INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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Nutrition
The science of food, nutrients and other substances

and balance in relation to health and disease and
process ...
Nutrient
Food consists of certain chemical substances, which are called as
nutrients.
Function of nutrients may be one of ...
Types of Nutrients
Macronutrients – greater part of food
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins

Micronutrients - required in sm...
Defined as one which contains different types of foods in

such quantities and proportions that need for energy,
amino ac...
Malnutrition
It is a pathological state, resulting from ,a

relative or absolute deficiency or excess of
one or more esse...


Decreased intake
 Poor teeth ?
 Dysphagia
 Anorexia nervosa
 Restricted food habits



Malabsorption
 Biliary and...


Increased requirements



Trauma



Burns





Rapid growth in infancy, in childhood, of puberty,
pregnancy,

Exce...
Malnutrition – Occlusion


Loss of teeth



Severe caries



Periodontal disease



Retarded Jaw development

There is...
Over Consumption
 Obesity
 Diabetes type 2
 Obstructive sleep apnea
 Hypertension
 Coronary heart disease
 Some canc...
Carbohydrates

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www.indiandentalacademy.com
Any form of carbohydrate gets converted to glucose

after ingestion and then gets absorbed in to the blood
R.D.A. is 440...
Carbohydrates
Glucose enter the circulation to supply requirement to

the other parts of body.
Certain amount of glucose...
Lipids
Classification - chemical structure


Triglycerides



Phospholipids



Sterols

3% of daily calories
9 kcal/g
F...
Proteins
 1/2 - muscles
 1/5 - bone & cartilage
 1/10 - skin
 Amino acids - cytoplasm, nuclei, cell membrane &

tissue...
Proteins
 Proteins :
 Simple
 Conjugated
 Derived

 Amino acids
 Non-essential
 Essential - Histidine, Leucine, Iso...
Proteins
 Functions
 Building, repair & replacement
 Enzymes & hormones
 Regulators of fluid & acid-base balance
 Tra...
Proteins
 Sources:
 Animal proteins - eggs, meat, fish, milk
 Plant proteins – soya beans, wheat, corn & rice

 Effect...


Co-enzyme + Apoenzyme - Holoenzyme



2 forms - active & inactive (provitamin)



Classification


Water soluble : V...


Metabolism of CHO, protein & fats

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Source : cereals ,meat, milk, egg, fruits
Beri-Beri :
1. Dry
2. Wet
3. Infantile - inc sensitivity, burning tongue,

los...
Ariboflavinosis - angular stomatitis, glossitis, chelitis,

seborrheic dermatitis

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Maintains integrity of skin & mucous membrane,

normal func of CNS
RDA - 13 niacin equiv for a diet of 2000kcal
www.indi...
 RDA: 0.9 - 1.6 mg - children

1.8 - 1.2 mg - adoloscence
 Deficiency:
 altered nerve function,
 cheilosis
 glossiti...
 Functions:
 coenzyme metabolism
 fetal neural tube formation

 RDA: 0.4 mg/day - adoloscent
 Defc: Megaloblastic ane...
 RDA : 0.003 mg/day - adoloscent & adults
 Defc: Pernicious anemia

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Release of energy - catabolism of CHO, protein & fats
RDA: 3-4 mg - child

4-7 mg - adults
Sources - yeast, liver, eggs...
Active biologic substance
RDA: 100-200 µg/day
Sources - liver, milk, egg, yolk & yeast

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Oral signs of B-complex def:

 Commisures - inflammatory changes
 Tongue - ulcerations
 In alcoholics - atrophy of pap...
Collagen synthesis
Integrity of cells - fibroblasts, osteoclasts,

odontoblasts
Fe absorption
RDA:
- 1-20 yrs - 45 - 5...
Animal studies –

odontoblast atrophy,

irregular dentin,
dilated pulp,
entrapped odontoblasts


www.indiandentalacad...

