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Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • 1. ALLOYS & NEWER ORTHODONTIC WIRES INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES “ To obtain fairly rapid tooth movement, HYALINISED ZONES were to be avoided or kept to a minimum.” - REITAN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES Ideally orthodontic wires are designed to move teeth with light, continuous forces.     Stainless steel Co-cr alloys Beta titanium Nickel titanium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS  Conventional - Nitinol  Superelastic - Pseudoelastic – Japanese NiTi -Thermoelastic – Cu NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. TITANIUM      Titanium was discovered by GREGOR ( England 1790 ) BOTHE et al implanted titanium in lab. animals (1940) A light weight metal Atomic weight – 47.9 Non magnetic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. TITANIUM     Corrosion resistant Biocompatibility High strength Ductility Two phages   Alpha Beta www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. TITANIUM   Alpha phase – Hexagonal unit cells At room temperature Beta phase – Body centered cubic cells At temperatures above 16200F or 8820C www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. TITANIUM    Alpha type – ALPHA TITANIUM (A.J. Wilcock) Beta type – Beta II or ORMCO’ TMA Titanium-Niobium wires Both alpha & beta phases – Ti-Al-Fe & Ti-Al-V www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. TITANIUM SUPERIOR CORROSION RESISTANCE A thin complex film Tio2 gives Ti affinity, a self adherence that may cause friction. Titanium is not esthetic   Lacer aided depositions Implantation of nitrogen ( IONGUARD ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS 2 forms of NiTi alloys 1. Martensite - Body centered cubic/tetragonal lattice 2. Austenite – Face centered (close packed hexagonal) ‘R’ phase – Rhombohedral “SMART MATERIALS” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. NICKEL-TITANIUM TRANSITION TEMPERATURE RANGE TTR above the body temperature renders the alloy austenitic which is more rigid TTR below the body temperature renders it martensitic that is super elastic Austenite wires - 2% of the strain range Martensitic wires - 8%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. NICKEL-TITANIUM HYSTERESIS The range for most binary alloys is 400 – 600 Above the TTR the alloy is fully austenitic (Af),by lowering the temperature martensite will form (Ms) The temperature at which all the austenite is converted to martensite is designated as martensite finish (Mf) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. NICKEL-TITANIUM PROPERTY AUSTENITE AUSTENITE YIELD STRENGTH 560 MPa 100 MPa ELASTIC MODULUS 75 GPa 28 GPa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. NICKEL-TITANIUM Martensitic transformation of NiTi FIDUCIARY LINE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION ADDDITIONS and IMPURITIES Third metal can lower the TTR to as low as –3300F or lower the Hysteresis Thermally activated alloys contain third metal (Cu,Co) Small amounts of Al, Zr, Cr, or Fe will improve the strength of the martensitic form www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. NICKEL-TITANIUM Smaller atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can not substitute for larger ones,but disrupt the matrices Ti4Ni2O4 inclusion, which lowers the alloy elasticity (memory changes) interstitial oxygen causes NiTi alloys to become susceptible to corrosion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel titanium alloys: A clinically oriented review.Part I:Temparature transitional changes – SANTORO et al (AJODO June 2001) SHAPE MEMORY  PSEUDOELASICITY  SUPERELASTICITY  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS The crystal structure of the alloy will be confirmed by means of RADIOGRAPHIC DEFRACTION or DIFFERENCIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDY OF RESISTIVITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS RESISTIVITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SHAPE MEMORY ‘The ability of material to remember its original shape after being plastically deformed’ A certain shape is set at elevated temperatures (above the TTR).When the alloy is cooled below the TTR, it can be plastically deformed but when it is heated again the original shape is restored. