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Orthodontics an overview /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Welcome to Indian Dental Academy …

Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

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    • 1. ORTHODONTICS- -AN OVERVIEW INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 2. Small minds discuss people Big minds discuss events Great minds discuss ideasExtraordinary minds act in silence www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 3. What is Orthodontics? 1911, In Noyes defined orthodonticsas”the study of the relation of the teeth to the development of the face ,and the correction of arrested and perverted development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 4. In 1922 British society of orthodontics proposed that”orthodontics includes thestudy of growth & development of the jaws and face particularly ,and the bodygenerally,as influencing the position of the teeth;the study of action and reaction of internal and external influences on the development,and the prevention and correction of arrested and perverted development.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 5. Orthodontics-Defined by -AAO • Area of dentistry concerned with the supervision,guidance and correction of the growingand mature Dentofacial structures,including those conditions that require movement of teeth orcorrection of malrelationships and malformations ofrelated structures,by the adjustment of relationships between and among teeth and facial bones by the application of forces and /or the stimulation and redirection of the functional forces within the craniofacial complex. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 6. PIONEERS IN ORTHODONTICS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 7. Self-Portrait Bust of CHRIST Norman. W.Kingsley www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 8. FATHER OF ORTHODONTICSKINGSLEY SERVED AS DEAN OF THE SCHOOL OF DENTISTRY AT NEWYORK UNIVERSITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 9. Edward Hartley AngleFather of Modern Orthodontics www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 10. Edward Hartley Angle-(1855-1930) Father of modern Orthodontics-Born on 1st june 1855,in Herrick,Pennsylvania. In 1900 in-St.Louis-started his first school of orthodontics. American society of orthodontists was founded in 1901-under angles leadership. Introduced-most universally used classification of malocclusion. Developed a number of appliances- ‘E’arch,Pin & tube, Ribbon arch (bracket refurbished & revamped & now it is an integral part of begg technique). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 11. SO WHY DO PEOPLESEEK ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ?? www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 12. Facial Appearance :-The mostimportant characteristic inrelation to self image and selfesteemPeople Dissatisfied with Facialappearance express moredissatisfaction with teeth thanany other feature !! www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 13. AIMS OF ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT JACKSON’S TRIAD Structural BalanceFunctional Efficiency Aesthetic Harmony www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 14. SIX KEYS OF NORMAL OCCLUSION 1.MOLAR INTER-ARCHRELATIONSHIP 2.MESIODISTAL CROWN ANGULATION 3.LABIOLINGUAL CROWN INCLINATION 4.ABSENCE OF ROTATION 5.TIGHT CONTACTS 6.CURVE OF SPEE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 15. WHY TO CLASSIFY? www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 16. REASONS FOR CLASSIFYING TO GROUP CERTAIN MALOCCLUSIONS TOGETHER WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE THE SAME ETIOLOGY. EASE OF REFERENCE, COMPARISON AND COMMUNICATION. THINKING OF THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT MODALITIES THAT MAY BE NEEDED IN A PARTICULAR CASE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 17. VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION ANGLE SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATIONS SIMONS SYSTEM AETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIONBAUME CLASSIFICATION OF PRIMARY TEETHACKERMANN AND PROFITT CLASSIFICATION BALLARDS CLASSIFICATION WHO CLASSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 18. ANGLE SYSTEM BY EDWARD HARTLEY ANGLE WAS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF MODERN ORTHODONTICS BASED ON THE ANTERO POSTERIOR RELATIONSHIP OF THE JAWS WITH EACH OTHER CONSIDERS MAXILLARY FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 19. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 20. CLASS II DIVISION I DIVISION II TYPE A TYPE B TYPE CCLASS II SUB DIV TRUECLASS III PSUEDOCLASS III SUB DIV www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 21. Angle’s classification of malocclusion• It was given by Edward Angle in 1899• Based on the mesio-distal relation of the teeth, dental arches and jaws• Maxillary 1st permanent molar- key to occlusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 22. Class I malocclusionClass I molar relationship Mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st permanent molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 24. Class II div 2• Class II molar relation• Lingually inclined upper central incisors• Labially tipped lateral incisors overlapping the centrals• Normal perioral muscle activity• Abnormal backward path of closure www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 25. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 26. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 27. Class II subdivision » Class II molar relation on one side and class I on other www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 28. Class III MALOCCLUSIONCLASS III MOLAR RELATIONSHIP-MESIOBUCCAL CUSP OF MAXILLARY FIRSTMOLAR OCCLUDES IN THE INTERDENTALSPACE BETWEEN THE DISTAL CUSP OFMANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR AND SECOND MOLAR.• CLASSIFIED INTO- TRUE CLASS III PSEUDO CLASS III www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 29. Class III MALOCCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 30. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 31. TRUE CLASS III• Class III molar relation• LOWER INCISORS LINGUALLY INCLINED• LOWER TONGUE POSTURE- NARROW UPPER ARCH www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 32. PSEUDO CLASS III• CAUSED BY FORWARD MOVEMENT OF THE MANDIBLE- POSTURAL OR HABITUAL CLASS III• CAUSES OF PSEUDO CLASS III:- OCCLUSAL PREMATURITY LOSS OF DECIDUOUS MOLARS LARGE ADENOIDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 33. Purpose of Cephalometrics•Study craniofacial growth•Diagnosis•Planning orthodontic treatment•Evaluation of treated cases Cephalometrics is a technique employing oriented radiographs for the purpose of making head measurements. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 34. Purpose of Cephalometrics• Study craniofacial growth• Diagnosis• Planning orthodontic treatment• Evaluation of treated cases Cephalometrics is a technique employing oriented radiographs for the purpose of making head measurements. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 35. Cephalostat 60" 60" 15" 15" Film Plane Film Plane Source Plane Source PlaneX-ray Source X-ray Source X-ray Film in X-ray Film in Mid-saggital Plane Mid-saggital Plane Cassette Cassette Patient in Head Positioning Patient in Head Positioning Device Device www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 36. Cephalostat www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 37. Cephalostat www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 38. Standard Cephalometric Landmarks Sella NasionPorion OrbitaleArticulare ANS A Point B Point Gonion Pogonion PNS Menton Gnathion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 39. Radiographic Landmarks www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 40. Frequently Used Planes SN Plane Frankfort Plane Palatal Plane Occlusal Plane Mandibular Plane www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 41. Orthodontictooth movementis not the onlytype of toothmovement.
    • 42. Types of Tooth Movement Eruption Active Passive Lateral drifts Physiological Due to loss of adjacent teeth Orthodontic tooth movement
    • 43. Types of Tooth Movement Intrusion Extrusion Tipping Translation Rotation
    • 44. Mechanisms of Tooth Movement Piezoelectric theory.
    • 45. Mechanisms of Tooth Movement Pressure-tension theory.
    • 46. The Optimal Force“High enough to stimulate cellular activitywithout completely occluding blood vessels inthe PDL” (Proffit et al. 2000).Actively being investigated in a scientific fieldknown as mechanotransduction.
    • 47. Orthodontic tooth movement cannotoccur unless cells are at work.
    • 48. Force --- fluid flow --- cell-level strainDeformation of cell membrane leading to cytoskeletal changesSecond messenger pathwaysGene upregulation in fibroblasts, osteoblasts and osteoclasts
    • 49. Effects of LIGHT forces on theperiodontiumLight, continuous forces Osteoclasts formed Removing lamina dura Tooth movement begins This process is called “FRONTAL RESORPTION”.
    • 50. “Frontal resorption” because it occursbetween the root and the lamina dura.
    • 51. LIGHT forces leading to FRONTAL RESORPTION Phase 1 – Mechanical compression and tension of the periodontium Phase 2 --- Mechanically induced cellular and genetic responses; no tooth movement Phase 3 --- Accelerated tooth movement due to frontal bone resorption Tooth movement (mm) Phase 3 Phase 2 Phase 1 Time (Arbitrary Unit)
    • 52. Effects of HEAVY forces on theperiodontiumHeavy, continuous forces Blood supply to PDL occluded Aseptic necrosis PDL becomes “hyalinized” – “HYALINIZATION” This process is called “UNDERMINING RESORPTION”.
