELAB colour system is used almost exclusively for colour research in dentistry around the world. It was introduced in 1976 and recommended by the International Commision on Illumination.  The strength of this system, unlike that of Munsell system, is its ability for clinical interpretation, as equal distances across the CIELAB colour space(colour differences or ∆E) represents approximately uniform steps in human colour perception, improving the interpretation of colour measurements. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  This means that the magnitude of perceptible and/or acceptable colour difference can be defined between, for example, a porcelain crown and the adjacent natural dentition.  The CIELAB colour order system defines colour coordinates: L*, a* and, b*.  L* is similar to the Munsell system’s Value and represents the lightness, brightness, or black/white character of colour. It describes the achromatic character of colour.  The coordinates a* and b* describe the chromatic characteristics of colour. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The chromatic, or non black/white, characteristics of a colour are represented in Munsell’s colour system by Hue and Chroma and in the CIELAB system by a* and b*. In each system, these two coordinates define the location of colour on a plane of given lightness. In the Munsell’s colour system, the colour is identified by one polar coordinate(Hue) and one linear or Cartesian coordinate(Chroma); in CIELAB system, both coordinates(a* and b*) are Cartesian. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • L* is the lightness variable proportional to Value in the Munsell system. It describes the achromatic character of the colour. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The a* and b* coordinates describe the chromatic characteristics of the colour. Although they do not correspond directly to Munsell’s Hue and Chroma, they can be converted to numerical parameters. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The a* coordinate corresponds to the red-purple/blue-green axis in the Munsell colour space. A positive a* relates to a predominantly red-purple colour, whereas a negative that is more blue- green. Similarly, the b* coordinate corresponds to the yellow/purple-blue axis. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The two major parts of the model are its chromatic adaptation transform, CIECAT02, and its equations for calculating mathematical correlates for the six technically-defined dimensions of colour appearance: brightness (luminance), lightness, colorfulness, chroma, saturation, and hue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • CIECAM02 takes for its input the tristimulus values of the stimulus, the tristimulus values of an adapting white point, adapting background, and surround luminance information, and whether or not observers are discounting the illuminant (colour constancy is in effect). The model can be used to predict these appearance attributes or with forward and reverse implementations for distinct viewing conditions, to compute corresponding colours. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  It refers to the process, where the colour of adjacent teeth is replicated in metal- ceramic or all-ceramic restorations.  The colour replication process for fixed restorations consists of the shade-matching phase followed by shade-duplication phase. Shade matching can be accomplished through either the more common visual shade matching ot the increasingly popular instrumental analysis. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The shade duplication takes place in the dental laboratory, in which either the use of corresponding porcelain is selected in the shade duplication phase or the use of more sophisticated porcelain mixtures is used to fabricate the restoration.  If visually perceptible differences are visible between the final restoration and the originally matched restoration, it is possible for the clinician to apply surface characterisation porcelains to the restoration to adjust any colour discrepancy. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • This phase occurs in the dentist’s office, in which the information on the colour and translucency of adjacent teeth to be matched is recorded through either visual shade matching or instrumental colour analysis. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  Visual assessment of the shade and translucency is the method most frequently applied in dentistry.  Studies have shown that this often-used method is difficult to apply with accuracy and often yields results that are unreliable and inconsistent.  Fortunately lifelike and successful restorations do not have to be exact duplicates of the colour and translucency of natural adjacent dentition. It should however blend with the teeth as a result of distribution of ceramic material in the restoration. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Not only is the apparent colour of an object influenced by its physical properties, the nature of light to which the object is exposed and the subjective assessment of the observer; the variability of two of the three factors, can cause the same object to look different.  Understanding of the three factors i.e., lighting, subjectivity of the human eye and the object can improve the accuracy and reliability of the shade matching procedure. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Light is necessary for colour to exist. An object that is perceived as a certain colour adsorbs all light waves corresponding to other colours and reflects only the waves of the objects colour.  E.g., an object that adsorbs blue and green light and reflects red appears red, the quality and quantity of light source and the environment in which the teeth or shade guides are being visualised are important. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Although daylight was initially thought to be the ideal light source for colour matching, its use is not recommended any more, in view of the inconstant colour characteristics.  The colour of daylight can vary from red- orange at sunset to blue when the sky is clear. The relative intensity of daylight also fluctuates during the day with cloud cover. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • An ideal light source for shade matching is one that is diffuse and comfortable for the eyes, allowing observers to assess the colours accurately and comfortably. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Scientifically, light is described as visible electromagnetic energy whose wavelength is measured in nanometers(nm), or billionths of a millimeter.  