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Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. Nutrition The science of food, nutrients and other substances and balance in relation to health and disease and process by which the organism ingest, digest, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes the food substances. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. Nutrient Food consists of certain chemical substances, which are called as nutrients. Function of nutrients may be one of following  Regulation of different body process  Provide materials for development repairing and maintaining of different body tissues.  Serves as fuel to provide energy.  Malnutrition and under-nutrition constitute globally the most important category of environmental disease. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. Types of Nutrients Macronutrients – greater part of food Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Micronutrients - required in small quantities Vitamins Minerals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. Defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that need for energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates ,and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health, vitality ,and general well being and also makes small provisions for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. Malnutrition It is a pathological state, resulting from ,a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8.  Decreased intake  Poor teeth ?  Dysphagia  Anorexia nervosa  Restricted food habits  Malabsorption  Biliary and pancreatic diseases  Enteric malabsorption syndromes  Vitamin B12 malabsorption (pernicious anemia) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9.  Increased requirements   Trauma  Burns   Rapid growth in infancy, in childhood, of puberty, pregnancy, Excessive loss of in protein losing enteropathies and nephropathies. Special Category  Total parenteral nutrition  Drug induced interference with absorption  Genetic disorders interfering with conversion or utilization of nutrients www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. Malnutrition – Occlusion  Loss of teeth  Severe caries  Periodontal disease  Retarded Jaw development There is a special need for Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin C & Vitamin D, in relation to occlusion and dentofacial development www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Over Consumption  Obesity  Diabetes type 2  Obstructive sleep apnea  Hypertension  Coronary heart disease  Some cancers www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. Carbohydrates www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. Any form of carbohydrate gets converted to glucose after ingestion and then gets absorbed in to the blood R.D.A. is 440gms Excess amount which is present in blood is converted to the glycogen and stored into the liver www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. Carbohydrates Glucose enter the circulation to supply requirement to the other parts of body. Certain amount of glucose is converted to glycogen for storage in other parts of body like muscle Blood sugar level is maintained with in the physiologic limits, i.e. (60-90 mg/100ml). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. Lipids Classification - chemical structure  Triglycerides  Phospholipids  Sterols 3% of daily calories 9 kcal/g Fat substitutes - Simplesse & Olestra www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. Proteins  1/2 - muscles  1/5 - bone & cartilage  1/10 - skin  Amino acids - cytoplasm, nuclei, cell membrane & tissue  Source of energy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. Proteins  Proteins :  Simple  Conjugated  Derived  Amino acids  Non-essential  Essential - Histidine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenlyalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan & Valine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. Proteins  Functions  Building, repair & replacement  Enzymes & hormones  Regulators of fluid & acid-base balance  Transport of molecules & Ab  4kcal/g  RDA: 0.8 g/kg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Proteins  Sources:  Animal proteins - eggs, meat, fish, milk  Plant proteins – soya beans, wheat, corn & rice  Effect on formation, eruption, alignment:  During pregnant  During active period of growth & development  Protein calorie malnutrition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21.  Co-enzyme + Apoenzyme - Holoenzyme  2 forms - active & inactive (provitamin)  Classification  Water soluble : Vit B-complex & C  Fat soluble : Vit A, D, E, K www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22.  Metabolism of CHO, protein & fats www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. Source : cereals ,meat, milk, egg, fruits Beri-Beri : 1. Dry 2. Wet 3. Infantile - inc sensitivity, burning tongue, loss/diminution of taste Wernicke’s Korsakoff Synd www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Ariboflavinosis - angular stomatitis, glossitis, chelitis, seborrheic dermatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. Maintains integrity of skin & mucous membrane, normal func of CNS RDA - 13 niacin equiv for a diet of 2000kcal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26.  RDA: 0.9 - 1.6 mg - children  1.8 - 1.2 mg - adoloscence  Deficiency:  altered nerve function,  cheilosis  glossitis  stomatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27.  Functions:  coenzyme metabolism  fetal neural tube formation  RDA: 0.4 mg/day - adoloscent  Defc: Megaloblastic anemia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28.  