INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
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• Uncommon lesions
• Derived from the specialized dental tissues
• Primarily Intra Osseous (Central)-although
some are Extra Osseous (Peripheral)
• Varied clinical and radiological appearance
• Can consist entirely of soft tissue, mixture of
soft and calcified tissue or entirely of hard
• Express wide range of biological behavior.various methods of treatment modalitiescons to very aggressive (radical).
– The permutation
of different cells
of different origin
tumors a highly
group of lesions
mesenchymal cells of dental papillae
enamel matrix formation by the ameloblasts
AND SHEAR 1992
Based on the extent of connective tissue changes
induced by epithelial tissue.
I. Epithelial odontogenic tumors
1.Tumors producing minimal inductive change
a. Ameloblastoma (adamantinoma)
b. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor(pindborg)
c. Odontogenic adenomatoid tumor (AOT)
2.Tumors causing extensive changes
a. Ameloblastic fibroma
b. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma
d. Odontoma 1. Compound composite odontoma
2. Complex composite odontoma
II Mesodermal odontogenic tumors
1. Central odontogenic fibroma
2. Odontogenic myxoma (myxofibroma)
3. Cementoma a.Peripheral cemental dysplasia(Cementoma)
b. Cementifying fibroma
c Benign cementoblastoma
III Tumors of unknown origin
1. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy
(melanotic progonoma, retinal anlage tumor)
IV Malignant odontogenic tumors
1. Odontogenic carcinoma
a. Primary intro osseous carcinoma
b. Malignant ameloblastoma
2. Odontogenic sarcoma
a. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma
b. Ameloblastic odontosarcoma
• 2.KRAMER, PINDBORG AND
• CUZACK (1827)- FIRST
• FALKSON (1879) – DESCRIPTION
• MALASSEZ (1885) –
• IVY &CHURCHILL (1934) –
• Unicystic ameloblastoma- Robinson
and Martinez in 1977
Pathogenesis: stimulus is unknown,source of
epithelium is from
1.Cell rests of enamel organ,remnants of dental lamina
or Hertwig’s sheath and epithelial rests of malassez.
2. Developing enamel organ
3. Basal cell of the surface epithelium of the jaws
4. Heterotrophic epithelium of the other parts of the
5. Epithelium of the odontogenic cyst (dentigerous cyst
• Dental lamina
• Oral epithelium
–1% of oral tumors
–18-20% of odontogenic
–Number of cases reported in
–Youngest reported one month
–Oldest 98 yrs
– Frequent in
– In mandible75% in molar &
– In maxillacommon in
• Often associated with Impacted tooth.
• Start to grow in the cancellous bone of
the mand & may attain a substantial
size before the outer contour is altered.
• Later both lingual & buccal cortical
• They can reach to enormous size
without either invading or ulcerating
thro’ soft tissue
• Pain or sensory nerve damage occur
only if infection supervenes.
– Central /intraosseous
– Peripheral/ extra osseous
– Pituitary ameloblastoma
(craniopharyngioma,or Rathke’s pouch
Lagundoye et al (1975) classified
ameloblastoma in 4 types
4. Solid type
• Numerous well defined radioluscency
of varying diameter
• Honey comb or Soap bubble
• Unicystic radiolucent lesion
indistinguishable with cysts
• Root resorption without displacement
of other teeth
With in medullary cavity
Scalloping of inner cortex
Shell of the original cortex remains.
C T SCAN
• Show edge definition.
• Involvement of the vital structures
Show soft tissue involvement & extensions
–When maxillary sinus involved
–Cloudiness of sinus
–Destruction of wall
–Bleeding & trismus
–Unicystic in maxilla
Grayish firm tissue exhibiting cystic area
containing clear to yellow fluid.
Two major forms
1..Follicular : (Common)Epithelial islands
consisting of 2 Different components
1.Central and 2.Peripheral portion
2. Plexiform : Sheets and Cords of collumunar
epithelial cells in slender double collumns
Ackerman in 1988
–Type-I Intra Luminal
–Type-II Mural ameloblastoma
–Type-III Invasive ameloblastoma
• Radical treatment
– En-bloc or marginal
– Marginal (partial)
Cautery (not common mode of therapy)
Radiotherapy and laser therapy
Reconstruction and rehabilitation.
• CURETTAGE – Removal of tumor by scraping
it from the surrounding normal tissue.
• CAUTERY-Desiccation or electro
coagulation of the lesion,including
various amounts of the surrounding
normal tissue and
• EXCISION - Local surgical removal with an
attempt to include a rim of uninvolved tissue.
• ENBLOC RESECTION - Removal of
tumor with a rim of uninvolved bone but
maintaining the continuity of the jaw.
• SEGEMNTAL RESECTION -Removal
of segments of mandible or maxilla,up to
and including hemi section or more.
• combination of these procedures.
