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Oral mucous membrane /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078


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  • 1. •ORAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2.  CONTENTS  1. INTRODUCTION  2.DEVELOPMENT  3.FUNCTION   4.TISSUE COMPONENTS OF ORAL MUCOSA 5.DIVISION OF ORAL MUCOSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3.  PROSTHODONTIC CONSIDERATIONS  6.BEHAVOIUR OF ORAL MUCOSA UNDER STRESS   7.INFLAMATION AND ORAL MUCOSA . 8.INFLUENCE OF LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC DISEASE ON ORAL MUCOSA.  9.SUMMARY & CONCLUSION  10.REFERENCES. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4.  INTRODUCTION    The oral cavity is in many respects a very interesting part of the human body . Many different kind of tissue from the hardest teeth to the softest, the salivary glands are found therein. The oral cavity is lined with an uninterrupted mucosa which is continuous with the skin near vermillion border of the lips and with the pharyngeal mucosa in the region of soft palate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5.  DEVELOPMENT      Primitive oral cavity develops from the fusion of the embryonic stomodeum with foregut after the rupture of buccopharyngeal membrane.(26 days) Oral cavity is lined by both ectoderm and endoderm. Structures developed from brachial arch Ectoderm ---tongue Endoderm---Palate ,cheeks ,Gingiva www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6.  FUNCTIONS OF THE ORAL MUCOSA  • • •  •  • 1.PROTECTION. Protects the deeper tissues and organs. Adapts to withstand mechanical forces. Barrier in preventing microorganism. 2.SENSATION. Receptors responsible for the taste , thirst, temperature. 3.SECRETION. Major &minor salivary gland secretions –secrete protective substance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7.  COMPONENT TISSUE  A. ORAL EPITHELIUM  B.LAMINA PROPRIA  C.SUBMUCOSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8.  DIVISION OF ORAL MUCOSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9.  EPITHELIUM    Epithelium of the oral mucosa is stratified squamous epithelium. It may be ; 1.Keratinized 2.Non keratinized Keratinized layer ortho keratinized Para keratinized www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10.  KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11.  NON KERATINIZED EPITHELIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12.  CELLS OF NON KERATINOCYTES     MELANOCYTES; Synthesize melanin pigment granules & transfer to surrounding keratinocytes LANGERHANS CELL ; Antigen trapping & processing. MERKEL CELL ; Tactile sensory cell. LYMPHOCYTES ; Associated with inflammatory response in oral mucosa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13.  SMOKERS MELANOSIS       Smoking tobacco imparts smokers melanosis. Deposition of melanin in basal layer of mucosa. Affects elderly person –heavy smokers. Appears as a diffuse brown patch. Mandibular ant. Gingiva & buccal mucosa commonly affected. Labial mucosa ,palate, tongue, floor of the mouth , lips . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14.  JUNCTION OF THE EPITHELIUM, & LAMINA PROPRIA.    The region where connective tissue of the lamina propria meets the overlying epithelium. Metabolic exchange between epithelium & CT takes place Epithelium has no blood vessels. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15.     The interface consists of CT ridges ,conical papillae projecting into the epithelium. The surface area of the interface is flat & provide better attachment It helps in dissipating the force applied on the epithelium to greater area of CT. MASTICATORY MUCOSA has greater number of papillae per unit area . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16.  It is also called as BASAL LAMINA.  Two zones ; Lamina Lucida      45 nm wide. Lamina densa. Towards epithelium . Quite clear. Glycoprotein. Bullous phemphigoid antigen. 50 nm thick . Towards tissue. Granular. Type 4 collagen Proteoglycon. . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17.   Basal lamina attached by hemidesmosomes. The tonofilaments , desmosomes , hemidesmosomes together represents the mechanical linkage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18.  FUNCTIONS     Provides mechanical bond . Semipermeable, acts as a barrier. Respond to tissue injury. MUCOSAL BLISTER; Separation of the epithelium from the connective tissue at Lamina lucida www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19.  LAMINA PROPRIA The connective tissue supporting the oral epithelium is termed lamina propria.  Two layers ;       1.PAPILLARY LAYER. Close to epithelial ridges. Arranged loosely. 2.RETICULAR LAYER parallel to epithelium fibers are very thick. form network It consists of cells , blood vessels , neural elements & fibers embedded in amorphous ground substance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20.  