Orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. ORTHODONTIC WIRES  INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION    Recent advances in Orthodontic wire alloys have resulted in a varied array of wires that exhibit a wide spectrum of properties . Up until the 1930's the only orthodontic wire Available was made of Gold. Austenitic stainless steel, with its greater strength, higher modulus of elasticity, good resistance to corrosion and moderate costs, were introduced, as an orthodontic wire in 1929 and shortly afterward gained popularity over gold. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS STRESS: :-Stress is the internal distribution of the load measured as force per unit area .  STRAIN: :-Strain is the internal distortion produced by load (force defined as deflection per unit length).  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4.  PROPORTIONAL LIMIT OR ELASTIC LIMIT :-The point at which first plastic deformation occurs.  LOAD DEFLECTION RATE :-For a given load (force) the deflection observed within the elastic limit is known as load deflection rate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5.  MODULUS OF ELASTICITY :-The mechanical property that determines the load deflection rate of an orthodontic wire is the modulus of elasticity (F). Load deflection rate varies directly and linearly with modulus of elasticity . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. GOLD ALLOYS  The composition of the alloys used in gold orthodontic wires is similar to the type IV gold casting alloys .  These wires can be potentially strengthened with the proper heat treatment, although they are typically used in as cold drawn condition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. COMPOSITION. GOLD 55-65% COPPER 11-18% SILVER 1-25% NICKEL 5-10% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8.  The yield strength of wrought gold wires can range from 50,000 - 160,000 psi depending on the alloy condition .  The modulus of elasticity of gold alloys is approximately 15 X 10 power of 6 psi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. ADVANTAGES  HIGLY FORMABLE  CAPABLE OF DELIVERING LOWER LEVEL OF FORCES THAN STAINLESS STEEL.  CAN BE EASILY JOINED BY SOLDERING AND JOINTS ARE HIGLY CORROSION RESISTANT. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. DISADANTAGES.  Gold alloys typically have yield strengths in the lower end of the range, which limits spring back .  Increasing cost . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. STAINLESS STEEL  In the 1940's Austenitic stainless steel began to displace gold as the primary alloy for orthodontic wires.  The most commonly used types are 302 and 304 stainless steel  These alloys derive most of their strength from cold working and carbon interstitial www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. COMPOSITION. IRON 73-74% CHROMIUM 18% NICKEL 8% CARBON 0-0.2% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13.  The only heat treatment used with this wire are for stress relieving, which is typically done at 850 degree F(454° c) for less than 10 50,000-280,000 psi  The modulus of elasticity of orthodontic stainless steel wires range from 23 X 106 24 X 10 rise to 6 psi. The high modulus necessitates the use of smaller diameter wires for alignment procedures where lower forces are indicated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14.  The microstructure demonstrates the typical 'fibrous' appearance associated with extensively elongated strains.  This microstructure can be altered by short exposures to high temperatures, which is why soldering procedures have to be undertaken carefully. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15.  The ratio of yield strength to modulus indicates that stainless steel wire has slightly greater spring back properties than gold .  In general stainless steel has excellent formability, although the wires with higher yield strength may be somewhat brittle.  Stainless steel can be soldered and has good corrosion resistance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. MULTISTRANDED STAINLESS STEEL WIRE  Flexibility of stainless steel wire can be increased by building up a strand of stainless steel wire around a core of ‘0.0065" wire along with 0.0055" wire used as wrap wires. This produces an overall diameter of approximately 0.0165".  The strand of stainless steel wire is more flexible due to the contact slip between Adjacent wrap wires and the core wire of the www.indiandentalacademy.com strand