• Extension into vital
• Seeding into lungs
• Direct extension into brain
• Malignant transformation
1. Definitive & offer best cure
2. Curettage and enucleation –
3. Curettage condemned
4. Cancellous bone – readily
infiltrated resorbed by tumor
5. Dense cortical bone - temporary
A safe margin of uninvolved bone is
2 cm for solid and multicystic
1-1.5 for unicystic and peripheral
Resorption of cortical bone –
periosteum involved –
surrounding soft tissue and
Post treatment follow up 15-20 yrs
– Initial diagnosis
- Dentigerous cyst or OKC
– Enucleation or marsupialization?
– Careful assessment
– Biopsy may not confirm
– Microscopic section R without CD or
R with CD
with an unerupted
in a child. Note the
cysts are ordinarily
– Enmass excision
– With overlying mucosa periosteum
alveolar bone and adjacent teeth
– 1-1.5 resection margin
arises from rests of
Serres or alternately from
basal epithelial cells in
the gingiva in a manner
analagous to cutaneous
basal cell carcinoma.
• Chemical agents
• Electro cautery
• Culter & Zollinger 1933
–Glacial acetic acid-6 ml
–Absolute alcohol -3 ml
–Chloroform -3 ml
–Ferric chloride -1 gm
• Depth of penetration 1.5-1.8 mm
Unicystic ameloblastoma – use
of Carnoy’s solution after
–P K Lee N Samman
–Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
2004; 33 ; 263-7
• PERICORNITIS WITH 48
RECONSTRUCTION PLATE WITH
– Inoperable cases
– Invasion into cranium
– Primarily intraosseous- resistant
– Extra osseous ameloblastoma reduced
– Possible osteoradionecrosis
– Cause of metastasis
ADENOMATOID ODONTOGENIC TUMOR
• This is a tumor mostly of teenagers.
• It occurs in the middle and anterior portions
of the jaws in contrast to ameloblastoma
which is found mostly in the posterior
• Two-thirds occur in the maxilla. Anterior
• more common in females.
• This tumor is encapsulated.
• It is treated by curettage with a recurrence
rate approaching zero
• The radiographic appearance is a unilocular
• often around the crown of an unerupted
tooth in which case they resemble a
dentigeous cyst www.indiandentalacademy.com
associated with an
unerupted tooth #13. It
cyst. Some AOTs
may appear as
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor
Histologic examination reveals a thick
capsule of fibrous connective tissue.
The tumor fills the central
cavity, there is little stroma.
Tumor cells frequently
form ball-like structures referred to as
Note how the
form balls of
cells that are
Another identifying feature is the presence of ductlike
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic
tumor (CEOT,Pindborg tumor)
Rare. First desribed by JJ Pindborg in 1958.
This is the most “unodontogenic”
tumor of the group, the tumor cells do not resemble
1.From reduced enamel epithelium - Pindborg 1958
2. From the stratum intermedium of the enamel organ- Gon 1965
• Clinical features:
• 1. Associated with unerupted or
impacted or embedded tooth.
• 2. Painless mass and slow growth.
• 3. Mandible > maxilla, Men > women,
Seen in range of 8-82 years
• 4. More often in molar region.
- Polyhedral epithelial cells seen
-Amyloid, basal lamina, dentin and keratin
appear as a homogenous substance
(Characteristic feature of CEOT)
-Calcification are seen. It calcifies in a
pattern known as Liesegang
calcifications.This explains the name of
calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.
power view. The tumor
cells resemble squamous
epithelium more than
There is some variation
in nuclear size and
shape, but this is not a
(extreme left) in a CEOT
account for the density
noted on radiographs.
These are thought to be
calcified amyloid or
some of which can be
seen right of center as a
pale eosinophilic globule
• Chaudary (1972) -three stages of
development of CEOT
• I stage: Radiolucent appearance same
like dentigerous cyst
• II stage: Minute calcifications appear.
• III stage: Honey combed appearance
odontogenic tumor in
the body of the
mandible. It appears as
a radiolucent lesion with
www.indiandentalacademy.com dense areas.
CEOT lacks a capsule but apparently does not infiltrate
as deeply into surrounding tissues as does
ameloblastoma. Excision with a small margin of
surrounding bone is usually curative.
Intraosseous lesions: Marginal or segmental resection
Extraosseous lesion : Simple local excision
• This is a tumor of childhood, the typical
patient is about 12 –14 years old, seldom is it
seen beyond age 20.
• The posterior segment of the mandible is the
most common location.
• Local swelling or failure of teeth to erupt on
time or improper alignment may call attention
to the tumor.
• Ameloblastic fibromas are
fibroma in and around
the crowns of lower
molar teeth. It is subtle,
the second deciduous
molar tooth has been tilted
downward by the
tumor. Patient was a 5
year old boy.
Small lesions may be unilocular but larger
lesions are ordinarily multilocular.