CELLS FOUND IN LAMINA PROPRIA          Fibroblast - secretion of fibers &ground substance Histiocytes - precursor of macrophage Macrophages - phagocytosis Mast cell - inflammatory mediator (kinins), vasoactive agent (histamine) Polymorphonuclear leucocytes - phagocytosis Lymphocytes - cell mediated immune response Plasma cells - synthesis immunoglobulin Endothelial cells - lining of blood & lymphatic channels www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21.  SUBMUCOSA .    Consists of connective tissue of various thickness . It attaches the mucous membrane to the underlying structures. It may be a loose or a firm attachment - to glands, blood vessels , nerves, and adipose tissues www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22.  DIVISION OF THE ORAL MUCOSA               KERATINZED AREAS MASTICATORY MUCOSA. GINGIVA HARD PALATE VERMILION BORDER OF LIP NON KERATINIZED AREAS LINING OR REFLECTING MUCOSA LIP CHEEK VESTIBULAR FORNIX ALVEOLAR MUCOSA FLOOR OF THE MOUTH SOFT PALATE SPECIALIZED MUCOSA DORSUM OF THE TONGUE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23.  REGIONAL VARIATIONS; MAXILLARY EDENTULOUS FOUNDATION       CREST OF THE RESIDUAL RIDGE Firmly attached to the bone. Keratinized epithelium Dense collagen fibers Sub mucosa – fat or glandular cells Although the sub mucosa is thin it is thick to provide adequate resiliency for primary support of denture . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24.  SLOPES OF RESIDUAL RIDGE      Non keratinized or Para keratinized. Tissues are loosely attached to periosteum. This marks the end of residual attached mucous membrane. These tissues will not withstand the masticatory and other stress. Less stresses should be placed on the movable tissue during impression making. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25.  ALVEOLAR MUCOSA          EPITHELIUM ; thin nonkeratinized LAMINA PROPRIA; Short papillae CT contains many elastic fibers . Capillary loops close to the surface. Vessels –run superficial to the periosteum. SUB MUCOSA Loose CT Thick elastic fibers connects periosteum –alveolar process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26.  REGIONS OF HARD PALATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27.  HARD PALATE .EPITHELIUM; thick orthokeratinized  LAMINA PROPRIA ; long papillae, thick collagenous tissue especially under rugae Moderate vascular supply with short capillary loops.  SUBMUCOSA; Dense collagenous CT attaching mucosa to periosteum . Fat & minor salivary gland – CT –overlying neurovascular bundle.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28.  CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE    Tissues should be recorded in resting position . If the tissues displace during impression procedures, they tend to return to normal Such dentures cause soreness of mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29.  MID PALATINE SUTURE     Extends from the incisive papilla to posterior region of hard palate . Sub mucosa is very thin . Mucosal layer is practically in contact with underlying bone . Tissue covering the suture is non resilient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30.  CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE     Little or no pressure should be applied to this region . This area is highly sensitive . Excessive pressure in this area causes pain . Relief should be given in this area www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31.     PALATINE RUGAE Irregularly shaped rolls of soft tissue in the anterior part of hard palate. It is a secondary stress bearing area It resists forward movement of denture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32.  SOFT PALATE    EPITHELIUM; thin Non keratinized, taste buds LAMINA PROPRIA; thick numerous papillae, elastic fibers Highly vascular- developed capillary network. SUB MUCOSA; diffuse tissue containing minor salivary glands www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33.  BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY OF PALATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34.  BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY OF PALATE   Tonsillar branch – glossopharengeal nerve MOTOR SUPPLY ;Pharyngeal plexus. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35.  STOMATITIS NICOTINA PALATI        Response of oral mucosa to prolong smoking. Middle , elderly men. Initially- diffuse erythematous. Palate becomes grayish white ,sec to hyperkeratosis. Multiple discrete keratotic papules with depressed red center. opening of the glands dilate & inflame. Papules enlarge if irritation persist. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36.  BUCCAL- LABIAL MUCOSA EPITHELIUM; thick Non keratinized.  LAMINA PROPRIA;  Long slender papillae, dense fibrous CT containing collagen & elastic fibers .  Rich vascular supply. Anastomosing capillary loops into papillae.  SUBMUCOSA; firmly attached to the under lying muscles by collagen & elastin Fat, minor salivary gland .  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37.   