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS THERMOELASTICITY Through deflection and repeated temperature cycles the wire in the austenitic phase is able to memorise the preformed shape Ex; An orthodontic archform By lowering the temperature the alloy is transformed into martensite and becomes pliable and easily deformed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS PSEUDO ELASTICITY A small percentage of martensite ( Intermediate Phase R ) is present in the grain structure. Under the conditions of stress “Stress induced martensite ( SIM ) ” will be formed. A LOCALISED STRESS RELATED SUPERELASTIC PHENOMENON www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SIM is unstable In orthodontic clinical applications, SIM forms where the wire is tied to brackets on malalligned teeth so that the wire becomes pliable in deflected areas. In those areas the wire will be super elastic untill tooth movement occurs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SUPERELASTICITY The stress value remains fairly constant up to a certain point of wire deformation. At the same time deformation rebounds, the stress value remains again constant. It is determined by the typical crystallographic characteristics of NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS STRESS-STRAIN CURVE A-B shows elastic deformation of the austenitic phase  B is the stress at which martensite will form  C-D elastic deformation of martensite  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS LOAD- DEFLECTION CURVE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS The unique force deflection curve for A-NiTi wire occurs because of a phase transition in grain structure from austenite to martensite , in response not to a temperature change but to applied force. This transformation is a mechanical analogue to the thermally induced shape memory effect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS CLASSIFICATION NiTi orthodontic wires are generally classified as   NON SUPER ELASTIC ( M –NiTi ) Nitinol SUPER ELASTIC ( A-NiTi ) Japanese NiTi ( Sentinol ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS WATERS ( 1992 ) divided the compounds into 3 groups based on their TTRs 1) Group I – Alloys with TTR between room temperature and body temperature. ( Mart active alloys ) 2) Group II - TTR below room temperature. (austenitic) 3) GROUP III – Alloys with TTR close to body temperature which by virtue of the shape memory effect spring back to their original shape when activated by body heat. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS III) EVANS and DURNING introduced a even more comprehensive classification of orthodontic alloys dividing into 5 groups. 1) Phase 2) Phase 3) Phase 4) Phase martensitic 5) Phase 1 – Including alloys like gold and ss. II – Stabilised III – Super elastic active austhentic IV – Thermodynamic active V - Graded thermodynamic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. NITINOL Laboratory and clinical Analysis Of Nitinol Wire - G F. Andreasen, R E. Morrow ( AJO Feb 1978 ) Introduction of stainless steel wire appliances. (1930- 1940) Nitional ( Early 1960s) - William.F.Buehler, a research metallurgist at the Naval Ordinance Laboratory in Silver Springs, Maryland ( Now called the Naval Surface Weapons Center ). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. NITINOL Ni Ti Nol – Nickel – Titanium - Naval ordinance laboratory It was marketed by Unitek Clinical use of Nitinol wire started in May 1972 by G.F.ANDREASEN et al. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. NITINOL SHAPE MEMORY WIRE Nitinol has the characteristic of being able to return to a previously manufactured shape when it is heated to a transition temperature range. ELASTIC ORTHODONTIC WIRE Compared with stainless steel Nitinol wire has an out standing elasticity which is useful for orthodontic applications. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. NITINOL In orthodontic applications 1 . Requires fewer arch wire changes. 2 . Requires less chair time. 3 . Shortens the time required to accomplish the rotations and leveling 4 . Produces less patient discomfort. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. NITINOL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Material property Nitinol Stainless steel Alloy Nickel, Titanium Iron, Chrome,Nickel Ultimate strength 230,000 to 250,000 280,000 to 300,000 p.s.i p.s.i Modulus of elasticity 4.8 x106 p.s.i www.indiandentalacademy.com 28.5 x 106 p.s.i
  • 37. NITINOL BEND TEST A series of bend and torsion test have been performed in accordance with the new ADA Specification no.32 on orthodontic wires . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. NITINOL TORSION TEST A comparison between nitinol and stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. NITINOL STORED ENERGY COMPARISONS Stored energy of Nitinol wire is significantly greater than an equivalent SS wire.this comparison was based upon the wires being bent 90 degrees www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. NITINOL CLINICAL APPLICATIONS Class I ,II,III malocclusions in both extraction and non extraction cases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. NITINOL The most important benefits from Nitinol wire are realised when a rectangular wire is inserted early in the treatment. Simultaneous rotation, leveling, tipping,and torquing can be accomplished earlier with a resilient rectangular wire, Cross bite correction Uprighting impacted canines Opening the bite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. NITINOL LIMITATIONS 1.Nitinol cannot be bent with sharp – cornered instruments. 