Physiology /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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Physiology /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2. Physiology of the stomatognathic system Function can influence the overall pattern and relationship of parts, the very foundations of the stomatognathic system.
  3. 3. • We must do more than analyze the teeth in occlusion. • Four parts: 1. Functional osteology 2. Myology 3. TMJ 4. Functions.
  4. 4. Bone is one of the hardest materials in the body, it is one of the most plastic and most responsive to functional forces. Form and function are intimately related.
  5. 5. • In 1870’s Julius Wolff came up with his theory. A change in the intensity and direction of these forces would produce a demonstrable change in the internal architecture and external form of the bone. He thought that his observation could be expressed by definite mechanical mathematic laws.
  6. 6. This concept was referred to as the law of Orthognality. Rouxe and others introduced functional factors in the development of the so called law of transformation of bone. The Law stated that the stresses of tension or Pressure on bone stimulate bone formation.
  7. 7. Lack of function leads to reduction of the Density of bone tissue, or osteoporosis. Increased function produces a greater density of bone in a particular area, or osteosclerosis. Scoliosis – treated with Miluaukee brace.
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  9. 9. Benninghoff – Study of architecture of the cranial and facial skeleton and stress trajectories. Craniofacial skeleton Head Mandible
  10. 10. Three Main vertical pillars of trajectories : All arising from the alveolar process and ending in the base of the skull. 1. Canine pillar 2. Zygomatic pillar 3. Pterygoid pillar
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  12. 12. Myology: Man - 639 Muscles - 6 billion muscle fibrils. - 6000 billion fibrils. Elasticity Muscle Contractility
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  14. 14. Principles of muscle Physiology: - Use of EMG - Muscle Tonus - Resting length - Stretch, or myotatic reflesur. Buccinator Mechanism:Bone  Muscles
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  18. 18. Functional Movements: Muscles: 1. Anterior and Posterior fibers of temporaries 2. Lateral Pterygoid 3. Masseter 4. Suprahyoid 5. Infrahyoid
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  23. 23. Lecture II
  24. 24. Positions of Mandible 1. Postural resting position (Physiologic rest) 2. Centric relation 3. Initial contact 4. Centric occlusion 5. Most retruded position (terminal hinge position) 6. Most protruded position 7. Habitual resting position 8. Habitual occlusal position.
  25. 25. Average movement area in median plane (left profile). Approximately natural size. H. 1. 2. 3. 4. The terminal hinge movement The retruded contact position The intercuspal position The edge-to-edge occlusion Anterior biting to a reversed vertical overlap 5. The protruded contact position h. The habitual (automatic closing movement II. Transition from terminal hinge to further posterior opening, III. The maximal opening O. Line parallel with the occlusal plane.
  26. 26. Postural Resting Position The jaws are not clamped together, but hey are separated by a rather constant distance, even before there are any teeth in the mouth. Factors: 1. Body and head posture 2. Sleep 3. Psychic factors influencing muscle tonus. 4. Age
  27. 27. 5. Proprioception from the dentition and muscles. 6. Occlusal changes, such as attrition 7. Pain 8. Muscle diesis and muscle spasm 9. TMJ disease.
  28. 28. Clinic Relation Centric relation refers to the position of the mandibular condyle in the articular fossa. Initial contact -As the mandible moves from physiologic rest, towards occlusion of the teeth, it maintains a centric relation position as far as articular fossa in concerned.
  29. 29. - If there is a malocclusion or a premature contact of one or more teeth, initial contact is no longer the same as centric occlusion. - They initiate deflections in the mandibular path of closure.
  30. 30. Centric Occlusion • Static position and can be easily reproduced by having the patient bring the teeth together.
  31. 31. Thank you For more details please visit