RDA : 0.003 mg/day - adoloscent & adults  Defc: Pernicious anemia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. Release of energy - catabolism of CHO, protein & fats RDA: 3-4 mg - child 4-7 mg - adults Sources - yeast, liver, eggs, whole-grain cereals & legumes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. Active biologic substance RDA: 100-200 µg/day Sources - liver, milk, egg, yolk & yeast www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. Oral signs of B-complex def:  Commisures - inflammatory changes  Tongue - ulcerations  In alcoholics - atrophy of papillae  Buccal & palatal mucosa - inflammatory changes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. Collagen synthesis Integrity of cells - fibroblasts, osteoclasts, odontoblasts Fe absorption RDA: - 1-20 yrs - 45 - 50 mg/day - Adults - 60 mg/day - Pregn - 80 mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. Animal studies – odontoblast atrophy, irregular dentin, dilated pulp, entrapped odontoblasts  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34.  1. - 2 sources: Preformed Vit A: animal food Vit A1 - liver, fish, milk, butter, egg yolk Vit A2 - fresh water fish 2. Provitamin A (precursor carotene) : plant foods www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36.  Deficiency:  Periodontium  hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia - gingiva  Periodontal pocket  Teeth - rare  Salivary glands - atrophy  OMM - epimetaplasia & hyperkeratinization  Cleft lip & palate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37.  3 types: D1, D2, D3  Vit D2 - ergocalciferol - plants  Vit D3 - cholecalciferol - animals  Function:  Vitamin & hormone  Ca & PO4 absorption  RDA: 10µg - birth - 22yrs 7.5µg - pregn & lact www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. VITAMIN D… Deficiency:   Rickets  Osteomalacia  Enamel hypoplasia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. VITAMIN E  Deficiency: premature infants - anemia  Rodent studies: maintenance integrity of enamel, disarrangement of ameloblasts, chalky white appearance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. 3 Forms: - K1 - plants - K2 - intestinal bacteria - K3 - menadione www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. 4% body wt Macro minerals (>100mg/day) Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cl, S Micro minerals (.004 - .00004%) Fl, Fe, I, Cu, Co, Mn, Mo, Se, Cr, Zn www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. Distribution 1) Bones and Teeth (99%) - amorphous form – young teeth - crystalline form – mature teeth 2) ECF, soft tissues & membrane structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. Function:   Bone and teeth  Blood coagulation, muscle contraction…  Irritability of nervous tissue - tetany  Release of neurotransmitter  Transport of ions across membrane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45.  RDA: - Infant <1yr – 360 - 540 mg - 1 - 10 yrs – 800mg - 11 - 18 yr – 1200 mg - Pregnancy & lactation – 1200 mg - Adult – 800 mg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46.  80-90% + Ca - bone & teeth  Functions…  Formation of bone & tooth  Absorption & transport of nutrients  Regulation of acid - base balance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. RDA: - 800-1200 mg/day Sources: - Animal foods - meat, fish, poultry, eggs & milk - Nuts, legumes, whole grains cereals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48.  Distribution.. 60% - PO4 ions & CO3  40% - cells, soft tissue, body fluids  Functions:  Cellular respiration, energy production  Metabolism of CHO and protein  Regulation of acid-base balance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49.  Present in dentine twice > enamel  Animal studies :  enamel & dentin hypoplasia  decrease alveolar bone formation, widening of PDL, gingival hyperplasia  Symptoms:  Hyper excitability, behavior disturbance, weakness,depression,tremor,convulsions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. Inorganic nutrients that are required by humans in very small amount 0.001mg - <100mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. Carrier of oxygen in Hb for cellular respiration  RDA: - 0-2yrs - 10 -15mg/day - 11-18yrs - 18mg/day - 19 + - 10mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. Sources: 1) Heme (fish, meat) 2) Non heme (animal protein, fruits, green leafy veg..) 3) Additive proteins (fortified food) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53.  Fe deficiency Anemia - Inadequate intake & increase loss - Infants & children… low content of Fe in milk & less Fe reserve at birth - Pregnant women - Pathological blood loss www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. C/F - Anemia - weakness, fatigue, pallor, tingling extremities - Kolionychia O/M - glossitis, fissures, smooth shiny tongue (atrophied papillae) - Plummer- Vinson Syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55. 2-3 mg Functions… - Integral part of metallo-enzymes - Synth of RNA, DNA & Protein - Wound healing & growth of all tissues - Production of hormones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. C/F: - Poor appetite, slow healing of wounds - Loss of taste sensation & co-ordination - Pregnancy-abnormal taste sensation, high risk to fetus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. RDA: - Adult – 15mg/day - Pregnancy lactation- 20-25mg/day - <6mth- 3mg/day - 6mth-1yr- 5mg/day - 1-10yr – 10mg/day Clinical application: - ANUG www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. Function… - Synthesis of Hb - CNS - Pigments  Deficiency : - Infants .. Anemia Sources : - liver, kidney - chocolate, poultry, dried fruits www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. Synthesis of thyroid hormone  Imbalance : 1. Hypothyroidism - goiter, cretinism..  