1.
-

2 sources:
Preformed Vit A: animal food
Vit A1 - liver, fish, milk, butter, egg yolk
Vit A2 - fresh water fish

2....
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

Deficiency:



Periodontium 

hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia - gingiva



Periodontal pocket



Teeth - rare



Saliv...
 3 types: D1, D2, D3
 Vit D2 - ergocalciferol - plants
 Vit D3 - cholecalciferol - animals

 Function:
 Vitamin & hor...
VITAMIN D…

Deficiency:




Rickets



Osteomalacia



Enamel hypoplasia

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VITAMIN E

 Deficiency: premature infants - anemia
 Rodent studies: maintenance integrity of enamel,

disarrangement of ...
3 Forms:
- K1 - plants
- K2 - intestinal bacteria
- K3 - menadione

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4% body wt
Macro minerals (>100mg/day) Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cl,

S
Micro minerals (.004 - .00004%)

Fl, Fe, I, Cu, Co, Mn,...
Distribution

1) Bones and Teeth (99%)
- amorphous form – young teeth
- crystalline form – mature teeth

2) ECF, soft tis...
Function:




Bone and teeth



Blood coagulation, muscle contraction…



Irritability of nervous tissue - tetany



...
 RDA:
- Infant <1yr – 360 - 540 mg
- 1 - 10 yrs – 800mg
- 11 - 18 yr – 1200 mg
- Pregnancy & lactation – 1200 mg
- Adult ...


80-90% + Ca - bone & teeth



Functions…


Formation of bone & tooth



Absorption & transport of nutrients



Regu...
RDA:
- 800-1200 mg/day
Sources:
- Animal foods - meat, fish, poultry, eggs & milk
- Nuts, legumes, whole grains cereals
...
 Distribution.. 60% - PO4 ions & CO3
 40% - cells, soft tissue, body fluids
 Functions:


Cellular respiration, energy...
 Present in dentine twice > enamel
 Animal studies :


enamel & dentin hypoplasia



decrease alveolar bone formation,...
Inorganic nutrients that are required by humans in very
small amount
0.001mg - <100mg/day

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Carrier of oxygen in Hb for cellular respiration
 RDA:
- 0-2yrs - 10 -15mg/day
- 11-18yrs - 18mg/day
- 19 + - 10mg/day

...
Sources:

1) Heme (fish, meat)
2) Non heme (animal protein, fruits, green leafy veg..)
3) Additive proteins (fortified fo...
 Fe deficiency Anemia
- Inadequate intake & increase loss
- Infants & children… low content of

Fe in milk & less Fe rese...
C/F
- Anemia
- weakness, fatigue, pallor, tingling extremities
- Kolionychia
O/M
- glossitis, fissures, smooth shiny

to...
2-3 mg
Functions…
- Integral part of metallo-enzymes
- Synth of RNA, DNA & Protein
- Wound healing & growth of all tissu...
C/F:

- Poor appetite, slow healing of wounds
- Loss of taste sensation & co-ordination
- Pregnancy-abnormal taste sensat...
RDA:
- Adult – 15mg/day
- Pregnancy lactation- 20-25mg/day
- <6mth- 3mg/day
- 6mth-1yr- 5mg/day
- 1-10yr – 10mg/day
Clin...
Function…
- Synthesis of Hb
- CNS
- Pigments
 Deficiency :
- Infants .. Anemia
Sources :
- liver, kidney
- chocolate, p...
Synthesis of thyroid hormone
 Imbalance :
1. Hypothyroidism - goiter, cretinism..
 C/F
 Enlarged tongue, thick lips, ar...
Oral effects :
Severe hypothyroidism:
- small jaws
- Retarded rate of tooth eruption
- Predisposition to root resorption...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Nutritional factors & orofacial
skeleton development
 All tissues in human organism develop in sequential phase like.
 H...
Nutrition & Skeletal Maturation
Prolonged nutritive failure in growing children’s

shows a retarding influence on bone ce...
Dietary requirements in growing children’s vary with

age and body size. Body size being more important
than age in this ...
Co-relation of diet & orofacial
growth
Retardation of growth and morphologic

alteration of orofaical areas can occur in ...
Short Period of Malnutrition
7-12 months


An increase in anterior open bite



A reduction in dimensions of dental arch...
Short Period of Malnutrition


Shorter roots



Shorter mandible in antero-posterior dimensions



Marked reduction in ...
Removal of CASIEN from diet of young animals has

resulted in the substantial reductions in mandibular
dimensions.
 A de...
Animals
In addition with nutrition deficiency, excess intake
of vitamin A,D or K cause skeletal alterations in
animals.
Os...