  17. 17.  When the strand is deflected the wires which are both under tension and torsion will slip with respect to the core wire and each other. If there is no elastic deformation wire returns to its normal position giving the elasticity to the strand of the wire  Muti stranded Wires are available in round, rectangular and in square cross sections. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Triple-stranded wire geometry.Lower drawings show derivation of crosssectional area of a single strand normal to the neutral axis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  Kusy and Dillcy noted that the stiffness of a triple stranded 0.175" (3 X 008") stainless steel arch wire was similar to that of 0.0 10" single stranded stainless steel arch wire.  The multi stranded arch wire was also 25% stronger that the 0.010 stainless steel wire.  The triple stranded wire was also half as stiff as .016" B-titanium. Multi stranded wire can be used as a substitute to the newer alloy wire considering the cost of nickel titanium wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Multi stranded wires available are : Dentaflex - Dentaurum. :-Dentaflex is available is triple strand, co-axial six strand and braided eight strand.  D-rect is an 8 stranded, interwoven braided rectangular wire. Its high flexibility, together with 3-dimensional control and slot filling capabilities. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. D-rect advantages   Initial torque control Picking up second molars later in treatment  A finishing arch wire, where torque control is desired yet resilient to permit inter arch  Occlusal settling.  Torque control with vertical or anterior Box elastics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Force 9 is a 9-strand, inter woven, braided rectangular wire. It delivers 50% more force than the 8-stranded D-rect. Its selection can be based upon similar applications where Slightly more force seems to be indicated.  RESPOND - is a 6-strand, spiral wrap with a central core wire. Respond-6.1n deliver light, initial forces while filling the arch wire slot for greater control. Its resistance to permanent deformation makes respond an excellent choice as an initial arch wire in more severe dental mal alignments. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Straight lengths of twisted stainless steel wires compared (after having been tied into the typodont for one hour). Respond (a six-strand wire) has a greater range than TwistFlex or Wildcat (both threestrand wires). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.  Rectangular multistrand wires compared. DRect (an eight-strand, braided wire) compares closely with Force 9 (a nine-strand, braided wire). Quad-Cat (a three-strand, twisted rectangular wire) deforms easily and is much stiffer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. AUSTRALIAN ORTHODONTIC ARCH WIRES.  A.J. Wilcock produced orthodontic arch wire to meet Dr. Begg’s needs for use in Begg’s technique .  The wire produced has certain unique characteristics different from usual stainless steel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.  It is an ultra high tensile austenitic stainless steel arch wire  The wire is resilient, certain bends when incorporated into the arch form and pinned to the teeth become activated. By which stresses are produced within the wire generating wires. The wire has a unique property of zero stress relaxation. Zero relaxation allows the wire to maintain its force over a long period of time, yet resist permanent deformation from elastic load. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. AVAILABLE IN 8 GRADES: REGULAR GRADE White label lowest grade and easiest to bend. Used for practice bending or forming auxiliaries. It can be used as arch wire when distortion and bite opening is not a problem.  REGULAR PLUS GRADE: Green label relatively easy to form yet more resilient than regular grade. Used for auxiliaries when more pressure and resistance to deformation is required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28.  SPECIAL GRADE: Black label highly resilient yet can be formed into intricate shapes with little danger of breakage  SPECIAL PLUS GRADE: Orange label - hardness and resiliency of the wire are excellent for Supporting anchorage and reducing deep overbite. EXTRA SPECIAL GRADE: Blue label highly resilient and hard, difficult to bend and subjects to fracture.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29.  Later due to demand from orthodontic fraternity higher grades premium and premium plus grades were developed.  In early 1980 an even higher grade wire which is commercially available as supreme was produced by A.J. Wilcock. This wire is available in .008", .009", . 010 and .011 ", These wires were initially used for alignment in lingual orthodontics were brackets are close together. The flexibility of supreme wire is comparable to that of Nickel Titanium wires and has the added advantage of www.indiandentalacademy.com good formability.
