ALLOYS
&
NEWER ORTHODONTIC
WIRES
INDIAN DENTAL
ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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w...
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NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES
“ To obtain fairly rapid tooth

movement, HYALINISED ZONES were
to be avoided or kept to a minimum.”...
NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES
Ideally orthodontic wires are designed to move teeth
with light, continuous forces.





Stainle...
NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS


Conventional - Nitinol



Superelastic
- Pseudoelastic – Japanese NiTi
-Thermoelastic – Cu NiTi...
TITANIUM








Titanium was discovered by GREGOR
( England 1790 )
BOTHE et al implanted titanium in lab. animals
(1...
TITANIUM





Corrosion resistant
Biocompatibility
High strength
Ductility
Two phages




Alpha
Beta
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TITANIUM




Alpha phase – Hexagonal unit cells
At room temperature
Beta phase – Body centered cubic cells
At temperatur...
TITANIUM






Alpha type – ALPHA TITANIUM (A.J. Wilcock)
Beta type – Beta II or ORMCO’ TMA
Titanium-Niobium wires
Both...
TITANIUM
SUPERIOR CORROSION RESISTANCE
A thin complex film Tio2 gives Ti affinity, a self
adherence that may cause frictio...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
2 forms of NiTi alloys
1. Martensite - Body centered cubic/tetragonal lattice
2. Austenite – Face c...
NICKEL-TITANIUM
TRANSITION TEMPERATURE RANGE
TTR above the body temperature renders the alloy
austenitic which is more rig...
NICKEL-TITANIUM
HYSTERESIS
The range for most binary alloys is 400 – 600
Above the TTR the alloy is fully austenitic (Af),...
NICKEL-TITANIUM

PROPERTY

AUSTENITE

AUSTENITE

YIELD STRENGTH

560 MPa

100 MPa

ELASTIC
MODULUS

75 GPa

28 GPa

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NICKEL-TITANIUM
Martensitic transformation of NiTi
FIDUCIARY
LINE

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MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION
ADDDITIONS and IMPURITIES
Third metal can lower the TTR to as low as –3300F
or lower the Hyster...
NICKEL-TITANIUM
Smaller atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon
can not substitute for larger ones,but disrupt the
matr...
MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel titanium
alloys: A clinically oriented review.Part I...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
The crystal structure of the alloy will be confirmed by
means of RADIOGRAPHIC DEFRACTION or
DIFFERE...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
RESISTIVITY

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NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
SHAPE MEMORY
‘The ability of material to remember its original shape
after being plastically deform...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
THERMOELASTICITY
Through deflection and repeated temperature cycles the
wire in the austenitic phas...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
PSEUDO ELASTICITY
A small percentage of martensite
( Intermediate Phase R ) is present in the grain...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
SIM is unstable
In orthodontic clinical applications, SIM forms where
the wire is tied to brackets ...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
SUPERELASTICITY
The stress value remains fairly constant up to a certain
point of wire deformation....
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE
A-B shows elastic deformation
of the austenitic phase

B is the stress at whic...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
LOAD- DEFLECTION CURVE

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NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
The unique force deflection curve for A-NiTi wire occurs
because of a phase transition in grain str...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
CLASSIFICATION
NiTi orthodontic wires are generally classified as




NON SUPER ELASTIC ( M –NiTi...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
WATERS ( 1992 ) divided the compounds into 3 groups based
on their TTRs
1) Group I – Alloys with TT...
NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS
III) EVANS and DURNING introduced a even
more comprehensive classification of orthodontic
alloys di...
NITINOL
Laboratory and clinical Analysis Of Nitinol Wire
- G F. Andreasen, R E. Morrow ( AJO Feb 1978 )
Introduction of st...
NITINOL
Ni
Ti
Nol