FORDYCE’S SPOTS Fordyce’s spots are ectopic sebaceous glands present in the buccal and labial mucosa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38.  LINEA ALBA   A raised white wavy line of variable length and prominence located at the level of occlusion. Thin keratin layer. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. VESTIBULAR SPACES      It is bound facially by mucosa of lips , cheek & orally by mucosa of residual ridge . Vestibule is divided medially by labial frenum & laterally by buccal frenum. Epithelium is thin & nonkeratinized. Submucosa is thick , Large amount of loose areolar tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40.  FRENUM     It is fold of mucous membrane Labial frenum is fan shaped Buccal frenum is associated with muscles Relief should be provided in denture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41.  VIBRATING LINE    It is an imaginary line drawn across the soft palate. Sub mucosa contains glandular tissue . Lamina propria has elastic fibers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42.  MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF HAMULAR NOTCH   Space between the posterior part of the maxillary tuberosity & pterygoid hamuls It is thick and is made of loose areolar tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43.       MANDIBULAR EDENTULOUS FOUNDATION SUPPORTING STRUCTURES CREST OF THE RESIDUAL RIDGE It is similar to maxillary ridge. Keratinized epithelium . Sub mucosa is loosely attached. Nutrient canal openings. When the soft tissue is movable in the crest of the ridge ,impression should be recorded in its resting position. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44.  BUCCAL SHELF      Partially keratinized. Loosely attached. Thick submucosal layer. Bone – compact bone That why it is primary stress bearing area. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45.  VESTIBULAR SPACES     Similar to the maxilla. Epithelium is thin . Non-keratinized . Submucosa- loose areolar tissue ,elastin fibers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46.  MOLAR REGION   Here the sub mucosa is attached to the mylohyoid muscle . Length and form of the lingual flange of the tray should reflect the physiologic activity of these structures . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47.  RETROMOLAR PAD      Epithelium is thin . Non-keratinized . Submucosa – glands , loose areolar tissue , blood vessels ….. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Because of these structures impression should be recorded in resting position . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. FLOOR OF THE ORAL CAVITY EPITHELIUM; very thin Non keratinized .  LAMINA PROPRIA ;Short papillae. Elastic fibers. Extensive vascular fibers. Short anastomosing capillary loops  SUBMUCOSA ;loose fibrous CT Fat, minor salivary glands .  BLOOD SUPPLY; Sublingual artery branch of lingual artery.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49.  FLOOR OF THE MOUTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50.    Extension of the dentures posterior lingual flanges usually will allow for a stable denture. This objective will not be fulfilled in this case, Unfavorable high attachment & mobile floor of the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51.  LIPS VERMILION ZONE  EPITHELIUM; thin , orthokeratinized.  LAMINA PROPRIA; narrow papillae.   Capillary loops close to surface layer SUBMUCOSA; mucosa firmly attached to the underlying muscles . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52.  INTERMIDIATE ZONE     EPITHELIUM; thin Para keratinized LAMINA PROPRIA; long ,irregular papillae, elastic fibers ,collagen fibers SUBMUCOSA; mucosa is firmly attached to muscle ,sebaceous gland ,minor salivary gland ,fat. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53.  BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY         BLOOD; UPPER LIP; SUPERIOR LABIAL ARTERY LOWER LIP; INFERIOR LABIAL ARTERY MENTAL ARTEY branch of inferior alveolar artery. NERVE UPPER LIP ; INFRAORBITAL branch of max nerve . LOWER LIP; MENTAL branch of inferior alveolar . BUCCAL branch of mandibular nerve . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54.  GINGIVA.       EPITHELIUM; Ortho-keratinized Para-keratinized ,stippling . LAMINA PROPRIA ;long narrow papillae Dense collagenous CT . Not highly vascular, but long capillary loops with anastomoses are present . SUB MUCOSA ; no distinct layer . Mucosa is firmly attached by collagen fibers to cememtum & periosteum of alveolar process. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55.  GINGIVA A. ALVEOLAR MUCOSA D. ATTACHED GINGIVA B. GINGIVA C. MUCOGINGIVAL JUNCTION E. FREE GINGIVA F. INTERDENTAL GINGIVA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56.  TYPES OF EPITHELIUM IN GINGIVA  3 TYPES;  1.Outer epithelium  2. Sulcular epithelium  3.Junctional epithelium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57.  