  30. 30.  To avoid breakage of Australian orthodontic arch wire, the flat beak of the light wire pliers should be used. This has the effect of introducing a moment about the thumb and wire gripping point that reduces the applied stress that might other wise cause wire fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31.  In addition when the wire is bent around the round beak of the pliers the stress on the crystalline structure is confined to a small area which may cause the wire to break. When bending the wire around the flat beak the ,points of stress are offset, providing more area for crystalline adjustment and therefore less chance for fracture of the wire.  The wire has a ductile-brittle transition temperature which may be around room tem-perature or slightly above. Hence pulling the wire with the fingers is recommended to warm the wire, which reduces brittleness and avoid fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32.  Till 1980wires were straightened by what is called as spinner straightening process. Spinner straightening is a mechanical process of straightening, usually in the cold hard drawn conditions.  The wire is pulled through high speed rotating bronze rollers which torsionally twist the wire into a straightened condition. This can result in permanent deformation.  Presently the premium and supreme wires are straightened by a process called pulse straightening. Though the exact procedure, presumably remain a trade secret, it enables to straighten these high yield strength wires, without structural deformation and altering the physical properties. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33.  Wallaby is a high temper Australian stainless steel wire manufactured by Ormco, Its higher yield strength over equivalent diameter of stainless steel, provides higher forces for a given deflection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. CHORME COBALT ALLOYS  Initially it was manufactured for watch springs by Elgin watch company, hence the name Elgiloy. Marketed as  Elgiloy  Azurloy  Multiphase  Ramaloy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. COMPOSITION COBALT 40% CHROMIUM 20% NICKEL 15%. MOLYBDENUM 7% MANGANESE 2% CARBON 0.15% BERRYLIUM 0.4% IRON 15% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Types of chrome cobalt alloy wires:  Blue Elgiloy:- Can be bent easily with fingers and pliers. Heat treatment of blue elgiloy increases its resistance to deformation  Yellow EIgiloy :- Relatively ductile and more resilient than blue elgiloy. Further increase in its resilience and spring performance can be achieved bywww.indiandentalacademy.com heat treatment.
  37. 37.  Green Elgiloy - More resilient than yellow elgiloy and can be shaped with pliers before heat treatment.  Red Eigiloy - Most resilient of elgiloy wires, with high spring qualities, withstand only minimal work hardening. Heat treatment makes it extremely resilient.  Since elgiloy will fracture easily heat treatment, all adjustments should be made before precipitation hardening process.  Smaller spring back is desired for all non heat treated cobalt chromium wires with the exception of red temper elgiloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. HEAT TREATMENT:  The ideal temperature for heat treatment is 900°F or 482°C for 7.12 minutes in a dental furnace.  This causes precipitation hardening of the alloy increasing the resistance of the wire to deformation.  Electrical heat treatment using, a heat treatment unit can also be used with a temperature indication paste. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  Heat treatment increases the flexural yield strength, modulus of elasticity ,reduces the corrosion in localized areas where stresses can get concentrated .  Pre-heat treated wires will be soft and easy to manipulate, making it convenient for clinician to place accurate bends with ease, after heat treatment, the wire will obtain better spring back properties . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40.  The disadvantage of this wire is the tendency to harden at the point where two segment are welded or soldered, and the greater degree of work hardening when compared to stainless steel.  Soldering should be done carefully as high temperatures (above 1200°F) causes annealing with resultant loss in yield and tensile strengths. Low fusing solder is recommended.  The advantages of elgiloy over stainless steel wires include greater resistance to fatigue and distortion and longer function as a resilient spring. The high moduli of elasticity of elgiloy wire suggest that these wires deliver twice the forces of Beta Titanium wires and four times the force or nitinol wires for equal amount of activations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. •AZURLOY is a heat treatable alloy with excellent formability in its non heat treated form .  Can be used for  Multiloop  Utility systems arches  Overlay intrusion arches or base arches. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Heat-treated Elgiloy wires arranged in order of decreasing working range (from top to bottom), Red Elgiloy having the greatest range.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS.  The first of the titanium alloys introduced into orthodontics in recent years, is nickel titanium alloy marketed as Nitinol by Unitek corporations were developed for the space program but has proved very useful in clinical orthodontics because of its exceptional springiness.  The word Nitinol is an acronym which is derived from Nickel titanium and NOL which stands for NAVALORDINANCE LABORATORY, its place www.indiandentalacademy.com of origin
