Orthodontic records /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call

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Orthodontic records /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ORTHODONTIC RECORDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. ~Records for evaluation of teeth & oral structures ~Records for evaluation of occlusion ~Records for evaluation of facial and jaw proportions - William Proffit www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. ESSENTIAL ~Case History ~Study Model ~Wax bite records ~Photographs ~Radiographs OPG Occlusal radiograph Intra-oral peri-apical radiograph www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. SUPPLEMENTAL ~Cephalometric radiographs ~3-D Cephalograms ~Cephalometric Laminagraphy ~Teleradiology ~Videocephalometry ~Stereophotogrammetry ~Hologram ~Occlusogram www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. ~Arthrography ~MPI ~Mandibular Kinesiograph ~Electromyograph ~Polytomography ~Magnetic Resonance Imaging ~Computed tomographic Scan ~3-D Surface Laser Scanner ~Computerised Format www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. CASE HISTORY ~Written record ~The card is 4><6 “ or 5>< 8 “ History Specific Disturbances causing malocclusion Past medical history Past dental history www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Genetic Influences Family History Environmental influences Personal history CLINICAL EXAMINATION General examination Shape of the body Height Weight Gait Posture Body Tone Extra Oral Examination Skeletal Soft tissue inTransverse,Vertical and antero posterior www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. INTRA-ORAL EXAMINATION ~Soft tissues Oral hygiene, gingiva, brushing habits, MG Junction, frenal attachment, Tongue(size, shape, movement) Oral mucosa ~Hard tissues Number of teeth present Number of unerupted teeth Supernumerary teeth, size, form, texture, caries, endodontically treated, occlusal wear www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Arch Form Shape, symmetry, alignment, crowding, spacing, rotations Maximum opening-freeway space, curve of spee Mid-line relation ~A-P relationship Molar relation, canine relation, incisor relation Overjet Vertical relationship-overbite ~Transverse relationship-cross-bite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT PLAN ~Diagnosis & probable etiology ~Treatment objectives ~Treatment Plan ~Prognosis ~Type of Appliance ~Extra-oral anchorage ~Retention Plan www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. ~Clinical Examination ~Determine Growth & development pattern ~Health of teeth & tissues ~Facial type ~Esthetic balance ~Dental age ~Posture & Function-lips & mandible ~Tongue function www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. ~Type of Malocclusion ~Premature loss ~Prolonged retention of teeth ~General Medical Examination www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. RECORDS – SIGNIFICANCE ~Permanent record ~Growth changes ~Medico-legal Requisite ~Eight years after appliance removal(UK) ~Until the patient attains 25 ~10 years after the orthodontist releives from www.indiandentalacademy.com practice (US)
  16. 16. IMPRESSION MAKING ~Maximum displacement to record inclination and not just the location of the teeth ~The upper lip is held and tray positioned Tray is pushed upward and backward (prevent trapping of air & saliva) ~Record muscle attachments www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. STUDY MODELS -Graber ~Degree of Accuracy & completeness ~Time-linked record ~Longitudinal, three-dimensional record that establishes the status of teeth & investing tissues www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. MODEL-MAXILLARY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. ~Record of a particular condition at a specific time ~Reasonable facsimile of occlusion ~Correlate Radiographs ~Permanent record for growth ~Measurements of arch length, lack of arch length, tooth size discrepancy, available space, total arch length –more precise ~Arch shape & symmetry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. ~Drifting, tipping, over-eruption, undereruption, abnormal curve of Spee and prematurities ~Palatal depth & breadth ~Functional analysis & equilibration of occlusion ~Classification of Malocclusion ~Post-treatment stability www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. MODEL-MANDIBULAR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. TWELVE BANKS WITH EIGHT COLUMNS & TIERS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. BANK DIVIDED INTO FRONT,MIDDLE & BACK STACKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. BOX WITH THREE SETS OF MODELS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. LOCATING MODELS WITH 4-DIGIT CO-ORDINATES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. GRAPHIC DESIGNS -JCO 1985, Raymond Howe www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Disadvantages-plaster models ~Study casts are fragile ~Bulky & expensive to store & support www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. INDESTRUCTIBLE MODELS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Disadvantages-plaster models ~Air bubbles on occlusal surfaces and incisal edges of models ~Fracturing of incisor teeth Technique ~Teeth portion-Crystalline acrylic resin(TRIM) ~Anatomic & Base – Plaster of paris -AJO 1973,Erwin Lubit www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. WAX BITE RECORDS ~Relates the upper & lower cast in full occlusion ~Bite should be registered ~Done in open-bite, partially edentulous when occlusion of casts ? ~Wax prevents fracturing of anterior teeth ~Centric occlusion ~Lateral shift is significant ~CR-CO difference www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHS -Graber ~A permanent record for the operator ~Forehead slant affects facial balance ~Hair style ~Facial type & arch form(hereditary & functional forces) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. MEASUREMENTS-FACIAL PHOTOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com -AJO 1995, Bishara