– Nickel
– Titanium
- Naval ordinance laboratory

It was marketed by Unitek
Clinical use of Nitinol wir...
NITINOL
SHAPE MEMORY WIRE
Nitinol has the characteristic of being able
to return to a previously manufactured shape when i...
NITINOL
In orthodontic applications
1 . Requires fewer arch wire changes.
2 . Requires less chair time.
3 . Shortens the t...
NITINOL
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.
Material property

Nitinol

Stainless steel

Alloy

Nickel, Titanium

Iron, Chrome,Nickel

Ul...
NITINOL
BEND TEST
A series of bend and torsion test have been performed
in accordance with the new ADA Specification no.32...
NITINOL

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NITINOL
TORSION TEST
A comparison between nitinol and stainless steel wires.

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NITINOL
STORED ENERGY COMPARISONS
Stored energy of Nitinol wire is significantly greater
than an equivalent SS wire.this c...
NITINOL

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NITINOL
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
Class I ,II,III malocclusions in both extraction and non
extraction cases

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NITINOL
The most important benefits from Nitinol wire are
realised when a rectangular wire is inserted early in
the treatm...
NITINOL

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NITINOL
LIMITATIONS
1.Nitinol cannot be bent with sharp – cornered
instruments.
2. It will readily break when bent over a ...
NITINOL
4 . Nitinol cannot be soldered or successfully welded
to it self with out annealing the wire, because the
bending ...
JAPANESE NITI
The super - elastic property of the Japanese NiTi
alloy wire for use in orthodontics.
- Fujio Miura et al ( ...
JAPANESE NITI
TESTS
1. Examination of mechanical property of the wire.
1. Tensile test
2. Bending test
2. Measurements of ...
JAPANESE NITI
1. Tensile test
Tensile testing was performed
first because it is the most
acceptable method.
Co-Cr-Ni, Niti...
JAPANESE NITI

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JAPANESE NITI
Bending test
3 point bending test was conducted in a specially
designed situation similar to the conditions ...
JAPANESE NITI
Measurement of the influence of special
heat treatment on the wire.
A comparative analysis was conducted for...
JAPANESE NITI
RESULTS
The effects of temperature were negligible up to
5000c .
Super elasticity can be influenced by tempe...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
0.016” medium preformed arch wire was tied into the
lateral incisor and canine bracket.
INITIAL

TWO...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
NITI COIL SPRINGS
TOOTH MOVEMENT RANGE- 0.5 mm per week .
Force range 75 to 100 gms.
NiTi coil sprin...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
STUDIES ON THE JAPANESE NiTi ALLOY COIL
SPRINGS -F.Miura et al ( AJODO AUGUST 1988 )
study conducted...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES OF SPRINGS.
1. Diameter of the wires α super elastic a...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Closed coil spring

After 5 months

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Open coil spring

After 3 months

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
MOLAR DISTALIZATION WITH SUPER ELASTIC
NiTi WIRE.
- R.LOCATLLI et al ( JCO 1992 MAY ) .
100gms neose...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Crimp a stop to the wire at
each mark

Insert the wire into the
molar tube until the stop
abuts the ...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

INITIAL

AFTER 4 MONTHS

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
NICKEL TITANIUM DOUBLE
LOOP SYSTEM
- GIANCOTTI
( JCO APRIL 1998 )
After second molar erupts
80g Neos...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
New application of superelastic NiTi rectangular wires
F.Miura, Mogi, Y.Okamoto ( JCO sept 1990 )
FI...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
FACTORS CONTROLLING FORCE LEVEL
HEAT TREATMENT – Changes force levels,and
memory properties
COMPOSIT...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
INDIVIDUALISED PRESURGICAL ARCH FORMS
- MIURA et al

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Before surgery

After surgery

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
ADVANTAGES
Provides 3 dimensional control
Effective in surgical orthodontic cases
Eliminates need to...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
BIOEFFICIENT THERAPY
ANTHONY.D.VIAZIS ( JCO Sept 1995 )
Superelasticity –Llight constant force level...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
SENTALLOY INTER ARCH COIL SPRINGS