  44. 44. TheNiti alloys have two remarkable properties that are unique in dentistry Shape memory Super elasticity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45.  Shape memory is the phenomenon where about the alloy is soft and readily formable at a low temperature, but can be easily returned to its original configuration when heated to suitable transition temperature.  Super elasticity is the property, demonstrated by these wires when the value remains, fairly constant upto a certain point of wire deformation and stays constant as the wire rebounds www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Martensite form exists at lower temperature, the austenite form higher temperature After considerable experimentation, Nitinol marketed in the later 1970s for Orthodontic use in a stabilized martensite form, with no applications of face transition effects.  Nitinol is exceptionally springy and quite strong but poor formability.  The family of stabilized martensitic alloys commercially available referred to as M-NITl.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. The late 1980 new Niti wires with an active austenitic grain structure appeared. These wires exhibit the other remarkable properties of Niti alloys, namely super elasticity and shape memory. This group of Niti wires is referred to as A – Ni ti wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48.  The physical behavior of niti alloy wire can be interpreted and explained from a metallurgic analysis.  It is generally an accepted fact that Niti alloy is a nearly equiatomic inter metallic compound that incorporates a variety of properties that can be conlrolled by the manufacturing process.  A given zone lies between the high and low temperature ranges. At high temperature range, the crystal structure of Niti alloy is an austenitic phase, which is a body centered cubic lattice.   The martensite phase which is a closely packed hexagonal lattice a low temperature range www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49.  By contolling the low and high temperature ranges, change in crystal structure called martensitic transformation can be produced. This phenomenon is a said to cause a change in its physical properties.  In the martensitic phase which has a low temperature range the metal is ductile . In the austenite phase in the high temperature range, it is more difficult to induce deformation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. When an external force is applied, the deformation of most metals is induced with a slip of lattice, the deformation of Niti alloy is induced with martensitic transformation  The martensitic transformation can be reversed by heating the alloy to return to its austenitic phase and it is gradually transformed by reversing back into the energy stable condition.  This means that the alloy can return to the previous shape. This is called shape memory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. SUPER ELASTICITY  It is produced by stress not by temperature difference and is called stress induced martensitic transformation.  Matrensitic transformation begins when external force is applied in such a manner that stress exceeds a given amount.  This called as super elasticity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. A new Japanese Nickel Titanium alloy was developed by Miura et al Japan. This wire showed better super elastic and shape memory properties. The wire delivered a constant force over an extended portion of the deactivation range.  When compared to Nitinol it showed less tendency towards permanent deformation during activation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.  Another Nickel titanium alloy introduced by Burstone and developed by Dr. Tien hua Chang called as Chinese Niti alloy exhibits superior spring back property when compared to Nitinol due to little work hardening and presence of the parent phase which is austenite yielding better mechanical properties.  In addition Chinese Ni ti wire has a much lower transition temperature range. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.  Part of the unusual nature of a super elastic material like A-Niti is that its unloading curve differs from its loading curve (i.e., reversibility has an energy loss associated with it hysterisis.  This different loading the unloading curves produce even more remarkable effct that is the force delivered by an A-niti which can be changed during clinical use merely by releasing it and retying it.  For the orthodontists, wire bending in the classic sense is all but impossible with Niti, because they do not undergo plastic deformation until remarkably high force is applied. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55.  Bending of the niti wires can be done in clinical setting by bending the wire while an electric current is being passed through it using modified orthodontic pliers as the electrodes .  The process of heating the wire electrically is known as DERHT or direct electrical resistance heat treatment. The elastic properties of the wire is not affected by the presence of the bend.  It is also possible to change the super elastic properties of a section of an arch wire by the treatment of that segment. This is accomplished by passing the electric current between electrodes attached to only one segment of the wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56.  