2. It will readily break when bent over a sharp edge. 3.The bending of loops or omega bends are not recommended. ( especially closing loops ). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. NITINOL 4 . Nitinol cannot be soldered or successfully welded to it self with out annealing the wire, because the bending of tie- back hooks entails a high risk of failure. 5 . Cinch – backs distal to the buccal tubes are easily accomplished by flame annealing .Care should be taken not to over heat the wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. JAPANESE NITI The super - elastic property of the Japanese NiTi alloy wire for use in orthodontics. - Fujio Miura et al ( AJODO July 1986 ) In 1978 Furukawa electric co.ltd of Japan produced a new type of alloy 1. High spring back. 2. Shape memory. 3. Super elasticity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. JAPANESE NITI TESTS 1. Examination of mechanical property of the wire. 1. Tensile test 2. Bending test 2. Measurements of the influence of specific treatment on the wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. JAPANESE NITI 1. Tensile test Tensile testing was performed first because it is the most acceptable method. Co-Cr-Ni, Nitinol , Ss and Japanese NiTi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. JAPANESE NITI www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. JAPANESE NITI Bending test 3 point bending test was conducted in a specially designed situation similar to the conditions involved in moving teeth in the oral cavity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. JAPANESE NITI Measurement of the influence of special heat treatment on the wire. A comparative analysis was conducted for this property before and after being subjected to heat using a .016 inch Japanese NiTi alloy wire. Nitrate salt bath . 2000 c , 3000c, 4000c, 5000c, and 6000c. 5, 10, 60, and 120 min. 20 different variations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53. JAPANESE NITI RESULTS The effects of temperature were negligible up to 5000c . Super elasticity can be influenced by temperature and time. It is possible to modify the amount of orthodontic force in an individualised segment of the arch wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS 0.016” medium preformed arch wire was tied into the lateral incisor and canine bracket. INITIAL TWO MONTHS LATER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS NITI COIL SPRINGS TOOTH MOVEMENT RANGE- 0.5 mm per week . Force range 75 to 100 gms. NiTi coil springs . The concept of NiTi coil springs was suggested in 1975. 1. Open coil springs. 2. Closed coil springs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS STUDIES ON THE JAPANESE NiTi ALLOY COIL SPRINGS -F.Miura et al ( AJODO AUGUST 1988 ) study conducted to evaluate the efficiency and mechanical properties of closed & open coils as well as stainless steel coil springs. 10 mm Closed coil springs- tensile test . 50 mm Open coil spring- compression test. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPRINGS. 1. Diameter of the wires α super elastic activity. 2. Size of the lumen 1/α super elastic activity. 3. Martensite transformation temperature α super elastic activity. 4. Pitch of the open coil spring – when it is changed from fine to coarse, the load value of super elastic activity remains same but range increases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Closed coil spring After 5 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Open coil spring After 3 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS MOLAR DISTALIZATION WITH SUPER ELASTIC NiTi WIRE. - R.LOCATLLI et al ( JCO 1992 MAY ) . 100gms neosentalloy wire . Markings 1. Distal wing of first pre molar bracket. 2. 5 to 7mm distal to the anterior opening of the molar tube. 3. Between the lateral incisors and canines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Crimp a stop to the wire at each mark Insert the wire into the molar tube until the stop abuts the tube www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS INITIAL AFTER 4 MONTHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS NICKEL TITANIUM DOUBLE LOOP SYSTEM - GIANCOTTI ( JCO APRIL 1998 ) After second molar erupts 80g Neosentalloy arch wire 2 sectional arch wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS New application of superelastic NiTi rectangular wires F.Miura, Mogi, Y.Okamoto ( JCO sept 1990 ) FINISHING WIRES NEOSENTALLOY can be used in the initial phases It has 3 dimensional tooth control. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS FACTORS CONTROLLING FORCE LEVEL HEAT TREATMENT – Changes force levels,and memory properties COMPOSITION OF THE ALLOY – Lowering the ratio of the nickel decrease the force level www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS INDIVIDUALISED PRESURGICAL ARCH FORMS - MIURA et al www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Before surgery After surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES Provides 3 dimensional control Effective in surgical orthodontic cases Eliminates need to change arch wires frequently DISADVANTAGES Bracket friction will be more when large wires are used www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS BIOEFFICIENT THERAPY ANTHONY.D.VIAZIS ( JCO Sept 1995 ) Superelasticity –Llight constant force levels Shape memory – Easy arch wire placement REFRIGERENT SPRAY – ENDO ICE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS SENTALLOY INTER ARCH COIL SPRINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS WIRE SELECTION Wire flexibility will be more in vertical direction than horizontal direction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 75. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ORIGINAL SUPERELASTIC WIRES ( ROUND SENTALLOY ) Light, medium, & heavy force levels RECTANGULAR NEOSENTALLOY I generation: 1OOg, 200g, & 300g force levels II generation: 80g force in the central incisor region(alignment) 320g force in the molar region (posterior leveling) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 76. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS BIOFORCE IONGUARD WIRES 3-micron nitrogen coating that is produced by ion bombardment of the wire surface. Reduce 1.Friction 2. Breakage 3.Release of nickel into the mouth . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) ARCHMATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 79. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80. COPPER NiTi VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE ORTHODONTICS - ROHIT C. L. SACHDEVA. “Variable cross sectional orthodontics”. “Variable modulus concept” - BURSTONE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81. COPPER NiTi “VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE THERMO MECHANICS” Stress induced martensite Martensite transformation is also temperature dependent www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82. COPPER NiTi AUSTENITIC FINISH TEMPERATURE ( Af ) should be lesser then body temperature.This difference determines the force generated by nickel titanium alloys. Af can be controlled by affecting the composition , thermo mechanical treatment &manufacturing process of the alloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83. COPPER NiTi COPPER NiTi Introduced by Rohit sachdeva It has the advantage of generating more constant forces than any other super elastic nickel titanium alloys. More resistant to deformation. Smaller mechanical hysteresis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84. COPPER NiTi QUATERNARY METAL – Nickel, Titanium, Copper, Chromium CLASSIFICATION Type I Type II Type III Type IV Af – 150 c Af - 270 c Af - 350c Af - 400c www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85. COPPER NiTi Type II wire 1. Generates the highest forces . 2. Average or higher pain threshold. 3. Normal periodontal health. 4. Rapid tooth movement is required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86. COPPER NiTi TYPE III WIRE 1. Low to normal pain threshold. 2. Slightly compromised periodontium. 3. When relatively low forces are desired. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87. COPPER NiTi III CORRECTION AFTER WEEKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88. COPPER NiTi IV TYPE IV WIRE 1. Intermittent forces . 2. Patients who are sensitive to pain. 3. Compromised periodontal conditions. 4. Patients co operation is very less. 5. Beneficial as an initial rectangular wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89. COPPER NiTi IV CORRECTION AFTER 6 WEEKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90. COPPER NiTi OPTIMAL TOOTH MOVEMENT FORCE. The ideal arch wire would not exhibit any hysteresis, thus providing equal loading ( engaging ) & unloading ( tooth driving forces ). Copper enhances thermal reactive properties and creates a consistent unloading force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 91. COPPER NiTi Earlier shape memory wires have partially met these goals. eg : a partially corrected rotation . A major cause of this deficiency is the hysteresis that severly limits the working range of super elastic arch wires. Difficulty in setting constant TT while manufacturing . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 92. COPPER NiTi ADVANTAGES OF COPPER NiTi ALLOYS OVER OTHER NiTi WIRES 1. Smaller loading force for the same degree of deformation.( 20% less ) 2. Reduced hysteresis makes to exert consistent tooth movement and reduced trauma. 3. Consistent TT has ensured consistency of force from batch to batch of arch wires results in affective tooth movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 93. CHINESE NITI WIRE CHINESE NiTi wire - A new orthodontic wire - C. J. BURSTONE ( AJO JUNE 1985 ) Dr. TIEN HUA CHENG et al at the General Research Institute for Non- Ferrous Metals in Beijing China ( Late 1980s ). Chinese NiTi wire has much lower transitional temperature than NiTi wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 94. CHINESE NITI WIRE CANTILEVER APPARATUS 0.016 SS, Nitinol and A-NiTi were submitted to a flexural test www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 95. CHINESE NITI WIRE 3 Characteristics 1. The spring back. 2. Stiffness 3. Maximum movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 96. CHINESE NITI WIRE SPRING BACK The range of action of the wire. For 800 activation SS – 160 Nitinol – 520 Chinese NiTi - 730 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 97. CHINESE NITI WIRE STIFFNESS The force or movement produced for each unit Activation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 98. CHINESE NITI WIRE The magnitude of force increases if the wire is retied into a bracket. 1500 1000 500 0 20 40 www.indiandentalacademy.com 60 80