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
WIRE SELECTION
Wire flexibility will be more
in vertical direction than
horizontal direction

www.in...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
ORIGINAL SUPERELASTIC WIRES ( ROUND
SENTALLOY )
Light, medium, & heavy force levels
RECTANGULAR NEOS...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
BIOFORCE IONGUARD WIRES
3-micron nitrogen coating that is produced by ion
bombardment of the wire su...
DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE
HEAT TREATMENT METHOD
(DERHT)
ARCHMATE

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DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE
HEAT TREATMENT METHOD
(DERHT)

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DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE
HEAT TREATMENT METHOD
(DERHT)

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COPPER NiTi
VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION
TEMPERATURE ORTHODONTICS - ROHIT C. L.
SACHDEVA.
“Variable cross sectional orthodontic...
COPPER NiTi
“VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION
TEMPERATURE THERMO MECHANICS”
Stress induced martensite
Martensite transformation is ...
COPPER NiTi
AUSTENITIC FINISH TEMPERATURE ( Af )
should be lesser then body temperature.This
difference determines the for...
COPPER NiTi
COPPER NiTi
Introduced by Rohit sachdeva
It has the advantage of generating more constant
forces than any othe...
COPPER NiTi
QUATERNARY METAL – Nickel, Titanium, Copper,
Chromium
CLASSIFICATION
Type I
Type II
Type III
Type IV

Af – 150...
COPPER NiTi
Type II wire
1. Generates the highest forces .
2. Average or higher pain threshold.
3. Normal periodontal heal...
COPPER NiTi
TYPE III WIRE
1. Low to normal pain threshold.
2. Slightly compromised periodontium.
3. When relatively low fo...
COPPER NiTi III
CORRECTION AFTER WEEKS

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COPPER NiTi IV
TYPE IV WIRE
1. Intermittent forces .
2. Patients who are sensitive to pain.
3. Compromised periodontal con...
COPPER NiTi IV
CORRECTION AFTER 6 WEEKS

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COPPER NiTi
OPTIMAL TOOTH MOVEMENT FORCE.
The ideal arch wire would not exhibit any hysteresis,
thus providing equal loadi...
COPPER NiTi
Earlier shape memory wires have partially met these
goals.
eg : a partially corrected rotation .
A major cause...
COPPER NiTi
ADVANTAGES OF COPPER NiTi ALLOYS
OVER OTHER NiTi WIRES
1. Smaller loading force for the same degree of
deforma...
CHINESE NITI WIRE
CHINESE NiTi wire - A new orthodontic wire
- C. J. BURSTONE ( AJO JUNE 1985 )
Dr. TIEN HUA CHENG et al a...
CHINESE NITI WIRE
CANTILEVER APPARATUS
0.016 SS, Nitinol and A-NiTi
were submitted to a flexural
test

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CHINESE NITI WIRE
3 Characteristics
1. The spring back.
2. Stiffness
3. Maximum movement.

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CHINESE NITI WIRE
SPRING BACK
The range of action of the wire.
For 800 activation
SS – 160
Nitinol – 520
Chinese NiTi - 73...
CHINESE NITI WIRE
STIFFNESS
The force or movement
produced for each unit
Activation

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CHINESE NITI WIRE
The magnitude of force increases if the wire is retied
into a bracket.
1500
1000
500

0

20

40

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CHINESE NITI WIRE
THE MAXIMUM MOVEMENT.
.
WIRE

MOVEMENT

SPRING
BACK

SS

%RECOVER
Y
20

3,067

16

NITINOL

2,112

52

6...
CHINESE NITI WIRE
TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CHANGES

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CHINESE NITI WIRE
TIME DEPENDANT CHANGES.
The wires remained tied between 3 brackets for periods
of 1 minute,1 hour and 72...
CHINESE NITI WIRE
CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
1. Applicable in situations where large deflections are
required.
2. When tooth ar...
Effects Of Cold Disinfectants On The Mechanical
Properties And The Surface Topography Of Nickel
Titanium Arch Wires.
- J.E...
Nitinol is susceptible to a pitting type of
corrosion attack.
Sterilant solutions;
1. 2% acidic gluteraldehyde ( Banicide ...
4 GROUPS;
0 ( Control )
1 ( Group 1 )
2 ( Group 2 )
3 ( Group 3 )
 BEND,
 TENSILE and
 LASER SPECTROSCOPY
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SUMMERY
No significant changes were detected .
The results supported the use of cold disinfectant
procedures.