Surface roughness of Niti wire is thc highest among all the orthodontic wires . The surface characteristics of the Nickel Titanium alloy wires are a result of its complex manufacturing process and proprietary surface treatment.  Nickel and Titanium are commonly manufactured into nickel titanium alloy by the process of vacuum melting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Several remelts are needed to improve homogeneity of nickel titanium alloys. Voids occur in the area where the powders are not completely pressed together. The wires obtain their final shape by the process of drawing or rolling. The process of drawing or rolling may leaves scratch marks on the surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. USES OF NITI ALLOY WIRES:  Because of its superior spring back, super elasticity, shape memory, and its ability to produce light force for longer duration Niti is the ideal wire for initial leveling and aligning.  Rectangular Niti allows full engagement of the Bracket slot and gives better torque control in the initial phase of treatment. Reverse curve Niti, also known as Rocking chair Niti helps in bite opening and when placed upside down helps in bite closure along with leveling and aligning. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59.  The problems of breakage during insertion common with elastomeric modules is resolved.  Reuse after autoclaving is also possible with Niti spring  Niti palatal expander bas been developed which is used for transverse expansion of maxilla www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60.  The action of the appliance is a consequence of Niti's shape memory and transition temperature effects, The Ni ti expander has a transition temperature of 94 degree F.  When it is chilled before insertion, it becomes flexible and can be easily bent to facilitate placement. As the mouth begins to warm the appliance, the metal stiffens, shape memory is restored and the expander begins to exert a light, continuous force on the teeth and the mid palatal suture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61.  Niti is also available in the form of coil springs.  These Niti coil springs manufactured by Ormco greatly enhance efficiency in both space closure and space opening. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. TRADE NAMES OF NITI ALLOY WIRES MANUFACTURED BY SOME COMPANIES  Elastinol - Masel orthodontics  Bioforce sentalloy - Gac International  Nitanium - Ortho organisers  Sentinol- Gac International  5 Align - A Company  Force: I - American Orthodontics  Turbo –ormco  Nitinol xl-3M unitek www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. The latest of the Niti Wires is the Copper Niti wire introduced by Ormco  Copper Niti from Ormco represents, the next generation of the super elastic and shape memory wires.  This revolutionary new alloy set at four transformation temperature for four distinct. force levels, enables the clinician to provide the optimal forces for tooth movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. COMPOSITION. NICKEL 49.8% TITANIUM 42.9% COPPER 6% CHROMIUM 0.05% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65.  Stress induced martensite is responsible for the super elastic properties of NI-TI alloys.  Martensite transformation is also temperature dependent.  One of of the most important markers is the materials austenitic finish temperature. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66.  To exploit super elasticity to its fullest potentials the working temperature of the orthodontic appliance should be greater than the austenitic finish temperature.  It is the differential between the austenitic finish temperature And the mouth temperature that determines the force generated by Ni ti alloys . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. ADVANTAGES OF COPPER NI -TI  REDUCE HYSTERISIS.  PRECISE TRANSITION TEMPERATURE.  20%LESS LOADING FORCE WHEN COMPARED TO NICKEL TITANIUM.  IT PERMITS EASIER ENGAGEMENT IN TO THE BRACKET SLOT WITH LESS DIFFICULTY.  IT CREATES LESS TRAUMA AND DISCOMFORT TO THE PATIENT. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68.  Five flexible archwires after activation. Nitinol shows the least deflection. D-Rect and Respond practically tie for second, and Hi-T stainless steel shows the most distortion. All five of these archwires would apply light forces, due to their low stiffness numbers, and could consequently be used ideally for initial leveling and aligning. Schematic diagram shows the differences among the wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Stainless steel and Nitinol arch wires before and after activation, showing resulting permanent distortion. Numbers indicate how far (mm) the arch wire springs back after being cut free from the deviated teeth. Each number, therefore, represents the working range, or the distance the wire could have moved the tooth at that particular activation. In both cases, the 5mm activation was the maximum working range deflection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. ALPHA TITANIUM  Pure titanium has different crystallographic forms at high and low temperatures  At temperature below 885° C the hexagonal closed packed or alpha lattice is stable while at higher temperature the metal rearranges into body centered cubic or beta crystal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71.  The alpha titanium alloy is attained by aiding 6% aluminum and 4% vanadium to titanium.  