Deficiency of riboflavin has been found in

experimental
mandible,

animals to results in shortening of
cleft

palate

...
Human:


Fetus may suffer from Gregg’s viral syndrome. In

this condition a pregnant woman who has been
affected by Germa...
Inadequate intake of Vitamin. A and C has resulted in

dentin reduction, and it has caused osteoblast to turn
into fibrob...
Vitamin C. is essential in formation of intercellular

substance, fibrous tissue matrices of bone, tendon and
cartilage.
...
Vitamin B2 deficiency produces retardation of growth

of dentofacial structures.
A prenatal matarnal riboflavin (B2) def...
Deficiency of Vitamin D may result to rickets, reduction

in blood calcium and phosphorus, delayed closure of
fontanelles...
Maxilla become narrow and palate becomes high.
Mandible becomes short.
Infants with low vitamin D intakes showed delaye...
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Vitamin A
The principal effect of vitamin A deficiency is
reduction in size of skull, changes in shape of skull distort
th...
Disturbances of differentiation and appositional

growth of developing teeth.
Disturbances in calcification of teeth, pu...
FOOD CONSISTANCY ON
OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT
In Animals
It has been shown in animals that a diet that does not
supply food of ...
FOOD CONSISTANCY ON
OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT

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

There is a lower level of eruption, especially
posterior eruption.



Maxillary arches are narrower.



Mandibles are...
FOOD CONSISTANCY ON
OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT
Soon after birth, the newborn learns that food results
from the action of sucking...
FOOD CONSISTANCY ON
OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT
 According to anthropologic studies, the exertion of

the masticatory function h...
Nutrition and Teeth
Diet affect teeth in two distinct ways.
LOCAL EFFECT - depends on the intraoral chemical
or physical ...
Nutrition and Teeth


Critical periods exist in the development of teeth

during which time any nutritional imbalance wil...
Nutrition and Teeth
 If mother’s diet is deficient in protein, will affect

the child’s teeth in the following ways.


T...
Nutrition and Teeth
Optimal and harmonious growth and development of

maxilla and mandible are necessary to maintain a
ha...
Extensive epidemiologic studies show that children

calcifying their permanent teeth while using a
domestic water contain...
 Caries resistance, produced by fluorides during tooth