The eye is sensitive only to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, a narrow band with wavelengths from 380 to 750 nm. At the shorter wavelengths lie ultraviolet, X, and Gamma rays; at the longer wavelengths are infrared radiation, microwaves, and television and radio transmission waves. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  Pure white light consists of relatively equal quantities of electromagnetic energy over the visible range. When it is passed through a prism it splits into its component colours because longer wavelengths are bent less than shorter ones. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  A light source of the appropriate quality should be used during visual shade matching. The appropriate colour temperature with appropriate spectral energy distribution and colour rendering index(CRI) must be considered when selecting a light source. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  A light source with a colour temperature close to 5500°K (D55) that is spectrally balanced throughout the visible spectrum is ideal for colour matching.  Colour temperature is related to the colour of a standard black body when heated and is reported in degrees Kelvin(°K).  Accordingly, 1000°K is red, 2000°K is yellow, 5555°K is white, 8000°K is pale blue. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  D 65 is very commonly used in dental shade matching as the standard lighting for visual shade matching. A light source with CRI greater than 90 is recommended for shade matching. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Unfortunately, the most common light sources in dental operatories are incandescent and fluorescent, neither of which is ideal for shade matching. An ordinary incandescent light bulb emits relatively higher concentrations of yellow light waves than of blue and blue-green, while fluorescent fixtures emit relatively higher concentrations of blue waves. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Colour corrected fluorescent lighting is recommended because it approaches the necessary type of balance. Some of the recommended commercial colour- corrected ambient lighting, ideal for shade matching are: › CRS light › Full spectrum, Supreme › Lumichrome 1XX, 1XZ › Demetron Shade Light › Light-A-Lux › Super Daylight Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Appropriate intensity of the ambient lighting in the dental operatory provides the dentist with visual comfort, particularly in terms of contrast. It is recommended that the light intensity for the dental operatory be between 18 and 28 Lux, and 28 Lux for the dental laboratory. The intensity of the dental operatory lighting has not been found to be crucial for colour matching when the intensity ranged from 1.5 to 28 Lux. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  If ambient lighting in the dental operatory is not ideal in terms of quality and quantity for visual shade matching, the use of auxiliary light source for shade matching is recommended.  The auxiliary light source for shade matching should be intense enough to overcome the influence of ambient light.  It has been recommended that the ratio of shade matching to ambient light should not exceed 3:1; too much intensity does not allow discrimination of small colour differences. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The ambient and direct lighting used for shade matching scatters and reflects from surfaces before reaching the structure that it illuminates.  The colours in the operatory, clothing of the dentist and dental assistants, the patient’s clothing, and the dental drape may influence the perceived colour of the patient’s teeth and shade guide. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  To maintain necessary lighting quality for shade matching, the chroma of the environment should be carefully controlled.  It is recommended that the walls of the operatory, staff clothing, patient drape, and shade matching environment have a Chroma of 4 Munsell units or less, which are pastel or ideal neutral gray tones.  Further the ceiling must have a Munsell value of 9. All other major reflectors must have a Munsell value of at least 7 and Chroma not more than 4. Table tops may have a chroma of upto 6 but Munsell value of 7 or greater. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  Light from an object enters the eye and acts on the receptors in the retina(rods and cones). Impulses from these are passed to the optical center of the brain, where interpretation is made.  Shade matching is therefore subjective: different individuals have different interpretations of the same stimulus. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Under low lighting conditions, only the rods are used(scotopic vision). These receptors allow an interpretation of the brightness(but not the colour)of the objects to be made. The rods are most sensitive to blue-green objects.  Colour vision depends upon the cones, which are active under higher lighting conditions(phototopic vision).  The change from phototopic to scotopic vision is called as dark adaptation. And this takes about 40 minutes. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The area with the most cones is the center of the retina, which is free of rods. The rods begin to predominate towards the periphery. This means that the central field of vision is more colour perceptive. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Although the exact mechanism of colour vision is not known, there are types of cones-sensitive to red, green, and blue light-that forms an image in much the same way as the additive effects of pixels in a television picture. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Colour vision decreases rapidly as a person stares at an object. The original colour appears to become less and less saturated until it appears almost gray. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The brain can be tricked in how it perceives colour. A classic example of such a trick is the Benham disk.  When this black and white disk is illuminated and rotated at an appropriate speed, it appears to be highly coloured. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Colour is also influenced by surrounding colours, particularly complementary ones.  For example, if blue and yellow are placed side by side, their chroma may appear to be increased. The colour of teeth also look different if the patient is wearing brightly coloured clothing. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  It is a phenomenon that can cause two colour samples to appear as the same hue under a light source, but as unmatched hues under a different light source.  There is more than one way to produce a colour. It can either be pure, or a mixture of two other colours(e.g. pure green versus a mixture of yellow and blue) Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Pure green reflects light in green band, but the green mixture reflects light in blue and yellow bands simultaneously.  If both colours are exposed to a light with a full colour spectrum they will appear similar. If, however, they are exposed to a light source that does not contain light in the blue band, the two colours will appear dissimilar. True green will still appear green, but the mixture will appear yellow because without a source of light in the blue band the blue component of the mixture is not visible to the eye.  A spectral curve is a measure of the wavelength of light reflected from a surface. It reveals the actual component colours reflected from an object. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Metamerism complicates the colour matching of restorations. A shade button may match under incandescent lighting from the dental operatory lamp but not under fluorescent lighting in the patients workplace.  A colour selection that works well under a variety of lights is preferred to a match that is exact under one source of light but completely wrong to others. Usually three sources of light are available in the dental operatory:  Outside daylight through a window  Incandescent lighting from the dental operatory lamp  Cool white fluorescent lighting from overhead fixtures. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Colour-corrected fluorescent lamps more closely approximate natural daylight and some practitioners prefer them as the standard in dental operatories.  If the entire office is illuminated by colour-corrected fluorescent lamp, one room should have cool white fluorescent lighting for comparative shade matching. The colour match that holds up the best in these three lights is the best choice. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Fluorescent materials, such as tooth enamel, re-emit radiant energy at a lower frequency than it is adsorbed.  For example, UV radiation is reemitted as visible light.  A mismatch is said to be caused if the restoration has a different fluorescence from the natural tooth, but this is hardly significant, clinically. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Natural teeth particularly at their incisal edges, exhibit a light scatter effect that creates the appearance of bluish-white colours as the teeth are seen at different angles.  This is similar to the bluish-white background seen in opal gemstones – hence the name.  An attempt to match this effect in the restoration is made. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Defects in colour vision affects about 8% of male population and less of the female population  They maybe of different types:  Achromatism – complete lack of hue sensitivity  Dichromatism – sensitivity to only two primary hues- usually either red or green is not perceived  Anomalous trichromatism – (sensitivity to all three hues with deficiency or abnormality of one of the primary pigments in the retinal cones) Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  The most convenient method for selecting a shade is commercially available porcelain shade guides.  Vita Lumin vacuum, Ivoclar Chromascop and Vitapan 3D-Master shade guides are a few examples.  Each shade tab has a opaque backing colour, neck colour, body colour, and incisal colour. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Shade matching consists of picking the shade tab that looks the most natural and reproducing this colour in a laboratory with materials and techniques recommended by the manufacturer.  The procedure is easier if specimens of the same hue are grouped together in the shade guide. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  The A1, A2, A3, A3.5 and A4 are similar in hue, as are the B, C and D shades.  The recommended technique to choose shades is, to first choose the nearest hue and then selecting the appropriate match of chroma and value.  If the chroma or intensity is low, accurately determining a given hue may be difficult. Therefore, the region with the highest chroma should be used for initial hue selections. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Once the hue is selected, the best chroma match is chosen.  For example, if B is the hue determined to be the best match for colour variety, there are four available gradation of that hue: B1, B2, B3 and B4. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Several comparisons are usually necessary for determining which sample best represents the hue and its corresponding chroma(saturation) level.  Between comparisons, glancing at a gray object rests the operators’s eyes and helps avoid retinal cone fatigue. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Finally, value is determined with second commercial guide whose samples are arranged in order of increasing lightness.  By holding the second guide close to the patient the operator should be able to determine if the value is within the shade guide’s range. Attention is then focused on the range of shade that best represents the value of tooth and how that range relates to the tab matching for hue and saturation. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  An observer is able to assess the value most effectively by observing from a distance, standing slightly away from the chair, and squinting the eyes. By squinting the observer can reduce the amount of light that reaches the retina. Stimulation of the cones is reduced, and a greater sensitivity to achromatic conditions may result.  While squinting the observer concentrates on which disappears from sight first - the tooth or the shade tab. The one that fades first has the lower value. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Once the proper value selection is done, it is exception rather than the rule for this to coincide with the determinations for hue and chroma. The operator must then decide whether to change the previously selected shade sample. If the independent value determination is lower than the value of the sample selected for hue and chroma, a change is usually necessary, because increasing the value of an object by adding surface stain is not possible. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  If the value determination is higher than the hue determination, the operator should decide whether this difference can be bridged through internal or surface characterisations of the restoration. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  The shade samples here are grouped in six lightness levels, each of which has chroma and hue variations in evenly spaced steps. The shade guide is spaced in steps (∆E) of four CIELAB units in the lightness dimension and two CIELAB units in the hue and chroma dimensions, the difference between lightness and colour steps seems a logical approach to reducing the number of shade samples needed in the guide because of the way the CIELAB units are visually perceived. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  It seems to match the colour difference formula of the Colour Mangement Committee (CMC) of Society of Dyers and Colourists, Because the guide is evenly spaced, intermediate shades can be predictably formulated by combining porcelain powders.  The manufacturers recommend selecting the lightness first, then chroma and finally the hue. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Determine the lightness level (value)  Hold shade guide to patient’s mouth at arms length  Start with darkest group moving right to left  Select Value group 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Select the chroma  From your selected Value group remove the middle tab (M) and spread the samples out like a fan  Select one of the three shade samples to determine Chroma VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Determine the hue  Check whether the natural tooth is more yellowish or more reddish than the shade sample selected. VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Final shade! VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • With the VITA Linearguide you can determine the correct tooth shade swiftly and accurately. The modern design and systematic structure of the VITA Linearguide enable the suitable 3D-MASTER shade to be found quickly. The VITA Linearguide 3D-MASTER contains the same 29 shade samples as the VITA Toothguide 3D-MASTER. It offers precise shade-taking in VITA SYSTEM 3D-MASTER according to the conventional procedure. VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Remove the VITA Valueguide 3D-MASTER from the opened Linearguide. VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Make a first selection using the VITA Valueguide.  This way you determine the correct level of lightness from 0 to 5. VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Now make a definitive selection within the determined level of lightness from step 1 using the corresponding VITA Chroma/Hueguide. VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • The correct shade match! VITA Shade Guide Cataloguewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Most commercially available cover a range more limited than the colours found in natural teeth, and the steps in the guide are greater than can be perceived visually.  Some porcelain systems are available with extended-range shade guides.  The use of two or more shade guides is a practical way to extend the range of commercial guides. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  When using a translucent all-ceramic system for a crown or veneer, communicating the shade of the prepared dentin to the dental laboratory is helpful. Some systems provide specially coloured die materials that match the dentin shade guide and enable the technician to judge restoration’s esthetics. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Unfortunately, certain teeth may be impossible to match to commercial shade samples and also the reproduction of these shades maybe difficult.  The extensive use of surface characterisations has severe drawbacks. As the stains increase surface reflection and prevent light from being transmitted through porcelain. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  This problem can be minimised by extending the concept of a commercial shade guide.  An almost infinite number of samples can be made by using different combinations of porcelain powders in varying different combinations in varying distributions. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  This is a practical approach to accurate shade matching and is recommended even when a fairly good match is available from the commercial shade sample.  The tooth is divided into three regions: cervical, middle and incisal. Each region is matched independently, either to the corresponding area of a commercial shade sample or to a single-colour porcelain tab. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, third edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  As only a single colour is matched, intermediate shades can usually be estimated rather easily and duplicated by mixing porcelain powders.  The junctions between these areas are normally distinct and can be communicated to the laboratory in a diagrammatic form. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  The shade distribution and thickness of the enamel porcelain are particularly important. Individual characteristics are marked on such a sketch and will allow the ceramist to mimic details like hairline fractures, hypocalcification, and proximal discolorations. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 1. Shade matching should be made under balanced lighting and in an appropriate shade-matching environment with gray or pastel colour walls and cabinets. 2. Anything on the patient that influences the shade matching, including brightly coloured clothing, should be draped, and lipstick should be removed. 3. The teeth to be matched should be clean, if necessary, stains should be removed by prophylaxis. 4. Shade matching should be made at the beginning of the patients visit, tooth colour increases in value when the teeth is dry, particularly if a rubber dam has been used. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. Cheek retractors should be used to provide an unhindered intraoral shade-matching area. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. 6. Choices of shade tab should be expanded by using several shade guides or mentally noting that the shade of the tooth could be between two shade tabs. The technician should be asked to mix the porcelain in equal quantities to obtain a shade in between. 7. The patient should be viewed at eye level so that the most colour sensitive part of the retina is used. A viewing working distance of approximately 10 inches(25cm) should be adopted. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. If the tooth and shade tab have different surface characteristics, wetting the surface of both helps remove the differences. 