  40. 40. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. MOUNTING PHOTOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. INSTANT PHOTO RECORD SYSTEM ~Polaroid photographs ~moisture proof plastic envelopes ~Treatment sticker -JCO 1994, J.Hickham www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. RADIOGRAPHS ~Resorption ~Presence/absence of permanent teeth ~Congenital absence ~Alveolar bone ~Morphology & inclination ~Root development,path of eruption,cysts, impaction, #, caries, ankylosis, supernumerary teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. IOPA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. ORTHOPANTOMOGRAM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. BEFORE AFTER www.indiandentalacademy.com -JCO 1996, Starnes
  54. 54. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHS ~Growth & Development ~Craniofacial abnormalities ~Facial type ~Case analysis & diagnosis ~Progress reports ~Functional analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. LIMITATIONS ~Assumptions -Symmetry -Occlusal position -Orientation to transmeatal axis -Adequacy of one/two planar projections ~Fallicies -False precision -Ignoring the patient -Superpositioning -Using chronological age -Handbook –Ortho. www.indiandentalacademy.com -Ideal 1988 , Moyers
  58. 58. OTHER SPECIAL X-RAY VIEWS ~A-P View ~45 Degree Lateral Projection Proper tooth relationships ~Occlusal films ~Hand-wrist films www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. OCCLUSAL RADIOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. A-P VIEW www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. A-P VIEW TRACING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. HOLODENT SYSTEM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. VERTICALLY ORIENTED UNIT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. HOLOGRAPHIC RECORDING HOLOGRAPHIC PLATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION -AJO 1982, Ryden www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. ~Holography uses laser light to reproduce a high quality, three dimensional image of a cast -AJO 1990, Harradine Holodent (He-Ne) ~Observe the dentitions at the same time ~Changes in tooth position ~Superimposition ~Produce Hog. on films www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Advantages ~Reduced storage space ~Resistant to damage ~Can be transported -AJO 1992 Ryden www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. METAL OBJECT-SUPERIMPOSITION www.indiandentalacademy.com CAST
  71. 71. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION -AJO 1992, Ryden www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. HOLOGRAPH CAMERA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. HOLOGRAPHIC VIEWER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. DOUBLE CHASIS FOR EXTERNAL VIBRATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. AUTOMATIC DEVELOPER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. HOLOGRAM IN MEASUREMENT UNIT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. 3-D CEPHALOGRAM ~Similar to the Broadbent-Bolton orientator to simulate stereophotogrammetry ~Usual landmarks, normative data base for semi-automatic analysis ~Lateral & Postero-anterior views ~Only disadvantage-does not produce curving form in three dimension - AJO 1988, Orayson www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. 3-D CEPHALOGRAM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. OCCLUSOGRAM ~Developed by Burstone in 1961 ~Actual sized photographs of occlusal surfaces of dental casts ~Tracings are done –used in treatment planning www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. OCCLUSOGRAM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. TRACINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. OCCLUSOGRAM -AJO 1991, Parker www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. ~Record maintenance ~Treatment planning & progress ~Customized prescriptions ~3-D Models & virtual set-up ~Digital study models, e-models ~Documentation & case progress ~Cephalograms ~Photographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. , 1. Record duplication can be performed in office. 2. Minimal expense of time and materials required. 3. Records can be archived as needed, considering space and timeliness. 4. Compactness. Many patient records sets can be put on one floppy disk. 5. Stored records are extremely portable and durable. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. LIMITATIONS 1. Possibly the main concern; computerized records can be easily altered without a trace. Records of this type would therefore not be admissible as evidence in a court of law unless a safekeeping system was devised. 