• Both odontogenic epithelium and
contribute to this tumor
• (an odontogenic mixed tumor not to be
confused with the mixed tumor of
• The epithelium grows in small islands
fibroma, medium power.
Islands of odontogenic
peripheral columnar cells.
The stroma is cellular
resembles the dental
papilla, the forerunner of
the dental pulp.
Cords of epithelium
lie in an
COMPOUND AND COMPLEX
• Defined as benign tumors of the dental hard
tissues with the word composite used to
designate the presence of the four dental
tissues – enamel,dentin,cementum,pulp.
• The tumors in which odontogenic
differentiation is fully expressed are the
• In these tumors, the epithelium and
ectomesenchyme realize their potential and
make enamel and dentin respectively.
• As a result,these tumors are mostly
Compound composite odontoma
• Odontomas with calcified structures
bearing some degree of resemblance
anatomically to normal teeth.
• Occurs in second or third decade of life.
• Slow growing, non infiltrating malformation
• Occurs primarily in incisor and canine
region of maxilla
• Non aggressive, self limiting growth.
In the compound
a “bag of
Compound odontoma in the body of the mandible
of a 17 year old boy
These lesions are generally sit. between the
roots of the erupted teeth.
The lesion is well demarcated from surrounding bone
by a thin radiolucent line representing the follicular capsule
• It consist of mostly dwarfed teeth with
malformed crown and roots. The No. vary
from 2 to 2000.
• Different components such as enamel,
dentin, cementum, pulpal tissue is
present in disoriented fashion.
• There is generally a surrounding capsule
representing the dental follicle.
• There may be inductive hyalinization of
the surrounding connective tissue.
odontoma of tumor .
bodies are individual
of decalcifed specimen. Note
the structure that resembles a
tooth with a pulp (P), a
mantle of dentin (D) capped
by enamel (E), center and left
• They are removed surgically to prevent
cystic change, bone destruction and to
their interference with normal eruption
of the permanent teeth.
• Recurrences are rare and can be
prevented by removing the entire soft
• It represents an abortive attempt at
• Structural differentiation is poor.
• The end result being a calcified mass
displaying a disorderly pattern of hard
• There is little resemblance to tooth
form. The dentin and enamel are
entwined in a mass that bears no
resemblance to teeth. The result is a
solid, dense mass of hard tissue.
posterior maxilla of a
Nodular radiopacity with a density approximating
that of tooth structure
Surrounding opacity is radioluscent area
representig the follicle
Complex odontoma in
• Site – posterior part of mand.
• Age -2 ,3 decade of life
• Potency to grow to a large size.
• Enucleation & curettage
Periapical cemental dysplasia
( Cementoma, periapical osteofibrosis,
Common cementum producing lesion.
Incidence 2-3 per thousand pts. Gorlin
83% in black people
Primarily affects women 91% (Zegarelli
Average age 39 yrs. Rarely before 20
Lesions are multiple & 77% occur in
ant. Mand. Regn.
Periapical cemental dysplasia
• Radiographically 3 distinct stages /
• First osteolytic stage ( radiolucent like
lesion surrounding apex )
• Second stage – intermediate referred to as
cementoblastic ( partially calcified & show
central area of opacity )
• Third or mature stage ( completely radio
opaque surrounded by a thin radiolucent
• Limited growth potential / rarely grows
larger than 5 mm.
Periapical cemental dysplasia
• Microscopically Variation in presention
depending on stage of development.
• Early lesion composed of collagen producing
fibroblasts & nutrient vessels. As it matures
fibroblasts differentiate into cementoblasts or
osteoblasts. Followed by formation of
cementicles which coalesce to form solid masses
of cementum. Occasionally incremental lines may
give pagotoid appearance.
• Diagnosis By Radiographic & Clinical evalun.
(TRUE CEMENTOMA )
As a group, odontogenic tumors are not
Cementoblastoma is among the rarest of the
This tumor typically occurs around the roots of
Like virtually all odontogenic tumors,it is
expands the jaw,www.indiandentalacademy.com requires
causes pain and
it appears as a ball of dense material
attached to the end of the root
appearance of a ball of
cementum clinging to the
This dense material is presumed to be
cementum and the tumor cell line that
secretes it is cementoblasts,
hence the name. ww.indiandentalacademy.com
So why the other name
Recall that the lesion we know as cementoma is a selflimiting lesion ordinarily found in and around the
apices of the lower incisor teeth.
But the cementoblastoma is not self-limiting, it
to grow until it is removed, hence it is a “true” tumor,
a true cementoma.
Maybe we should call the self-limiting
cementoma by its other name, periapical cemental
• the mass of cementum is attached to the
• As it expands, the cementoblasts at the
periphery add new cementum.
power histopathology of the
The field is dominated by
sheets of cementum with a
C rim of cementoblasts (C) with
www.indiandentalacademy.com rim of normal bone
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