C/F  Enlarged tongue, thick lips, arrested sk.dev, mental retardation  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. Oral effects : Severe hypothyroidism: - small jaws - Retarded rate of tooth eruption - Predisposition to root resorption Hyperthyroidism : - D.C - inc. need & use of excess calories Source : sea food, veg- depend on soil www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. Nutritional factors & orofacial skeleton development  All tissues in human organism develop in sequential phase like.  Hyperplastic phase (proliferation)  Hypertrophic phase (cellular organization)  DNA formation  RNA formation.  Formation of proteins.  Any interference with proper development during these early phases can lead to alteration of ultimate tissue development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. Nutrition & Skeletal Maturation Prolonged nutritive failure in growing children’s shows a retarding influence on bone centers Correction of dietary deficiencies of bone-forming nutrients brings an acceleration in the over all rate of skeletal maturation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. Dietary requirements in growing children’s vary with age and body size. Body size being more important than age in this relation. Dietary correction alone is not sufficient to ensure normal calcium metabolism. Other factor that influences the teeth by nutritional means are abnormalities of digestion, assimilation, endocrine disturbances and infections diseases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65. Co-relation of diet & orofacial growth Retardation of growth and morphologic alteration of orofaical areas can occur in both humans and animals because of deficiency of essential nutrients. Animals on diet deficient in folic acid, riboflavin, and zinc have born offspring’s with increased risk of cleft palate and lips. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. Short Period of Malnutrition 7-12 months  An increase in anterior open bite  A reduction in dimensions of dental arches, with inadequate space for teeth  Insufficient dental eruption  Absence of natural diastema between front deciduous teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. Short Period of Malnutrition  Shorter roots  Shorter mandible in antero-posterior dimensions  Marked reduction in ascending ramus, condylar region  Changes in dentoalveolar inclination in incisor regions  Mineral inadequacies in the diet harm bone more than tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. Removal of CASIEN from diet of young animals has resulted in the substantial reductions in mandibular dimensions.  A deficiency of ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS has interfered with the formation of mineralized tissues, mostly with dentin, development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69. Animals In addition with nutrition deficiency, excess intake of vitamin A,D or K cause skeletal alterations in animals. Osseous damage has been observed in breast fed animal offspring’s when maternal milk has been deficient in micro minerals, or when hypoglycemia or folic acid deficiency have been present. Congenital abnormalities of dentofacial development and occlusion are found in rats with riboflavin deficiency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70.  Deficiency of riboflavin has been found in experimental mandible, animals to results in shortening of cleft palate and other skeletal malformations  Clefts of the palate and general growth retardation and deformities of bone in rats with acute folic acid deficiency is seen www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71. Human:  Fetus may suffer from Gregg’s viral syndrome. In this condition a pregnant woman who has been affected by German measles, causes the fetus to suffer from osseous malformations. Such as microcephaly and maxillary and mandibluar alterations associated with poor dental alignment.  Fetal rickets can also occur when mother is suffering from Vitamin D deficiency www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72. Inadequate intake of Vitamin. A and C has resulted in dentin reduction, and it has caused osteoblast to turn into fibroblast, thus preventing the periodontal ligament from relaying tension to the bone and causing the breakdown of dental arches. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. Vitamin C. is essential in formation of intercellular substance, fibrous tissue matrices of bone, tendon and cartilage. In severe deficiency, the gums may become retracted, formation of periodontal pockets. Loosening of teeth and loss teeth. Vitamin C deficiency produces sub-clinical scurvy which is related with damage in development and eruption of the teeth and formation of hypodimensional osseous bases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74. Vitamin B2 deficiency produces retardation of growth of dentofacial structures. A prenatal matarnal riboflavin (B2) deficiency produces anomalies of jaw and teeth; which shows shortness of mandible, and maxilla, cleft palate, severe anomalies of incisor teeth, dentofacial malformations resembled Angles class II malocclusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 75. Deficiency of Vitamin D may result to rickets, reduction in blood calcium and phosphorus, delayed closure of fontanelles. Disproportionate growth occurs between face and skull. It may cause interference with bone growth. It causes retarded eruption of teeth early loss of deciduous teeth due to caries. Jaw bones become thick. www.indiandentalacademy.com Teeth are irregularly arranged