2. Standardization of the capture procedure for the images of study models will have to be established to make such images acceptable for all purposes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. 3. Standardization of record formats and recording procedures must be established for storing radiographs and hard copy records. 4. Equipment and software in common use are not necessarily compatible. 5. Acceptable standards for record reproduction would be needed. 6. Guaranteed record safety required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. 6. Cataloging and rapid accessing of records is simple, quick, and accurate. 7. Minimal storage space would be required. 8. Instant hard copies can be produced with ease, if needed. 9. Ease of record transmission for consultation and case transfer would be enhanced by these procedures. 10. Reduce insurance costs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. INTRA X-RAY UNIT PANORAMIC & CEPH. www.indiandentalacademy.com -PLANMECA
  95. 95. www.indiandentalacademy.com -PLANMECA
  96. 96. -JCO 1990, Schulhof www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. -JCO 1976, Callendar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. ~A data base(dBASE)is setup, each patient’s unique chart number provides information on -personal data -diagnostic data -treatment data -cephalometric data -post-treatment data -Angle 1987, Weinberg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. A DIFFERENT COMP. RECORD SYSTEM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. ~Software-Quick Ceph Image-a computerised cephalometrics and imaging system ~Two video cameras with a tripod stand with good lighting(300 watt bulb) ~Charge-coupled Camera(CCD) –Fotovix Is used to enhance picture quality ~In case of accidental erasure-it can be retreived ~Image modifications cane be made in the www.indiandentalacademy.com system
  101. 101. CROPPING IMAGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. CORRECTINGA FAULTY PHOTOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. A REVIEW OF THE PHOTOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. TABLET PC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. VIRTUAL ARTICULATOR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. ROSY SIMULATOR-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. CERTAIN AREAS CAN BE ENLARGED www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. RADIOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. HIGHLIGHTING AREAS OF INTEREST www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. CCD CAMERA DEVICE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. www.indiandentalacademy.com -AJO 1992, Sakuda
  117. 117. VIDEO PRINTING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. VIDEO PRINT OF THE MODEL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. TRIPOD MOUNTED CAM-CORDER -JCO 1987, Francis Burke www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. DIGIGRAPH ~A powerful clinical tool that offers -Non radiographic Cephalometrics -Video imaging -Treatment planning -Patient-parent counselling -Digitized landmarks -Cephalometric analysis display(14) -Tracing display -VTO www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. ~Information storage Two three & half hard disks ~Print-out Can produce paper records, photographic & slide records www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. CASTS IMAGE HEAD-HOLDER MODEL BOARD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. HEAD HOLDER WITH LIGHTBOX VIDEO MONITOR PRINTER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. DIGITIZING HANDPIECE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. DIGIGRAPH RECORDS DIGITISED LM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. BEFORE www.indiandentalacademy.com AFTER
  131. 131. Advantages ~Diagnostic records can be taken more easily, reliably & quickly ~No film processing time ~Storage space is reduced considerably ~No radiation exposure -JCO 1990, Chaconas www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. -EJO 1999, Kenneth Tsang www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. COMPARSION OF CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYSIS USING A NONRADIOGRAPHIC SONIC DIGITIZER WITH CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY ~Repeated sonic digitization ~The radiographic measurements were not accurate compared to the conventional radiography ~Hence measurements should be interpreted with caution www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. FACIAL ASYMMETERY www.indiandentalacademy.com -EJO 2001
  135. 135. INFORMATION RETREIVAL SYSTEM ~Record chart has 944 features. It includes -Clinical data -Evaluation of study models -Radiographic cephalometry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. ~Glossary -A-General -B-Extraction -C-Diagnosis -D-Initial study models analysis -F-Final Study Model analysis -G-H-Radiographic Cephalometry -J-Radiographic Cephalometry-dentition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. INFORMATION RETREIVAL SYSTEM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. OPTICAL COINCEDENCE FEATURE CHART www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. STORAGE TUB FOR THE CARDS -JCO 1978, Hepburn www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. ORTHOSCAN CAMERA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. CT SCAN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. TMJ NORMAL Cl III www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. ANATOMIC LANDMARKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. CT ENABLES 3-D IMAGING www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. 