Because of its hexagonal lattice, it possess fewer slip planes making it less ductile from B - titanium.  Slip planes are the planes of atoms in a crystal that can glide past. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72.  The more the slip planes the easier it is to deform the material.  Body centered cubic of B-titanium have two slip planes.  The hexagonal close pack structures of Alpha titanium has only one active slip plane along its base rendering it less ductile. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73.  Alpha titanium gets hardened by absorbing intra oral free hydrogen ions which turn it into titanium hydride at the oral temperature of 37°C and 100% humidity.  Mollenhauer reported that after six weeks in mouth, the wire become brittle to bend. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Presently the wire is available as a combination the anterior section is .018" X .025"rectangular torque control and braking while the posterior section which is oval, tapering from 0.018" to. 0.017".   Used as finishing wires. 2nd stage of Begg’s treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. BETA TITANIUM/TITANIUM MOLEBDYNUM ALLOY/TMA.  Beta - titanium a new orthodontic alloy with unique properties and excellent balance of properties suitable for many orthodontic applications  For a given cross section it can deflected approximately twice as far as stainless steel wire without permanent deformation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. COMPOSITION TITANIUM 79% MOLYBDENUM 11% ZIRCONIUM 6% TIN 4% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. ADVANTAGES OF TMA  IT DELIVERS FORCE VALUE LESS THAN HALF OF STAINLESS STEEL.  THIS MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO USE LARGER RECTANGULAR WIRES FOR EARLIER OR MORE COMPLETE TORQUE CONTROL WHILE MAINTAINING OR REDUCING LOAD/DEFLECTION RATE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78.  GOOD SPRING BACK.  GOOD FORMABILITY.  WELDABILITY.  ABSENCE OF NICKEL MAKES IT IN USEFUL FOR PATIENTS ALLERGIC TO NICKEL. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Nitinol and TMA compared. TMA has less working range than Nitinol, but more than all the solid stainless steel and Elgiloy wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80.  Performed tear drop looped T.M.A, arch wire provides twice the working range of stainless steel and requires fewer activations for retraction.  T.M.A’s moderate forces are moderate less trauma for ,the patient and increases patient comfort.  Retraction can be accomplished more efficiently with reduced chair time. A stainless steel tear drop loop produce a force of 728 gms for 1mm activation and a T.M.A. tear drop loop produces a force 367 gms, for 1 mm activation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81.  Ormco has introduced a low friction, T.M,A. featuring dramatically reduced coefficient of friction for superior sliding mechanics. Through an exclusive ion beam implantation  The surface friction of T.M.A. is reduced by an average of 54%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. TMA COLOURS  BY ION BEAM IMPLANTATION TMA CAN BE GIVEN COLOURS WHICH PATIENTS LIKE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. TOOTH COLOURED ORTHODONTIC WIRES: NEW ORTHODONTIC MATERIAL WHICH HAS BEEN ADAPTED FROM AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY.  HAS BEEN MADE OF COMPOSITIE PLASTICS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. FIRST WIRE USED CLINICALLY IS OPTIFLEX BY ORMCO: HAS GOT 3 LAYERS  A SILICON DIOXIDE CORE WHICH PROVIDES FORCE FOR THE MOVEMENT OF TEETH.  SILICON RESIN MIDDLE LAYER PROTECTS THE CORE FROM MOISTURE AND ADDS STRENGTH.  A STAIN RESISTANT NYLON OUTER LAYER. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OPTIFLEX:  It is used in adult patients who wish that their braces not be really visible.  It should be used in cases to be treated without bicuspid extraction.  Optilflex is not the ideal arch wire for major cuspid retraction. Retracting cuspids in the extraction cases with optiflex has been disappointing due to its limited ability to control the distal tripping and the labio lingual rotation of the retracted cuspids. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. MARSENOL: MARSENOL is a tooth colored Nickel titanium wire manufactured by GLENROE TECHNOLOGIES. It is an E.T.E. coated Nickel Titanium. E.T.E. is an abbreviation for ELASTOMERIC POLY TETRA FLORETHYLENE EMULSION.  Marensol exhibits all the same working characteristics of an uncoated super elastic Nickel titanium wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. LEE WHITE WIRE  LEE WHITE WIRE, manufactured by LEE PHARMACEUTICAL is a resilient stainless steel or Nickel titanium arch wire bonded to a tooth colored EPOXY coating.  Suitable for use with CERAMIC and PLASTIC brackets www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Clinical application:Stage I-unravelling of incisors:  Wire with low stiffness is necessary for clinician to attain full bracket engagement and biocompatible with tooth supporting structure.  Wires of choice: 1. TMA 2. NITI 3. SS 4. ELGILOY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. REASON:1. 2. TMA IS MOST APPROPRIATE FOR DECROWDING BECAUSE OF ITS LOW WIRE STIFNESS AND HIGHER ENERGY POTENTIAL. 2ND CHOICE IS NITI BECAUSE IT HAS THE LOWEST STIFNESS AND GREATEST AMOUNT OF FLEXIBILITY.BUT IT HAS LOWEST STORED ENERGY POTENTIAL,SO IT NEEDS FREQUENT www.indiandentalacademy.com ACTIVATION.