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NICKEL HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION
Strong biologic sensitizer
SYMPTOMS;
Contact dermatitis
contact stomatitis
Angular chelit...
Nickel hyper sensitivity reaction before, during, and
after orthodontic therapy.
-G.R.P.JANSON et al ( AJODO JUNE 1998 )
....
RESULTS
Orthodontic treatment with SS does not induce a
nickel hypersensitivity reaction.
Frequency in females is 4 times ...
BETA - TITANIUM
Beta titanium: A new orthodontic alloy
C.J.BURSTONE& A.J.GOLDBERG ( AJO Feb
1980)
ORMCO CORPORATION
3 char...
BETA - TITANIUM
Beta titanium was introduced by Dr. CHARLES
BURSTONE and JON GOLDBERG in the university
of CONNECTICUT ( E...
BETA - TITANIUM
At temperatures below 16250F – hexagonal
Closed packed crystal form.
Yield strength
- 55 X 103 p.s.i
Modul...
BETA - TITANIUM
At temperatures above 16250 F pure titanium
rearranges into body centered cubic lattice
- BETA PHASE
BETA ...
BETA - TITANIUM
TEST FOR SPRING BACK
TINIUS OLSEN STIFFNESS TESTER
¼ inch span of wire
A. Straight wires
B. Wires with 350...
BETA - TITANIUM
MODE

STAINLESS
STEEL

BETA
TITANIUM

PERCENT
INCREASE

A

16.0

32.8

105%

B

16.5

31.3

90%

C

17.5

...
BETA - TITANIUM
ADVANTAGES:







Low stiffness
Good formability
High spring back
Weldable
Ductile
Corrosion resist...
BETA - TITANIUM
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Ideal edgewise arches can be deflected twice than SS
allows greater range of action ...
BETA - TITANIUM
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
Highly ductile
Tieback loops
Complicated
bends

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BETA - TITANIUM
LOOPS
‘ T’ Vertical
Helical
‘ L’ loop

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BETA - TITANIUM
ROTATION

INTRUSION

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BETA - TITANIUM

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BETA - TITANIUM
Direct welding of auxillaries

Helical finger spring

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BETA - TITANIUM
Welding of TMA wire
- C.J.BURSTONE ( JCO Sept 1987 )
5 basic principles;
1. Proper positioning
2. Minimum ...
ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIAL-A-WELD
506A

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1. POSITIONING
SET DOWN OF
80%

25 - 60 %

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2. VOLTAGE

3. SMALLER CONTACT AREA
4. SINGLE PULSE
5. PRESSURE

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Improper welding
Low voltage - The parts may delaminate
High voltage - Wire become brittle
Cracks
Melting

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
PASSIVE APPLICATIONS
ACTIVE APPLICATIONS

SPACE CLOSURE

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
To gain space in
The anterior
Segment

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
ROTATIONAL
CORRECTION

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CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
TO INCLUDE SECOND MOLARS

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ALPHA TITANIUM
- WILCOCK company
TITANIUM - 90%
ALUMINIUM - 6%
VANADIUM – 4%
Close packed hexagonal lattice
ALPHA stabilis...
ALPHA – BETA PHASE

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ALPHA TITANIUM
PROPERTIES;
Heat treated to improve strength
Satisfactory creep properties – Finishing & breaking
arches
wi...
TITANIUM-NIOBIUM
A new finishing wire alloy
M. Dalstra et al ( COR 2000 July )
Nickel free Titanium alloy
(SYBRON DENTAL S...
TITANIUM-NIOBIUM
PROPERTIES