    • 53. “Undermining resorption” because it occurs on the underside of lamina dura, not between lamina dura and the root.
    • 54. Orthodontic tooth movementremains one of the mostsuccessful procedures withpredictable outcome inmedicine and dentistry.
    • 55. Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics requires thorough knowledge inbiology (of bone, cartilage, teeth, muscles, nerves and other soft tissues),biomechanics, biometrics, material science, clinical skills and practicemanagement in addition to interpersonal skills.
    • 56. W study tooth movement? hyUp to 80% of the U.S. population have malocclusion thatwarrants orthodontic correction.Currently, 36% of the U.S. population seeks orthodontictreatment (Brunelle et al., 1996).
    • 57. SKELETAL MATURITY INDICATORS www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 58. Introduction Chronological age is often not sufficient for assessing the developmental stage and somatic maturity of the patient. The biological age is determined from the skeletal, dental and morphologic age and the onset of puberty. Due to individual variations in timing, duration and velocity of growth, skeletal age assessment is essential in formulating viable orthodontic treatment plans. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 59. SKELETAL MATURITYINDICATORS PROVIDEAN OBJECTIVEDIAGNOSTICEVALUATION OFSTAGE OF MATURITYIN AN INDIVIDUAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 60. METHODS AVAILABLE TO ASSESS THESKELETALMATURITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL--1.USE OF HAND WRIST X-RAYS2.EVALUATION OF SKELETALMATURATION USING CERVICAL VERTEBRAE3.ASSESMENT OF MATURITY BYCLINICAL AND RADIOGRAPHICEXAMINATION OF DIFFERENTSTAGES OF TOOTH DEVELOPMENT. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 61. Orthognathic surgery Orthognathic surgeries are surgical procedures carried out along with orthodontic treatment to correct dento facial deformities of severe orofacial disproportions, involving maxilla,the mandible or both in combination www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 62. Etiology Prenatal Hereditary environmental www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 63. The various classification proposedare: White and Gardiner Salzmann’s classification Moyer’s classification Graber’s classification www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 64. Local factors 1. Anomalies in number of teeth 2. Anomalies of tooth size 3. Anomalies of tooth shape 4. Abnormal labial frenum 5 Premature loss of deciduous teeth 6. Prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 7. Delayed eruption 8. Abnormal eruptive pathway 9. Ankylosis 10.Dental caries 11.Improper dental restorations www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 65. General factors Heredity: It includes factors that result in malocclusion and are inherited from the parents by the off springs. These factors can influence- Neuromuscular system Dentition Skeletal structures Soft tissues www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 66. Environmental factors Prenatal factors  Abnormal fetal posture : - -Interferes with symmetric development of face -Not directly associated with malocclusion but may be associated with abnormal pressure or imbalance. -Most of the deformities are temporary and disappears with time www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 67.  Maternal infections such as German measles and use of certain drugs during pregnancy like thalidomide can cause congenital deformities like cleft Post natal factors- Trauma- Forceps delivery can result in injury to the TMJ area which can undergo ankylosis retarded mandibular growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 68. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 69. Indications for OrthognathicSurgery Severity of skeletal and dental malocclusion When growth modification can not be achieved Esthetic and psychosocial considerations www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 70. Indications for orthognathic surgery • Facial imbalances or asymmetries – Long lower face, gummy smile• Limitations of tooth movements• Relapse potential of orthodontic treatment www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 71. Contraindications Minor skeletal problem Patients with only dentoalveolar problems Uncontrolled systemic disease Unstable patients with poor personality or pathologic personality www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 72. Aims of orthognathic surgery Optimum facial aesthetics Optimum dental aesthetics Functional occlusionsss Future health of oro-facial structures Rapid treatment A stable result Minimum morbidity(unhealthy, sick, sickly, gruesome, ghastly, macabre, dreadful.) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 73. THANK YOU INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com