  • 76. Maxilla become narrow and palate becomes high. Mandible becomes short. Infants with low vitamin D intakes showed delayed eruption of teeth. Increased susceptibility of osseous tissue to muscular traction as undesirable oral habits. Open bite, transverse hypodimensions and misshapen palate are frequently observed in vitamin D deficiency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78. Vitamin A The principal effect of vitamin A deficiency is reduction in size of skull, changes in shape of skull distort the face as well. The bones of face particularly mandible, malar and zygomatic process of temporal bone are thickened and coarse. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 79. Disturbances of differentiation and appositional growth of developing teeth. Disturbances in calcification of teeth, pulp stones. Retardation of eruption. Retardation of general dental growth and development. Disturbances of periodontal tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT In Animals It has been shown in animals that a diet that does not supply food of a sufficiently hard consistency does not supply adequate stimulus for proper mastication, resulting in narrower maxillary arches. Similar observations have also been made in humans, and a genuine arch collapse syndrome has been described. This type of pathologic condition was observed in histologic studies on animals, in which alterations were seen in the haversian system of the mandible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82.  There is a lower level of eruption, especially posterior eruption.  Maxillary arches are narrower.  Mandibles are shorter, and condyles are thinner.  Temporal and massetter muscles have less tone.  The linear dimension of the skull is reduced. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT Soon after birth, the newborn learns that food results from the action of sucking, as a result of the sucking and pressing actions that are associated breast feeding, the baby develops the earliest important functional influences on both the thrust and physiologic growth of the mandible. On the other hand, the mandible may be compelled to withdraw as a result of bottle-feeding because its physiologic thrust effort is missing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT  According to anthropologic studies, the exertion of the masticatory function has been progressively decreasing in people from industrialized area, probably because of the use of softer diets. But the diets of rural populations, which usually contain an abundance of raw vegetables, offer adequate masticatory muscular stimulation, and orthodontic problems in this group are at a minimum.  The consistent use of a too soft diet is a major factor in the occurrence of dental malpositioning. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85. Nutrition and Teeth Diet affect teeth in two distinct ways. LOCAL EFFECT - depends on the intraoral chemical or physical action on the external surfaces of the teeth and oral tissues of the products of masticatory and bacterial action on the various foodstuffs. SYSTEMIC NUTRITIONAL factors is important during the period of tooth development only. periodontium is continuously influenced by systemic factors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86. Nutrition and Teeth  Critical periods exist in the development of teeth during which time any nutritional imbalance will lead to irreversible change in teeth.  Nutritional deficiency is also associate with periodontal dieses deficiency of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D produces osteoporosis of alveolar bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87. Nutrition and Teeth  If mother’s diet is deficient in protein, will affect the child’s teeth in the following ways.  Teeth will be smaller in size specially third molars.  Teeth will be more caries prone.  Late eruption of third molars.  Rotated and crowded teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88. Nutrition and Teeth Optimal and harmonious growth and development of maxilla and mandible are necessary to maintain a harmonious dental arch. Deficiency of required nutrients will results in inadequate bone growth patterns with concomitant malalignment and malocclusion of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89. Extensive epidemiologic studies show that children calcifying their permanent teeth while using a domestic water containing about 1 part per million of fluoride show only about 40 to 60 per cent as much dental caries as comparable groups of children using fluoride-free water. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90.  Caries resistance, produced by fluorides during tooth calcification, is due to the incorporation of the fluoride ion in the enamel  Fluoridation of water supplies, or topical application of fluorides, and good oral hygiene can prevent caries in spite of the presence of sugar in the diet. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 91. Dentistry for child & adolescent - Mc Donald Nutrition in Clinical Dentistry - Abraham E. Nizel Craniofacial Embryology – Fourth Ed. – G.H.Sperber Contemporary Orthodontics – Fourth Ed. – Proffit Essentials of Facial Growth – Donald H. Enlow Handbook of Orthodontics – Fourth Ed. – Moyers Textbook of Orthodontics –Samir E Bishara Orthodontics- Principles &Practice- Third Ed - T.M.Graber Color Atlas of Dental Medicine - Orthodontic Diagnosis – ThomasRakosi, Irmtrud Jonas, Thomas M Graber • Textbook of Orthodontics - Salzmann • • • • • • • • • www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 92. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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