  • 99. CHINESE NITI WIRE THE MAXIMUM MOVEMENT. . WIRE MOVEMENT SPRING BACK SS %RECOVER Y 20 3,067 16 NITINOL 2,112 52 65 NITI 1,233 73 91 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 100. CHINESE NITI WIRE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CHANGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 101. CHINESE NITI WIRE TIME DEPENDANT CHANGES. The wires remained tied between 3 brackets for periods of 1 minute,1 hour and 72 hours. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 102. CHINESE NITI WIRE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE 1. Applicable in situations where large deflections are required. 2. When tooth are badly malpositoned. . 3. Nitinol wire deformation is not time dependent 4.Middle range of deactivation forces are useful in designing an appliance with constant forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 103. Effects Of Cold Disinfectants On The Mechanical Properties And The Surface Topography Of Nickel Titanium Arch Wires. - J.E.BUCKTHAL & R.P.KUSY ( AJODO 1988 ) 1. High cost 2. Super elasticity Heat sterilisation is the most reliable method of destroying pathogens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 104. Nitinol is susceptible to a pitting type of corrosion attack. Sterilant solutions; 1. 2% acidic gluteraldehyde ( Banicide ) 2. Chlorine dioxide ( Exspor 4:1:1 ) Disinfectant solution; 3. Iodophor ( Wescodyne ) Wires tested; 12 Straight 1 inch length of rectangular 0.017 X 0.025” Nitinol and Titanol www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 105. 4 GROUPS; 0 ( Control ) 1 ( Group 1 ) 2 ( Group 2 ) 3 ( Group 3 )  BEND,  TENSILE and  LASER SPECTROSCOPY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 106. SUMMERY No significant changes were detected . The results supported the use of cold disinfectant procedures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 107. NICKEL HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION Strong biologic sensitizer SYMPTOMS; Contact dermatitis contact stomatitis Angular chelitis Severe gingivitis Mild erythema with or without edema www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 108. Nickel hyper sensitivity reaction before, during, and after orthodontic therapy. -G.R.P.JANSON et al ( AJODO JUNE 1998 ) .170 patients of both sexes were examined . 3 groups A - Before B - During C - After 5% Nickel Sulfate in white petrolium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 109. RESULTS Orthodontic treatment with SS does not induce a nickel hypersensitivity reaction. Frequency in females is 4 times more than in males Association between personal history of allergic reaction & nickel hypersensitivity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 110. BETA - TITANIUM Beta titanium: A new orthodontic alloy C.J.BURSTONE& A.J.GOLDBERG ( AJO Feb 1980) ORMCO CORPORATION 3 characteristics 1. Spring back 2. Stiffness 3. Formability - High - Low - High www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 111. BETA - TITANIUM Beta titanium was introduced by Dr. CHARLES BURSTONE and JON GOLDBERG in the university of CONNECTICUT ( Early 1980s ) Composition Titanium - 73.5% Molybdenum - 11.5% Zirconium - 6% Tin - 4.5 % www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 112. BETA - TITANIUM At temperatures below 16250F – hexagonal Closed packed crystal form. Yield strength - 55 X 103 p.s.i Modulus of elasticity - 15.5 X 106 p.s.i Spring back SS YS = 0.35 X 10–2 E - 1.1 X 10–2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 113. BETA - TITANIUM At temperatures above 16250 F pure titanium rearranges into body centered cubic lattice - BETA PHASE BETA STABILISED ALLOYS ( molybdenum or columbium ) Yield strength – 1,70,000 p.s.i Modulus of elasticity – 9,400.000 p.s.i YS/E -1.8X10-2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 114. BETA - TITANIUM TEST FOR SPRING BACK TINIUS OLSEN STIFFNESS TESTER ¼ inch span of wire A. Straight wires B. Wires with 350 bend C. Wires which are over bent to 900 and then bent back to 350 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 115. BETA - TITANIUM MODE STAINLESS STEEL BETA TITANIUM PERCENT INCREASE A 16.0 32.8 105% B 16.5 31.3 90% C 17.5 37.3 113% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 116. BETA - TITANIUM ADVANTAGES:       Low stiffness Good formability High spring back Weldable Ductile Corrosion