calcification, is due to the incorporation of the
fluoride ion in...
Dentistry for child & adolescent - Mc Donald
Nutrition in Clinical Dentistry - Abraham E. Nizel
Craniofacial Embryology – ...
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Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Nutrition part1 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Nutrition The science of food, nutrients and other substances and balance in relation to health and disease and process by which the organism ingest, digest, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes the food substances. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Nutrient Food consists of certain chemical substances, which are called as nutrients. Function of nutrients may be one of following  Regulation of different body process  Provide materials for development repairing and maintaining of different body tissues.  Serves as fuel to provide energy.  Malnutrition and under-nutrition constitute globally the most important category of environmental disease. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Types of Nutrients Macronutrients – greater part of food Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Micronutrients - required in small quantities Vitamins Minerals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Defined as one which contains different types of foods in such quantities and proportions that need for energy, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, fats, carbohydrates ,and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health, vitality ,and general well being and also makes small provisions for extra nutrients to withstand short durations of leanness. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Malnutrition It is a pathological state, resulting from ,a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8.  Decreased intake  Poor teeth ?  Dysphagia  Anorexia nervosa  Restricted food habits  Malabsorption  Biliary and pancreatic diseases  Enteric malabsorption syndromes  Vitamin B12 malabsorption (pernicious anemia) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9.  Increased requirements   Trauma  Burns   Rapid growth in infancy, in childhood, of puberty, pregnancy, Excessive loss of in protein losing enteropathies and nephropathies. Special Category  Total parenteral nutrition  Drug induced interference with absorption  Genetic disorders interfering with conversion or utilization of nutrients www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Malnutrition – Occlusion  Loss of teeth  Severe caries  Periodontal disease  Retarded Jaw development There is a special need for Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin C & Vitamin D, in relation to occlusion and dentofacial development www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Over Consumption  Obesity  Diabetes type 2  Obstructive sleep apnea  Hypertension  Coronary heart disease  Some cancers www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Carbohydrates www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Any form of carbohydrate gets converted to glucose after ingestion and then gets absorbed in to the blood R.D.A. is 440gms Excess amount which is present in blood is converted to the glycogen and stored into the liver www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Carbohydrates Glucose enter the circulation to supply requirement to the other parts of body. Certain amount of glucose is converted to glycogen for storage in other parts of body like muscle Blood sugar level is maintained with in the physiologic limits, i.e. (60-90 mg/100ml). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Lipids Classification - chemical structure  Triglycerides  Phospholipids  Sterols 3% of daily calories 9 kcal/g Fat substitutes - Simplesse & Olestra www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Proteins  1/2 - muscles  1/5 - bone & cartilage  1/10 - skin  Amino acids - cytoplasm, nuclei, cell membrane & tissue  Source of energy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Proteins  Proteins :  Simple  Conjugated  Derived  Amino acids  Non-essential  Essential - Histidine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenlyalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan & Valine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Proteins  Functions  Building, repair & replacement  Enzymes & hormones  Regulators of fluid & acid-base balance  Transport of molecules & Ab  4kcal/g  RDA: 0.8 g/kg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Proteins  Sources:  Animal proteins - eggs, meat, fish, milk  Plant proteins – soya beans, wheat, corn & rice  Effect on formation, eruption, alignment:  During pregnant  During active period of growth & development  Protein calorie malnutrition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21.  Co-enzyme + Apoenzyme - Holoenzyme  2 forms - active & inactive (provitamin)  Classification  Water soluble : Vit B-complex & C  Fat soluble : Vit A, D, E, K www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Metabolism of CHO, protein & fats www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Source : cereals ,meat, milk, egg, fruits Beri-Beri : 1. Dry 2. Wet 3. Infantile - inc sensitivity, burning tongue, loss/diminution of taste Wernicke’s Korsakoff Synd www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Ariboflavinosis - angular stomatitis, glossitis, chelitis, seborrheic dermatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Maintains integrity of skin & mucous membrane, normal func of CNS RDA - 13 niacin equiv for a diet of 2000kcal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.  