INTERDENTAL GINGIVA        COL Non keratinized Depression between buccal & lingual papilla Connects both the papilla Found below the contact point Anteriorly – pyramidal Posteriorly – tent shape. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. •BLOOD SUPPLY           UPPER GINGIVA ANTERIOR;ANTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR ARTEY PALATAL; GREATER PALATINE ARTERY BUCCAL ;BUCCAL ARTERY POSTERIOR; POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR ARTERY LOWER GINGIVA ANTERIOR ANTERIOR BUCCAL; MENTAL ARTERY LINGUAL; INCISIVE ARTERY SUBLINGUAL ARTERY POSTERIOR BUCCAL; INFERIOR ALVEOLAR ARTERY BUCCAL ARETRY POSTERIOR LINGUAL; INFERIOR ALVEOLAR ARTERY SUBLINGUAL ARTERY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. •NERVE SUPPLY       UPPER GINGIVA; ANTERIOR, POSTERIOR, MIDDLE SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR BRANCH OF MAXILLARY NERVE LOWER GINGIVA; INFERIOR BRANCH OF MANDIBULAR NERVE BUCCAL BRANCH OF MANDIBULAR NERVE SUBLINGUAL BRANCH OF LINGUAL NERVE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60.  TONGUE DORSAL SURFACE OF TONGUE          EPITHELIUM; thick Keratinized &nonkeratinized Lingual papillae's are present Taste buds LAMINA PROPRIA; long papillae Minor salivary glands posteriorly. Rich innervations near taste buds . Capillary plexus in papillary layer large vessels lying deeper SUB MUCOSA ; No distinct layer . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61.           FILLIFORM PAPILLAE keratinized Anterior tongue Smallest & numerous Hair like extensions FOLIATE PAPILLAE Non keratinized Lateral margins Leaf like projections Few taste buds www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62.  FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE Non keratinization Anterolateral Taste buds Round & reddish.  CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE Keratinized –superiorly Nonkeratinized- laterally Anterior to sulcus terminalis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63.  TASTE BUDS   Chemoreceptor organs Barrel shaped seen in –fungiform papillae circumvallate papillae soft palate …. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. VENTRAL SURFACE OF THE TONGUE   •       EPITHELIUM; Thin, non keratinized . LAMINA PROPRIA ;Thin , Numerous short papillae . Few elastic fibers . Minor salivary glands. capillary network in sub papillary layer Reticular layer relatively avascular SUBMUCOSA; Thin & irregular Fat & small vessels Bound to the CT surrounding the tongue musculature. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65.  LINGUAL VERUCOSITES ( PHLEBECTASIA )         Common in elder individuals. Purplish blue nodular area. Due to dilation & increased tortusity of lingual veins. Increase venous pressure decrease in elasticity of venous wall. Lack of support by surrounding tissues. COMPLICATIONS; Ulceration, thrombosis, hemorrhage. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66.  BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY OF TONGUE BLOOD SUPPLY;        Ant 23rd -- deep lingual artery Post 13rd --dorsal lingual artery NERVE SUPPLY; Glossopharengeal nerve Lingual nerve Chorda tympani. Vagus nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. EFFECT OF AGING ON THE ORAL MUCOSA        HISTOLOGY Epithelial thinning Decreased keratinization Less prominent rete pegs Decreased cellular proliferation Loss of submucosal elastin and fat Increased fibrotic connective tissue with degenerative alteration in the collagen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68.  These changes in the histology of oral mucosa are more marked in women especially post menopausal.  Vascular changes in the oral mucosa include the development of vascular nodules and nevi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69.  Wound healing and regeneration of tissue may be delayed with age. Oral mucosal immunity is also believed to undergo some age related changes. The number of langerhan’s cells decreases with age which contributes to a decline in cell medicated immunity.  This decrease in rate of wound healing is more pronounced in connective tissue than epithelium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70.  AGING IN GINGIVA    With the aging there is decreased keratinization and stippling Though gingival recession increases with age it is not necessary a physiologic process. There is decreased width of attached gingival with constant relocation of the mucogingival junction throughout the adult life. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71.  There is stiffening of the walls of the blood vessels and decrease in their diameter due to arthrosclerosis.  Decreased connective tissue cellularity and oxygen consumption. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72.  BEHAVIOUR OF ORAL MUCOSA UNDER STRESS     Oral mucosa under compression behaves in a viscoelastic fashion. Loads imposed on masticatory mucosa – mastication & prosthesis consists of shear & compressive force, they produce regions of tensile stress in mucosa Loaded epithelium demonstrates decrease in the depth of epithelial ridges & connective tissue papillae Care to be taken during impression procedures by applying minimal pressures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74.  Function & Parafunction  PRESSURE FORCE TIME    controlled by Tissue damage caused by 1 correct clinical occluding local circulation technique 2 permanent soft liner www.indiandentalacademy.com controlled by nocturnal tissue rest