Easy to bend, fomability is less than TMA
When lower forces are used than TMA
Stif...
TITANIUM-NIOBIUM
ADVANTAGES;




Substitute for SS
No leaching of nickel

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS;

 Finishing wire with ...
COMPOSITE WIRES
The future of orthodontic materials
ROBERT.P.KUSY (AJODO Jan 1998)
Metals
Polymers
Ceramics
Advantages are...
METALS
METALCERAMIC

CERAMICS

METALPOLYMER

SEMI
CONDUCTORS

CERAMICCOMPOSIRE
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POLYMERS
COMPOSITE WIRES
In orthodontics
composite prototypes of arch wires, ligatures,
brackets - S-2 glass fibers ( ceramic )
- A...
COMPOSITE WIRES
PULTRUSION
The process of manufacturing components of
continuous lengths & a constant cross sectional
shap...
COMPOSITE WIRES
The characteristics of the arch wires can be changed by
- PULTRUSION
Round
Rectangular
Ligature wires – Po...
Comparison of unidirectional fiber reinforced polymeric
composites to NITI alloys in bending

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COMPOSITE WIRES
ADVANTAGES;
patients with allergic reactions with nickel
Esthetic than previous wires
Better strength & sp...
COMPOSITE WIRES
OPTIFLEX WIRES
A composite ceramic fiber-plastic-nylon ( ORMCO )
Dr.TALASS

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COMPOSITE WIRES
Structure – Clear optical fiber made of 3 Layers
A. Silicon dioxide core
- Force
B. Silicon resin middle
l...
COMPOSITE WIRES
The wire can be ROUND or RECTANGULAR

•
•
•
•

Wide range of action
Light continuous force
Sharp bend must...
TIMOLIUM WIRES
Improved titanium wires
1. FRICTION
2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE
1. FRICTION
Smooth surface texture
Less frict...
TIMOLIUM WIRES
2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE


Surface defects



Yield strength



Compressive strength

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BETA –III WIRES
Introduced by RAVINDRA NANDA

Bendable

High force

Low deflection rate

Co-efficient of friction is m...
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER
CORRECTION OF POSTERIOR CROSS BITES
- Skeletal expansion
- Dental expansion
The goal of p...
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER
RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION APPLIANCES
( RPE)
- Produce large forces at the suture site
over
...
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER
Slow expansion appliances
- Light , continuous forces
- Best physiologic changes ( Both o...
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER
W.V.ARNDT ( JCO 1993 )
Tandem loop, nickel titanium ,
te...
NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER

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NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL
EXPANDER
THE ACTION OF THE APPLIANCE
- A consequence of nickel titanium’ s shape memory
and transi...
BELOW 20 0 C

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AT

TTR






8 Different intermolar widths
( 26mm – 47mm )
Forces ranging from 180 – 300gms
26 – 32mm - Softer wires that prod...
Passive
appliance

Initial
activation

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After
expansion
“ COMPLETE
MAXILLARY
RIGHT
CROSSBITE”

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A comparison of dental and dento- alveolar changes
between rapid palatal expansion and nickel titanium
expansion appliance...
Mixed or early permanent dentition.
12 patients treated with RPE appliances ( 6 males, 6
females with an average age of 11...
RPE APPLIANCE – A tooth borne appliance
Mid palatal jack screw
Activation 0.5mm, 2 times per day
Expansion – Occlusal aspe...
NiTi EXPANDER
A tandem loop temperature activated appliance ( GAC
International ) designed by ARNDT
The proper size was se...
NiTi expander