RDA: 0.9 - 1.6 mg - children  1.8 - 1.2 mg - adoloscence  Deficiency:  altered nerve function,  cheilosis  glossitis  stomatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.  Functions:  coenzyme metabolism  fetal neural tube formation  RDA: 0.4 mg/day - adoloscent  Defc: Megaloblastic anemia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28.  RDA : 0.003 mg/day - adoloscent & adults  Defc: Pernicious anemia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Release of energy - catabolism of CHO, protein & fats RDA: 3-4 mg - child 4-7 mg - adults Sources - yeast, liver, eggs, whole-grain cereals & legumes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Active biologic substance RDA: 100-200 µg/day Sources - liver, milk, egg, yolk & yeast www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Oral signs of B-complex def:  Commisures - inflammatory changes  Tongue - ulcerations  In alcoholics - atrophy of papillae  Buccal & palatal mucosa - inflammatory changes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Collagen synthesis Integrity of cells - fibroblasts, osteoclasts, odontoblasts Fe absorption RDA: - 1-20 yrs - 45 - 50 mg/day - Adults - 60 mg/day - Pregn - 80 mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Animal studies – odontoblast atrophy, irregular dentin, dilated pulp, entrapped odontoblasts  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34.  1. - 2 sources: Preformed Vit A: animal food Vit A1 - liver, fish, milk, butter, egg yolk Vit A2 - fresh water fish 2. Provitamin A (precursor carotene) : plant foods www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36.  Deficiency:  Periodontium  hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia - gingiva  Periodontal pocket  Teeth - rare  Salivary glands - atrophy  OMM - epimetaplasia & hyperkeratinization  Cleft lip & palate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37.  3 types: D1, D2, D3  Vit D2 - ergocalciferol - plants  Vit D3 - cholecalciferol - animals  Function:  Vitamin & hormone  Ca & PO4 absorption  RDA: 10µg - birth - 22yrs 7.5µg - pregn & lact www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. VITAMIN D… Deficiency:   Rickets  Osteomalacia  Enamel hypoplasia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. VITAMIN E  Deficiency: premature infants - anemia  Rodent studies: maintenance integrity of enamel, disarrangement of ameloblasts, chalky white appearance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. 3 Forms: - K1 - plants - K2 - intestinal bacteria - K3 - menadione www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. 4% body wt Macro minerals (>100mg/day) Ca, P, Na, K, Mg, Cl, S Micro minerals (.004 - .00004%) Fl, Fe, I, Cu, Co, Mn, Mo, Se, Cr, Zn www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Distribution 1) Bones and Teeth (99%) - amorphous form – young teeth - crystalline form – mature teeth 2) ECF, soft tissues & membrane structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Function:   Bone and teeth  Blood coagulation, muscle contraction…  Irritability of nervous tissue - tetany  Release of neurotransmitter  Transport of ions across membrane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45.  RDA: - Infant <1yr – 360 - 540 mg - 1 - 10 yrs – 800mg - 11 - 18 yr – 1200 mg - Pregnancy & lactation – 1200 mg - Adult – 800 mg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46.  80-90% + Ca - bone & teeth  Functions…  Formation of bone & tooth  Absorption & transport of nutrients  Regulation of acid - base balance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. RDA: - 800-1200 mg/day Sources: - Animal foods - meat, fish, poultry, eggs & milk - Nuts, legumes, whole grains cereals www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48.  Distribution.. 60% - PO4 ions & CO3  40% - cells, soft tissue, body fluids  Functions:  Cellular respiration, energy production  Metabolism of CHO and protein  Regulation of acid-base balance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49.  Present in dentine twice > enamel  Animal studies :  enamel & dentin hypoplasia  decrease alveolar bone formation, widening of PDL, gingival hyperplasia  Symptoms:  Hyper excitability, behavior disturbance, weakness,depression,tremor,convulsions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Inorganic nutrients that are required by humans in very small amount 0.001mg - <100mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Carrier of oxygen in Hb for cellular respiration  RDA: - 0-2yrs - 10 -15mg/day - 11-18yrs - 18mg/day - 19 + - 10mg/day www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Sources: 1) Heme (fish, meat) 2) Non heme (animal protein, fruits, green leafy veg..) 3) Additive proteins (fortified food) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.  Fe deficiency Anemia - Inadequate intake & increase loss - Infants & children… low content of Fe in milk & less Fe reserve at birth - Pregnant women - Pathological blood loss www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. C/F - Anemia - weakness, fatigue, pallor, tingling extremities - Kolionychia O/M - glossitis, fissures, smooth shiny tongue (atrophied papillae) - Plummer- Vinson Syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. 2-3 mg Functions… - Integral part of metallo-enzymes - Synth of RNA, DNA & Protein - Wound healing & growth of all tissues - Production of hormones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. C/F: - Poor appetite, slow healing of wounds - Loss of taste sensation & co-ordination - Pregnancy-abnormal taste sensation, high risk to fetus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. RDA: - Adult – 15mg/day - Pregnancy lactation- 20-25mg/day - <6mth- 3mg/day - 6mth-1yr- 5mg/day - 1-10yr – 10mg/day Clinical application: - ANUG www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Function… - Synthesis of Hb - CNS - Pigments  Deficiency : - Infants .. Anemia Sources : - liver, kidney - chocolate, poultry, dried fruits www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Synthesis of thyroid hormone  Imbalance : 1. Hypothyroidism - goiter, cretinism..  