9. Shade matching should be made quickly, i.e. in less than 5 seconds, with the shade tab placed directly next to the tooth being matched. This ensures that the background of the tooth and the shade sample are the same, which is essential for accurate matching. The dentist should be aware of eye fatigue, particularly of a very bright fibreoptic illumination has been used. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. The dentist should rest his or her eyes between viewings by focussing on a neutral gray surface immediately before shade matching, because this balances all the colour sensors of the retina. Resting eyes on a blue card was once advised, but it is not recommended because it results in blue fatigue. 11. To select the appropriate hue, the canine tooth is recommended for comparison because it has the highest chroma of the dominant hue. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. The dentist can select an appropriate value by squinting. 13. The number of shade tabs should be reduced an separated to approximately three as quickly as possible. Then one or two of the shade tab that matches the best should be reslected. 14. Shade matching should be confirmed at one or two visits and, if possible, confirmed with an auxiliary staff member. It is also recommended that shade selection be confirmed under several different lightings. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. If an exact match cannot be selected, a shade tab with the lower chroma and highest value should be selected, because extrinsic characterisation can be used to increase chroma and reduce the value. 16. The dentist should map the polychromatic nature of the tooth being matched - its special characteristics (e.g., cracks, hypocalcifications, and translucency of the incisal enamel of the tooth) - with one of the following:  A shade distribution chart  A digital camera or 35 mm slide film with the closest shade tab besides the tooth  Staining of the closest matching shade tab Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  Colour matching for dental restorations is usually done by visual shade matching. In industry, electronic colour measuring instruments, such as spectrophotometers, spectroradiometers, and colorimeters are used.  Spectrophotometers and spectroradiometers, measure the light reflectance at wavelength intervals over the visible spectrum. Spectrophotometers differ from spectroradiometers primarily in that they have a stable light source and usually have an aperture between the detector and sample. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Colorimeters provide direct colour coordinates specifications without mathematical manipulation. This is accomplished by sampling light reflected from an object through three different colour filters that simulate the response of the colour receptors in the eye.  Colour measuring instruments with an aperture between the translucent object and the illumination and sensor have been shown to exhibit ‘edge loss’ when carrying out measurements. Edge loss is a phenomenon that occurs when light is scattered through a transparent material that originally would be seen by the eye but is simply not measured by the instrument. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  This happens when the light is scattered in the translucent object away from the aperture and does not return back through the aperture to the sensor and has been shown to be wavelength dependent.  Thus, colour measuring instruments measuring translucent objects with an aperture assign incorrect colour coordinates. The phenomenon must be avoided if accurate colour measurements of translucent objects, like tooth and porcelain are to be obtained, which is done by using a combination of an external light source that does not cause shadowing and a spectroradiometer. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  These devices are generally one of the three types: › Colorimeters › Spectrophotometers › Digital Colour Analysers with various measuring abilities. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Various clinical colour measuring devices are available. › ShadeEye NCC (Colorimeter) › Easy Shade (Spectrophotometer) › ShadeScan (Digital Colour Imaging/Colorimeter) › ShadeVision (Digital Colour Imaging/Colorimeter) › SpectroShade (Digital Colour Imaging/Spectrophotometer) › ClearMatch (Software - to be used with a digital camera) Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  Errors associated with the duplication of the selected shade with dental porcelain are well documented.  These errors are related to the underlying metal used, the batch of porcelain powder used, the brand of porcelain, and the number of times glazing was performed.  Visually detectable differences between the colour of shade tab and the fired porcelain is common, surface characterisations of these errors may be used for corrections. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junheo Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, fourth edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • An understanding of the science of colour and colour perception is cruicial for the success of the restoration. Although limitations in materials and techniques may make a perfect colour match impossible, a harmonious restoration can almost always be achieved. Shade matching must always be approached in a methodical manner. This enables the practitioner to make the best choice and communicate it accurately to the laboratory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Newly developed shade systems and instruments may help the practitioner to achieve a reliable restoration match. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 1. Stephen F. Rosensteil, Martin F. Land, Junhei Fujimoto. Contemporary Fixed Prosthodontics, Fourth Edition. 2. Herbert T. Shillingburg, Jr., Sumiya Hobo, Lowell D. Whitsett, Richard Jacobi, Susan E. Brackett. Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics. 3. Ratnadeep Patil. Esthetic dentistry: An artist's science. 4. Kenneth Aschheim, Barry Dale. Esthetic Dentistry, a clinical approach to techniques and materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. Rafi Romano. The Art of the Smile: Integrating Prosthodontics, Orthodontics, Periodontics, Dental Technology, and Plastic Surgery in Esthetic Dental Treatment. 6. VITA Catalogue for Shade guide. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Next seminar on Fit and Insertion in Complete Denture Prostheses By Dr. Ashwin Pangi on 24th January 2009 www.indiandentalacademy.com
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