3-D RECONSTRUCTION-ASSYMETERY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  147. 147. POLYTOMOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. HARDWARE FOR THE ANALYSIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. MANDIBULAR POSITON INDICATOR ~SAM articulator & MPI enables the clinician determine, record & compare positional changes of condyle between CR and CO - AJO 1995, Meyers www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. MANDIBULAR POSITION INDICATOR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. ROENTGEN STEREOPHOTOGRAMMETRY ~Based on measurements from metal bone markers images on roentgenograms ~Two roentgen tubes simultaneously expose the object ~Complication is the implantation of the bone markers and loosening of the implants -AJO 1986, Selvik www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. MRI SCAN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. 1. Visual inspection of all slices to detect possible structural bone changes. 2. Measurement of the disk condyle relationship on tracings of the parasagittal MRIs . 3. Measurement of condylar position within the glenoid fossa on tracings of the parasagittal MRIs . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. MRI IMAGES-SUPERIOR DISK POSITION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. ANTERIOR DISK DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  158. 158. PARTIAL DISK DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  159. 159. ROTATIONAL DISK DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  160. 160. MEDIAL DISK DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. POSTERIOR DISK DISPLACEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. MRI - TMJ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. VIDEO-CEPHALOMETRY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. LEFORTE I OSTEOTOMY MAXILLARY ADVANCEMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. RESULT-MORPHING MANDIBULAR REDUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. 1. A higher level of communication. 2. More precision in this communication. 3. This communication is more effective and less time consuming. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. 1. Improved visualization of the individual treatment plans. This results in greater precision in planning a desired outcome. 2. Greater participation by patients in helping in the decision-making process of their final result. 3. In the surgical orthodontic patient, a mutual template is provided for decision making among patient, orthodontist, and oral surgeon. In a study of our patients whose surgeries were planned interactively with video imaging technology, 90% of patients reported they thought the final result was as good as or better than the projected image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  169. 169. CT SCAN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  170. 170. CT SCAN –ALVEOLAR BONE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  171. 171. CT SCAN-BEFORE & AFTER RETRACTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  172. 172. SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION - CT -EJO 2003 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  173. 173. PATIENT POSITION FOR OPTICAL SCANNER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  174. 174. OPTICAL SCANNER REPORT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  175. 175. SURFACE LASER SCANNER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  176. 176. OPTICAL SCAN COLOUR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  177. 177. OPTICAL SURFACE SCANNING-3-D DATA -EJO 2001, J.P.Moss www.indiandentalacademy.com
  178. 178. Modern instruments that track mandibular movement clearly show the proprioceptive dominance of the occlusion over the musculature. No matter how badly malpositioned the occlusion or how much torquing and twisting are required to occlude the teeth, the muscles will proprioceptively and instantaneously accommodate to pull the mandible to that occlusal position and maintain it there. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  179. 179. Measurement for the diagnosis of existing musculoskeletal dysfunction in the orthodontic patient provides a needed additional functional diagnosis to complement the conventional use of cephalometric and TMJ x-rays. The electromyograph (EM2) (Fig. 2) and mandibular kinesiograph (MKG) (Fig. 3) respectively measure electrical activity of the muscles and the skeletal relation of the mandible to the skull. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  180. 180. These data are essential for initial diagnosis, monitoring of treatment progress, and verification that a relaxed neuromuscular environment— which is the goal of functional orthodontic treatment— has been obtained for the finished case. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  181. 181. The fact that the patient can consistently bring the teeth into full intercuspation with seeming ease must no longer lull the orthodontist into treating to an existing occlusal position, because that position will perpetuate, rather than correct, an unrecognized musculoskeletal dysfunction (Fig. 1). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  182. 182. KINESIOGRAPH ~Indirect method ~The position of small magnet attached to the mand. Incisors is recorded on cathode-ray tube by electronic transducer ~Physiologically compatible ~Relatively accurate -AJO 1982, Epker www.indiandentalacademy.com