C/F  Enlarged tongue, thick lips, arrested sk.dev, mental retardation  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Oral effects : Severe hypothyroidism: - small jaws - Retarded rate of tooth eruption - Predisposition to root resorption Hyperthyroidism : - D.C - inc. need & use of excess calories Source : sea food, veg- depend on soil www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Nutritional factors & orofacial skeleton development  All tissues in human organism develop in sequential phase like.  Hyperplastic phase (proliferation)  Hypertrophic phase (cellular organization)  DNA formation  RNA formation.  Formation of proteins.  Any interference with proper development during these early phases can lead to alteration of ultimate tissue development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. Nutrition & Skeletal Maturation Prolonged nutritive failure in growing children’s shows a retarding influence on bone centers Correction of dietary deficiencies of bone-forming nutrients brings an acceleration in the over all rate of skeletal maturation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Dietary requirements in growing children’s vary with age and body size. Body size being more important than age in this relation. Dietary correction alone is not sufficient to ensure normal calcium metabolism. Other factor that influences the teeth by nutritional means are abnormalities of digestion, assimilation, endocrine disturbances and infections diseases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. Co-relation of diet & orofacial growth Retardation of growth and morphologic alteration of orofaical areas can occur in both humans and animals because of deficiency of essential nutrients. Animals on diet deficient in folic acid, riboflavin, and zinc have born offspring’s with increased risk of cleft palate and lips. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Short Period of Malnutrition 7-12 months  An increase in anterior open bite  A reduction in dimensions of dental arches, with inadequate space for teeth  Insufficient dental eruption  Absence of natural diastema between front deciduous teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Short Period of Malnutrition  Shorter roots  Shorter mandible in antero-posterior dimensions  Marked reduction in ascending ramus, condylar region  Changes in dentoalveolar inclination in incisor regions  Mineral inadequacies in the diet harm bone more than tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Removal of CASIEN from diet of young animals has resulted in the substantial reductions in mandibular dimensions.  A deficiency of ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS has interfered with the formation of mineralized tissues, mostly with dentin, development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Animals In addition with nutrition deficiency, excess intake of vitamin A,D or K cause skeletal alterations in animals. Osseous damage has been observed in breast fed animal offspring’s when maternal milk has been deficient in micro minerals, or when hypoglycemia or folic acid deficiency have been present. Congenital abnormalities of dentofacial development and occlusion are found in rats with riboflavin deficiency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70.  Deficiency of riboflavin has been found in experimental mandible, animals to results in shortening of cleft palate and other skeletal malformations  Clefts of the palate and general growth retardation and deformities of bone in rats with acute folic acid deficiency is seen www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Human:  Fetus may suffer from Gregg’s viral syndrome. In this condition a pregnant woman who has been affected by German measles, causes the fetus to suffer from osseous malformations. Such as microcephaly and maxillary and mandibluar alterations associated with poor dental alignment.  Fetal rickets can also occur when mother is suffering from Vitamin D deficiency www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Inadequate intake of Vitamin. A and C has resulted in dentin reduction, and it has caused osteoblast to turn into fibroblast, thus preventing the periodontal ligament from relaying tension to the bone and causing the breakdown of dental arches. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Vitamin C. is essential in formation of intercellular substance, fibrous tissue matrices of bone, tendon and cartilage. In severe deficiency, the gums may become retracted, formation of periodontal pockets. Loosening of teeth and loss teeth. Vitamin C deficiency produces sub-clinical scurvy which is related with damage in development and eruption of the teeth and formation of hypodimensional osseous bases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Vitamin B2 deficiency produces retardation of growth of dentofacial structures. A prenatal matarnal riboflavin (B2) deficiency produces anomalies of jaw and teeth; which shows shortness of mandible, and maxilla, cleft palate, severe anomalies of incisor teeth, dentofacial malformations resembled Angles class II malocclusion. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Deficiency of Vitamin D may result to rickets, reduction in blood calcium and phosphorus, delayed closure of fontanelles. Disproportionate growth occurs between face and skull. It may cause interference with bone growth. It causes retarded eruption of teeth early loss of deciduous teeth due to caries. Jaw bones become thick. www.indiandentalacademy.com Teeth are irregularly arranged