resistance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 117. BETA - TITANIUM CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Ideal edgewise arches can be deflected twice than SS allows greater range of action and useful for • • Initial tooth alignment Finishing arches Forces - 0.4% of SS Eg; 0.018 x 0.025 TMA = 0.014 x 0.020 SS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 118. BETA - TITANIUM CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Highly ductile Tieback loops Complicated bends www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 119. BETA - TITANIUM LOOPS ‘ T’ Vertical Helical ‘ L’ loop www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 120. BETA - TITANIUM ROTATION INTRUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 121. BETA - TITANIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 122. BETA - TITANIUM Direct welding of auxillaries Helical finger spring www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 123. BETA - TITANIUM Welding of TMA wire - C.J.BURSTONE ( JCO Sept 1987 ) 5 basic principles; 1. Proper positioning 2. Minimum voltage 3. Small contact area 4. Single short pulse 5. Pressure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 124. ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIAL-A-WELD 506A www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 125. 1. POSITIONING SET DOWN OF 80% 25 - 60 % www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 126. 2. VOLTAGE 3. SMALLER CONTACT AREA 4. SINGLE PULSE 5. PRESSURE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 127. Improper welding Low voltage - The parts may delaminate High voltage - Wire become brittle Cracks Melting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 128. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS PASSIVE APPLICATIONS ACTIVE APPLICATIONS SPACE CLOSURE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 129. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS To gain space in The anterior Segment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 130. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ROTATIONAL CORRECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 131. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS TO INCLUDE SECOND MOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 132. ALPHA TITANIUM - WILCOCK company TITANIUM - 90% ALUMINIUM - 6% VANADIUM – 4% Close packed hexagonal lattice ALPHA stabilising elements – Aluminum, Gallium, Germanium, Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen ‘ NEAR ALPHA ALLOY ’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 133. ALPHA – BETA PHASE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 134. ALPHA TITANIUM PROPERTIES; Heat treated to improve strength Satisfactory creep properties – Finishing & breaking arches wire becomes hard in the oral environment due to hydrogen absorption TITANIUM HYDRIDE Less ductile – one slip plane Nickel free www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 135. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM A new finishing wire alloy M. Dalstra et al ( COR 2000 July ) Nickel free Titanium alloy (SYBRON DENTAL SPECIALITIES. CALIFORNIA ) Ti - 82% Mo - 15% Nb - 3% ( or) Ti - 74% Nb - 13% Zr - 13% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 136. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM PROPERTIES      Easy to bend, fomability is less than TMA When lower forces are used than TMA Stiffness – ¾ of SS, - ¼ of TMA Load deflection rate is lower than TMA Yield strength is lower than SS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 137. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM ADVANTAGES;   Substitute for SS No leaching of nickel CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS;  Finishing wire with multiple bends  Fixed retainers ( Biocompatible ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 138. COMPOSITE WIRES The future of orthodontic materials ROBERT.P.KUSY (AJODO Jan 1998) Metals Polymers Ceramics Advantages are realised Disadvantages are minimised www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 139. METALS METALCERAMIC CERAMICS METALPOLYMER SEMI CONDUCTORS CERAMICCOMPOSIRE www.indiandentalacademy.com POLYMERS
  • 140. COMPOSITE WIRES In orthodontics composite prototypes of arch wires, ligatures, brackets - S-2 glass fibers ( ceramic ) - Acrylic resins ( polymer ) Esthetically pleasing because they tend to transmit the colour of host teeth Strong & Springy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 141. COMPOSITE WIRES PULTRUSION The process of manufacturing components of continuous lengths & a constant cross sectional shape Eg; Arch wires Bundles of continuous fibers are impregnated with a polymeric resin pulled through a sizing die Then passed through a curing die that imparts a precise shape ( Electro magnetic radiation ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 142. COMPOSITE WIRES The characteristics of the arch wires can be changed by - PULTRUSION Round Rectangular Ligature wires – Polyethylene fiber + Acrylic resin 2 ½ times stronger than SS Lose most of their tying force in less than 3 hrs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 143. Comparison of unidirectional fiber reinforced polymeric composites to NITI alloys in bending www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 144. COMPOSITE WIRES ADVANTAGES; patients with allergic reactions with nickel Esthetic than previous wires Better strength & springiness DISADVANTAGES; Shape can not be changed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 145. COMPOSITE WIRES OPTIFLEX WIRES A composite ceramic fiber-plastic-nylon ( ORMCO ) Dr.TALASS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 146. COMPOSITE WIRES Structure – Clear optical fiber made of 3 Layers A. Silicon dioxide core - Force B. Silicon resin middle layer - Protection from moisture C. Nylon layer - Prevents from damage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 147. COMPOSITE WIRES The wire can be ROUND or RECTANGULAR • • • • Wide range of action Light continuous force Sharp bend must be avoided Highly resilient - Effective in the alignment of crowded teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 148. TIMOLIUM WIRES Improved titanium wires 1. FRICTION 2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE 1. FRICTION Smooth surface texture Less friction Accelerate treatment time www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 149. TIMOLIUM WIRES 2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE  Surface defects  Yield strength  Compressive strength www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 150. BETA –III WIRES Introduced by RAVINDRA NANDA  Bendable  High force  Low deflection rate  Co-efficient of friction is more  Nickel free titanium wire with memory  Ideal for multilooping, cantilever, utility arches First choice of wire for finishing stages where tip & torque corrections fully accomplished during initial stages. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 151. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER CORRECTION OF POSTERIOR CROSS BITES - Skeletal expansion - Dental expansion The goal of palatal expansion is to maximise skeletal movement and minimise dental movement. EXPANSION APPLIANCES - Rapid palatal expansion appliances - Slow expansion appliances www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 152. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION APPLIANCES ( RPE) - Produce large forces at the suture site over a short period. Conventional RPE appliances 1. Uncomfortable 2. Require patient co- operation 3. Laborious 4. Inefficient because of the intermittent nature of their force application www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 153. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER Slow expansion appliances - Light , continuous forces - Best physiologic changes ( Both orthopedic and orthodontic ) - Produce a widening rather than an actual separation of the suture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 154. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER W.V.ARNDT ( JCO 1993 ) Tandem loop, nickel titanium , temperature activated palatal expander. - Light continuous pressure on the mid palatal suture . ( Simultaneous uprighting , rotating , and distalising the maxillary first molars ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 155. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 156. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER THE ACTION OF THE APPLIANCE - A consequence of nickel titanium’ s shape memory and transition temperature effects. The nickel titanium expander has a transition temperature of 940 F.   Below TTR – Metal is flexible Above TTR – Metal stiffen www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 157. BELOW 20 0 C www.indiandentalacademy.com AT TTR
  • 158.    8 Different intermolar widths ( 26mm – 47mm ) Forces ranging from 180 – 300gms 26 – 32mm - Softer wires that produce lower force levels for younger patients 3mm will be added for overcorrection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 159. Passive appliance Initial activation www.indiandentalacademy.com After expansion
  • 160. “ COMPLETE MAXILLARY RIGHT CROSSBITE” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 161. A comparison of dental and dento- alveolar changes between rapid palatal expansion and nickel titanium expansion appliances. - C. CIAMBOTTI et al ( AJODO JAN 2001 ) The objectives; To compare – Amount of mid palatal suture separation - Alveolar process tipping - Maxillary first molar tipping - Maxillary first molar rotation - Palatal depth changes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 162. Mixed or early permanent dentition. 