  • 75.  SOFT TISSUE CHANGES IN ORAL MUCOSA             SOFT TISSUE HYPERPLASIA FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA EPULIS FISSURATA PAPILLARY HYPERPLASIA INFLAMMATORY PROCESS UNDER DENTURE BASES DENTURE STOMATITIS STOMATITIS VENENATA CANDIDIASIS MECHANICAL IRRITATION DECUBITUS ULCER ULCERATIVE LESIONS ANGULAR CHELITIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 76.  SOFT TISSUE HYPERPLSIA       Rolls of hyperplastic tissues under denture base Due to bone resorbtion, with lesion filling the space under denture base. Develops slowly, painless. Rx Surgical removal. New dentures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77.  PAPILLARY HYPERPLASIA     Granular type of inflammation seen in palatal region. numerous papillary projections give a warty appearance. They show precancerous tendencies Rx Surgery Discontinue denture wearing New dentures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78.  DENTURE STOMATITIS         Chronic inflammation of the denture bearing area. CAUSES; Para functional habit. ill fitting denture . Nocturnal denture wearing. Hypersensitivity. Poor oral hygiene Infections –Candida albicans www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 79.  DENTURE STOMATITIS          SYMPTOMS; Redness of the tissue. Pain. Burning sensation Rx; Discontinue denture wearing . good oral hygiene procedures Anti fugal Rx ( if candidal inf) New dentures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80.  CONTACT STOMATITIS     Certain individuals react to materials & drugs differently than others do. In oral cavity it is termed as contact stomatitis. Marked redness in limited area contact with acrylic partial denture. Such contact sensitivity is rare. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81.  CANDIDIASIS            Usually seen in, Unclean mouth. Debilitated patients Systemic disease such as diabetes. Unhygienic conditions will facilitate the candidal growth. SYMPTOMS; Redness with pain. Swelling of the denture supporting tissue. Rx Discard the existing denture. Anti fungal therapy. New dentures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82.  ANGULAR CHELITIS.      SIGNS; Bilateral lesion that develops at the angle of the lips. Deep fissure or crack may be seen. Appear ulcerated. Exudatve crust may be present.  Rx;  Anti fungal therapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83. LOCAL DISEASES AFFECTING ORAL CAVITY          WHITE LESIONS; Leukoplakia. Lichenplanus. Hyperkeratosis. MALIGNANT LESIONS. Carcinoma. METABOLIC DISEASES. Diabetes mellitus . Nutritional disorders. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84.  LEUCOPLAKIA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85.  LICHEN PLANUS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86.  ERYTHROPLAKIA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87.  CARCINOMA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88.  NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89.  SUMMARY     The oral mucosa consists of stratified squamous epithelium followed by Lamina propria & Submucosa. The structure varies according to function in different regions they can be classified as – Masticatory mucosa Lining mucosa Specialized mucosa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90.  CONCLUSION   The dentures must function in harmony with the remaining tissues that both support and surround them . For this harmony of living tissues & non living materials (dentures) to coexist for reasonable period of time, the dentist must fully understand both the macroscopic & microscopic anatomy of supporting & limiting structures of dentures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 91.  REFERENCES       1.A.R.Tencate -Oral Histology ,Development ,Structure and Function -- 6th Edition 2.Anne M R, Ming C Lee Grants atlas of anatomy 10th Edition. 3.Bouchers –Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients 10th & 11th Edition 4.B.K.B .Bercovitz , Color atlas & text of oral anatomy . 5.Bernard .L. The anatomical basis of dentistry. 2nd Edition. 6.Colby, Kerr Color atlas of oral pathology. 4th Edition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 92.       7.Hubert E Schroeder -Oral Structural Biology --3rd Edition 8.John J Sharry -Complete denture prosthodontics 1962 9.Keith L Moore -Clinically Oriented Anatomy --3rd Edition 10.Nagle & Sears -Dental Prosthetics , Complete denture. 11.Orbans -Oral Histology And Embryology 11th Edition 12.Zarb-Bolendar Prosthodontic treatment for edentulous patients 12th Edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 93. www.indiandentalacademy.com