  76. 76. Maxilla become narrow and palate becomes high. Mandible becomes short. Infants with low vitamin D intakes showed delayed eruption of teeth. Increased susceptibility of osseous tissue to muscular traction as undesirable oral habits. Open bite, transverse hypodimensions and misshapen palate are frequently observed in vitamin D deficiency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Vitamin A The principal effect of vitamin A deficiency is reduction in size of skull, changes in shape of skull distort the face as well. The bones of face particularly mandible, malar and zygomatic process of temporal bone are thickened and coarse. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Disturbances of differentiation and appositional growth of developing teeth. Disturbances in calcification of teeth, pulp stones. Retardation of eruption. Retardation of general dental growth and development. Disturbances of periodontal tissue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT In Animals It has been shown in animals that a diet that does not supply food of a sufficiently hard consistency does not supply adequate stimulus for proper mastication, resulting in narrower maxillary arches. Similar observations have also been made in humans, and a genuine arch collapse syndrome has been described. This type of pathologic condition was observed in histologic studies on animals, in which alterations were seen in the haversian system of the mandible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82.  There is a lower level of eruption, especially posterior eruption.  Maxillary arches are narrower.  Mandibles are shorter, and condyles are thinner.  Temporal and massetter muscles have less tone.  The linear dimension of the skull is reduced. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT Soon after birth, the newborn learns that food results from the action of sucking, as a result of the sucking and pressing actions that are associated breast feeding, the baby develops the earliest important functional influences on both the thrust and physiologic growth of the mandible. On the other hand, the mandible may be compelled to withdraw as a result of bottle-feeding because its physiologic thrust effort is missing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. FOOD CONSISTANCY ON OROFACIAL DEVLOPMENT  According to anthropologic studies, the exertion of the masticatory function has been progressively decreasing in people from industrialized area, probably because of the use of softer diets. But the diets of rural populations, which usually contain an abundance of raw vegetables, offer adequate masticatory muscular stimulation, and orthodontic problems in this group are at a minimum.  The consistent use of a too soft diet is a major factor in the occurrence of dental malpositioning. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. Nutrition and Teeth Diet affect teeth in two distinct ways. LOCAL EFFECT - depends on the intraoral chemical or physical action on the external surfaces of the teeth and oral tissues of the products of masticatory and bacterial action on the various foodstuffs. SYSTEMIC NUTRITIONAL factors is important during the period of tooth development only. periodontium is continuously influenced by systemic factors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Nutrition and Teeth  Critical periods exist in the development of teeth during which time any nutritional imbalance will lead to irreversible change in teeth.  Nutritional deficiency is also associate with periodontal dieses deficiency of calcium, phosphate and vitamin D produces osteoporosis of alveolar bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Nutrition and Teeth  If mother’s diet is deficient in protein, will affect the child’s teeth in the following ways.  Teeth will be smaller in size specially third molars.  Teeth will be more caries prone.  Late eruption of third molars.  Rotated and crowded teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Nutrition and Teeth Optimal and harmonious growth and development of maxilla and mandible are necessary to maintain a harmonious dental arch. Deficiency of required nutrients will results in inadequate bone growth patterns with concomitant malalignment and malocclusion of the teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Extensive epidemiologic studies show that children calcifying their permanent teeth while using a domestic water containing about 1 part per million of fluoride show only about 40 to 60 per cent as much dental caries as comparable groups of children using fluoride-free water. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90.  Caries resistance, produced by fluorides during tooth calcification, is due to the incorporation of the fluoride ion in the enamel  Fluoridation of water supplies, or topical application of fluorides, and good oral hygiene can prevent caries in spite of the presence of sugar in the diet. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Dentistry for child & adolescent - Mc Donald Nutrition in Clinical Dentistry - Abraham E. Nizel Craniofacial Embryology – Fourth Ed. – G.H.Sperber Contemporary Orthodontics – Fourth Ed. – Proffit Essentials of Facial Growth – Donald H. Enlow Handbook of Orthodontics – Fourth Ed. – Moyers Textbook of Orthodontics –Samir E Bishara Orthodontics- Principles &Practice- Third Ed - T.M.Graber Color Atlas of Dental Medicine - Orthodontic Diagnosis – ThomasRakosi, Irmtrud Jonas, Thomas M Graber • Textbook of Orthodontics - Salzmann • • • • • • • • • www.indiandentalacademy.com
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