  183. 183. MANDIBULAR KINESIOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  184. 184. TRACINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  185. 185. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  186. 186. The mandibular kinesiograph (MKG) electronically tracks mandibular movement and position. It displays three-dimensional spatial data on the CRT screen at variable magnifications. In the pretreatment orthodontic examination, the MKG displays the direction and extent to which the mandible deviates from its relaxed trajectory as the muscles close the teeth to a malpositioned occlusion. This skeletal relation information correlates with and confirms the electromyographic data, shedding light on the cause of increased electrical activity in various muscles. www.indiandentalacademy.com -JCO 1984, Bernard
  187. 187. ELECTROMYOGRAPH ~Delineates clinical & physiologic rest positions of mandible ~Clinical rest position is the posture assumed by the mandible following a swallow/after phonetic sounds ~The CNS governs this adaptive holding position to optimise masticatory function via occlusal programming - AJO 1982, Epker www.indiandentalacademy.com
  188. 188. ELECTROMYOGRAPH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  189. 189. EMG www.indiandentalacademy.com
  191. 191. The EM2 is an eight-channel electromyograph that processes action potential levels derived from electrodes placed over right and left middle masseter, anterior temporalis, posterior temporalis, and anterior digastric muscles. Action potential levels, recorded during both rest and function (clench), are graphically displayed as they sweep across the CRT screen .The EM2 microprocessor senses, computes, and integrates 256 samples of data every five seconds; it provides a printout documenting the status of the patient's muscles, which then becomes a permanent file record. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  192. 192. Pretreatment EMG data document the direction and degree to which muscles are being forced into sustained contracture as they are proprioceptively directed to pull and hold the mandible in a skeletal malrelation to accomplish intercuspation of a malpositioned occlusion -JCO 1984, Bernard www.indiandentalacademy.com
  193. 193. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  194. 194. CEPHALOMETRIC LAMINAGRAPHY Review ~Gills & Reigner-Face resting on a cassette ~Distortion-trying to focus petrous parttemporal bone ~Reclining the head->clenching of teeth ~Lindbolm & Higleys-1936-Cassette holder ~Only rest position of the condyle can be taken ~The area did not cover fossa & buccal segment of teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  195. 195. ~Arthrography,Nagaard. ~Injection of a disclosing medium allowed detailed outline of the joint cavities ~But, it altered the mobility of condyle and concealed outline of bones ~Cephalometric reoentgenology, Broadbent, ~Complete image of head without distortion ~Fossa obscured & its relation to condyle could not be determined www.indiandentalacademy.com
  196. 196. ~Body sectioning roentgenography or laminagraphy-Bleiker, tomography-Petrilli Gave a clear picture of the fossa & condyle ~Position of the patient with clenching of teeth ~Position of mandible necessary both in rest and closed position ~One side of the joint can be studied extensively -AJO 1950, Ricketts www.indiandentalacademy.com
  197. 197. LAMINAGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com HEAD HOLDING APPARATUS
  198. 198. TRACINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  199. 199. ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT OF CONDYLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  200. 200. CHANGES-IN SHAPE OF THE CONDYLE TR LAM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  201. 201. TELERADIOLOGY ~Teleradiology is the transmission of radiographic images to distant sites ~Permits transfer of images between centres and improves patient care and aid research - Angle 1996, Forsyth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  202. 202. TELERADIOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  203. 203. GNATHOSTAT www.indiandentalacademy.com -Salzmann
  204. 204. FACEBOW RECORD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  205. 205. FACEBOW TRANSFER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  206. 206. ARTICULATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  207. 207. ARTICULATED MODELS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  208. 208. ELECTRO-PALATOGRAPHIY --EJO 2000, Tindall www.indiandentalacademy.com
  209. 209. TREATMENT OUTCOME ASSESSMENT ~Score for inter-arch, intra-arch and skeletal relationship was recorded ~Pre-treatment & post-treatment score was calculated using scores JCO 1996, Leo Starnes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  210. 210. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  211. 211. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  212. 212. THANK YOU www.indiandentalacademy.com