12 patients treated with RPE appliances ( 6 males, 6 females with an average age of 11.1 yrs ) Duration 127 days 13 patients treated with NiTi palatal expansion appliances. ( 3 males, 10 females with an average of 9.4 yrs ) Duration 153 days www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 163. RPE APPLIANCE – A tooth borne appliance Mid palatal jack screw Activation 0.5mm, 2 times per day Expansion – Occlusal aspect of lingual cusp of maxillary first molar contacted the occlusal aspect of buccal cusp of mandibular first molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 164. NiTi EXPANDER A tandem loop temperature activated appliance ( GAC International ) designed by ARNDT The proper size was selected by measuring the inter molar width and then adding 3 to 4mm Tetrafluoroethane refrigerant www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 165. NiTi expander RME www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 166. RESULTS 1. Palatal width change - RPE group is 28 % - In NiTi group 16 %. 2. Buccal tipping of the alveolar process - RPE group – 5.080. - NiTi group – 6.610 3. Molar rotation - RPE group 1.580 - NiTi group 26.610 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 167. 4. Radiographic evidence shows that mid palatal suture separation is less obvious in the NiTi group than RPE group. 5. No correlation between age and amount of dentoalveolar expansion. 6. RPE appliance widened the palate more reliably, NiTi appliance tipped the molars buccally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 168. A review of contemporary arch wires: Their properties and characteristics - ROBERT KUSY ( AO JUNE 1997 ) CHARACTERSTICS OF THE IDEAL ARCH WIRE Ideally archwires are designed to move teeth with light continuous forces No one wire is best for all stages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 169. Strong Good range Esthetic Resilient Biocompatible Formable CRITERIA OF AN IDEAL ARCH WIRE Weldable Tough Poor Biohost Good Spring back Low friction Springy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 170. APPLYING ARCH WIRES During initial stages - great range and light forces VARIABLE CROSS SECTION ORTHODONTICS - Multistranded stainless steel wire Variable modulus orthodontics - NiTi alloy wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 171. Intermediate stages of treatment   Beta titanium alloys Larger sizes of Nitinol ( under sized stainless steel wire if sliding mechanics are required ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 172. FINAL STAGES OF TREATMENT More arch stability and less tooth movements - Large gauges of beta titanium or - Stainless steel wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 173. A comparative study of metallurgical and working properties of two new titanium based alloy wires (TiMolium and Beta III ) with the earlier introduced titanium wires ( TMA ), and also alpha titanium wires - Jiku Abraham TiMolium – T.P.Orthodontics Beta III - Ortho organizers TMA - Ormco corp. Alpha Titanium – A.J. WILLCOCK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 174. Straight rectangular wires GROUP I 4 wires in 16”x 22” dimension GROUP II 4 wires in 17”x 25” dimension GROUP III 4 wires in 19”x 25” dimension www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 175. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Properties studied are Yield, tensile strength & elastic modulus Maximum load via 3-point bending test Frictional resistance Welding characteristics Stress relaxation Working range / spring back Surface topography Micro hardness Elemental analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 176. INSTRON MODEL NO.1193 Expr. Setup for Yield strength & ultimate tensile strength www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 177. Manufacturers claim that;   TiMolium is superior to TMA wires in the following; 1. Friction and surface smoothness 2. Compressive strength 3. Yield strength & breakage resistance Beta III is bendable , high force low deflection, nickel free arch wire with memory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 178. Results of the study showed that  The coefficient of friction, surface smoothness,yield strength & ultimate tensile strength of TiMolium was superior to that of TMA . However TMA has low load deflection rate and high spring back than TiMolium .  Yield strength of Beta III was lower than TMA and TiMolium  Formability is good but resiliency is low. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 179. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY; 1. Correction of crowding or alignment of teeth TMA > Beta III 2. Intrusion TMA shows a better stress relaxation TMA > TiMolium . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 180. 3. Space closure   Sliding mechanics TiMolium shows lowest values of coefficient of friction in both static as well as kinetic friction. TiMolium > Alpha titanium Frictionless mechanics – Formability - Beta III > TMA > TiMolium Resilience - TiMolium > TMA > Beta III www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 181. WELDABILITY TiMolium > Beta III FINISHING STAGES Incomplete tip, torque correction Beta III > TMA > TiMolium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 182. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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