  91. 91. STAGE2-INISOR RETRACTION  1. 2. 3. 4. WIRES OF CHOICE ARE WALLABY AUSTRALIAN WILCOCK WIRE- PREMIUM PLUS ELGILOY TMA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. REASON  HIGH WIRE STIFNESS IS NECESSARY FOR DELIVERY OF PROPER TIP AND TORQUE.  THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY AVAILABLE FOR TOOTH MOVEMENT SHOULD BE HIGH. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. STAGE III-FINISHING AND DETAILING  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WIRES OF CHOICE TMA AJ WILCOCK-PREMIUM PLUS CHROMIUM ALLOY GREEN ELGILOY WALLABY. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. REASON  REQUIREMENTS IN 3 RD STAGE ARE  LOW STIFNESS.  HIGH ENERGY POTENTIAL.  FULL BRACKET ENGAGEMENT WITHOUT PERMANENT DEFORMATION. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. CONCLUSION  NOW THERE IS TRANSITION FROM VARIBLE CROSS SECTIONAL CONCEPT VARIBLE MODULUS CONCEPT VARIBLE TRANSFORMATION TEMPARATURE ORTHODONTICS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. REFRENCES • 1989 Aug 100 - 109 Txt Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontics wires - Kapila and Sachdeva. • 1985 Jun 445 - 452 Txt Burstone, Qin, and Morton Chinese NiTi wire - • 1980 Feb 121 - 132 Burstone Beta titanium - Txt www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. • Andreasen GF, Morrow RE. Laboratory and clinical analyses of nitinol wire. AM J ORTHOD 1978;73:142-51. • Schwaninger B, Sarkar NK, Foster BE. Effect of long-term immersion corrosion on the flexural properties of nitinol. AM J ORTHOD 1982;82:45• Ingram SB, Gipe DP, Smith RJ. Comparative range of orthodontic wires. AM J ORTHOD DENTOFAC ORTHOP 1986;90:296-307. • Schaus JG, Nikolai RJ. Localized transverse flexural stiffnesses of continuous arch wires. AM J ORTHOD 1986;89:407-14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. • Goldberg AJ, Morton J, Burstone CJ. The flexure modulus of elasticity of orthodontic wires. J Dent Res 1983;62:8568. • . Kusy RP, Dilley GJ. Elastic modulus of triple-stranded stainless steel arch wire via three- and four-point bending. J Dent Res 1984;63:1232-40. • Burstone CJ, Qin B, Morton JY. Chinese NiTi wire— A new orthodontic alloy. AM J ORTHOD 1985;87:445-52. • Larson BE, Kusy RP, Whitley JQ. Torsional elastic property measurements of selected orthodontic arch wires. Clin Mater 1987;2:165-79. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. • Larson BE, Kusy RP, Whitley JQ. Torsional elastic property measurements of selected orthodontic arch wires. Clin Mater 1987;2:165-79 • Kusy RP, Greenberg AR. Effects of composition and crosssection on elastic properties of orthodontic wires. Angle Orthod 1981;51:325-41. • 19. Asgharnia MK, Brantley WA. Comparison of bending and tension tests for orthodontic wires. AM J ORTHOD 1986;89:228-36. • 20. Burstone CJ, Goldberg AJ. Beta-titanium: a new orthodontic alloy. AM J ORTHOD 1980;77:121 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. • Kusy RP, Dilley GJ. Elastic property ratios of a triple-stranded stainless steel arch wire. AM J ORTHOD 1984;86:177-88. • . Kusy RP, Stevens LE. Triple-stranded stainless steel wires — Evaluation of mechanical properties and comparison with titanium alloy alternatives. Angle Orthod 1987;57:18-32. • Kusy RP. Comparison of nickel-titanium and beta-titanium wire sizes to conventional orthodontic arch wire materials. AM J ORTHOD 1981;79:625-9. • Kusy RP, Greenberg AR. Comparison of the elastic properties of nickel-titanium and beta-titanium arch wires. AM J ORTHOD 1982;82:199-205. • Burstone CJ. Variable-modulus orthodontics. AM J ORTHOD 1981;80:1-16. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101.  Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com

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