RME

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RESULTS
1. Palatal width change
- RPE group is 28 %
- In NiTi group 16 %.
2. Buccal tipping of the alveolar
process
- RPE ...
4. Radiographic evidence shows that mid palatal
suture separation is less obvious in the NiTi group
than RPE group.
5. No ...
A review of contemporary arch wires: Their
properties and characteristics
- ROBERT KUSY ( AO JUNE 1997 )
CHARACTERSTICS OF...
Strong

Good range
Esthetic

Resilient
Biocompatible

Formable

CRITERIA OF AN
IDEAL ARCH WIRE

Weldable

Tough
Poor
Bioho...
APPLYING ARCH WIRES
During initial stages
- great range and light forces
VARIABLE CROSS SECTION ORTHODONTICS
- Multistrand...
Intermediate stages of treatment



Beta titanium alloys
Larger sizes of Nitinol
( under sized stainless steel wire if s...
FINAL STAGES OF TREATMENT
More arch stability and less tooth movements
- Large gauges of beta titanium or
- Stainless stee...
A comparative study of metallurgical and working
properties of two new titanium based alloy wires
(TiMolium and Beta III )...
Straight rectangular wires
GROUP I
4 wires in 16”x 22” dimension
GROUP II
4 wires in 17”x 25” dimension
GROUP III
4 wires ...
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Properties studied are
Yield, tensile strength & elastic modulus
Maximum load via 3-point bend...
INSTRON MODEL NO.1193

Expr. Setup for
Yield strength &
ultimate tensile strength

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Manufacturers claim that;




TiMolium is superior to TMA wires in the following;
1. Friction and surface smoothness
2. ...
Results of the study showed that

The coefficient of friction, surface smoothness,yield
strength & ultimate tensile stren...
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY;
1. Correction of crowding or alignment of teeth TMA > Beta III
2. Intrusion TMA shows...
3. Space closure




Sliding mechanics TiMolium shows lowest values of coefficient of
friction in both static as well as...
WELDABILITY
TiMolium > Beta III
FINISHING STAGES
Incomplete tip, torque correction
Beta III > TMA > TiMolium

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Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Transcript of "Nickel titanium alloys /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy "

  1. 1. ALLOYS & NEWER ORTHODONTIC WIRES INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  3. 3. NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES “ To obtain fairly rapid tooth movement, HYALINISED ZONES were to be avoided or kept to a minimum.” - REITAN www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. NICKEL TITANIUM WIRES Ideally orthodontic wires are designed to move teeth with light, continuous forces.     Stainless steel Co-cr alloys Beta titanium Nickel titanium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. NICKEL TITANIUM ALLOYS  Conventional - Nitinol  Superelastic - Pseudoelastic – Japanese NiTi -Thermoelastic – Cu NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. TITANIUM      Titanium was discovered by GREGOR ( England 1790 ) BOTHE et al implanted titanium in lab. animals (1940) A light weight metal Atomic weight – 47.9 Non magnetic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. TITANIUM     Corrosion resistant Biocompatibility High strength Ductility Two phages   Alpha Beta www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. TITANIUM   Alpha phase – Hexagonal unit cells At room temperature Beta phase – Body centered cubic cells At temperatures above 16200F or 8820C www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. TITANIUM    Alpha type – ALPHA TITANIUM (A.J. Wilcock) Beta type – Beta II or ORMCO’ TMA Titanium-Niobium wires Both alpha & beta phases – Ti-Al-Fe & Ti-Al-V www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. TITANIUM SUPERIOR CORROSION RESISTANCE A thin complex film Tio2 gives Ti affinity, a self adherence that may cause friction. Titanium is not esthetic   Lacer aided depositions Implantation of nitrogen ( IONGUARD ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS 2 forms of NiTi alloys 1. Martensite - Body centered cubic/tetragonal lattice 2. Austenite – Face centered (close packed hexagonal) ‘R’ phase – Rhombohedral “SMART MATERIALS” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. NICKEL-TITANIUM TRANSITION TEMPERATURE RANGE TTR above the body temperature renders the alloy austenitic which is more rigid TTR below the body temperature renders it martensitic that is super elastic Austenite wires - 2% of the strain range Martensitic wires - 8%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. NICKEL-TITANIUM HYSTERESIS The range for most binary alloys is 400 – 600 Above the TTR the alloy is fully austenitic (Af),by lowering the temperature martensite will form (Ms) The temperature at which all the austenite is converted to martensite is designated as martensite finish (Mf) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. NICKEL-TITANIUM PROPERTY AUSTENITE AUSTENITE YIELD STRENGTH 560 MPa 100 MPa ELASTIC MODULUS 75 GPa 28 GPa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. NICKEL-TITANIUM Martensitic transformation of NiTi FIDUCIARY LINE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION ADDDITIONS and IMPURITIES Third metal can lower the TTR to as low as –3300F or lower the Hysteresis Thermally activated alloys contain third metal (Cu,Co) Small amounts of Al, Zr, Cr, or Fe will improve the strength of the martensitic form www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. NICKEL-TITANIUM Smaller atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can not substitute for larger ones,but disrupt the matrices Ti4Ni2O4 inclusion, which lowers the alloy elasticity (memory changes) interstitial oxygen causes NiTi alloys to become susceptible to corrosion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel titanium alloys: A clinically oriented review.Part I:Temparature transitional changes – SANTORO et al (AJODO June 2001) SHAPE MEMORY  PSEUDOELASICITY  SUPERELASTICITY  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS The crystal structure of the alloy will be confirmed by means of RADIOGRAPHIC DEFRACTION or DIFFERENCIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDY OF RESISTIVITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS RESISTIVITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SHAPE MEMORY ‘The ability of material to remember its original shape after being plastically deformed’ A certain shape is set at elevated temperatures (above the TTR).When the alloy is cooled below the TTR, it can be plastically deformed but when it is heated again the original shape is restored. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS THERMOELASTICITY Through deflection and repeated temperature cycles the wire in the austenitic phase is able to memorise the preformed shape Ex; An orthodontic archform By lowering the temperature the alloy is transformed into martensite and becomes pliable and easily deformed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS PSEUDO ELASTICITY A small percentage of martensite ( Intermediate Phase R ) is present in the grain structure. Under the conditions of stress “Stress induced martensite ( SIM ) ” will be formed. A LOCALISED STRESS RELATED SUPERELASTIC PHENOMENON www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SIM is unstable In orthodontic clinical applications, SIM forms where the wire is tied to brackets on malalligned teeth so that the wire becomes pliable in deflected areas. In those areas the wire will be super elastic untill tooth movement occurs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS SUPERELASTICITY The stress value remains fairly constant up to a certain point of wire deformation. At the same time deformation rebounds, the stress value remains again constant. It is determined by the typical crystallographic characteristics of NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS STRESS-STRAIN CURVE A-B shows elastic deformation of the austenitic phase  B is the stress at which martensite will form  C-D elastic deformation of martensite  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS LOAD- DEFLECTION CURVE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS The unique force deflection curve for A-NiTi wire occurs because of a phase transition in grain structure from austenite to martensite , in response not to a temperature change but to applied force. This transformation is a mechanical analogue to the thermally induced shape memory effect. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS CLASSIFICATION NiTi orthodontic wires are generally classified as   NON SUPER ELASTIC ( M –NiTi ) Nitinol SUPER ELASTIC ( A-NiTi ) Japanese NiTi ( Sentinol ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS WATERS ( 1992 ) divided the compounds into 3 groups based on their TTRs 1) Group I – Alloys with TTR between room temperature and body temperature. ( Mart active alloys ) 2) Group II - TTR below room temperature. (austenitic) 3) GROUP III – Alloys with TTR close to body temperature which by virtue of the shape memory effect spring back to their original shape when activated by body heat. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. NICKEL-TITANIUM ALLOYS III) EVANS and DURNING introduced a even more comprehensive classification of orthodontic alloys dividing into 5 groups. 1) Phase 2) Phase 3) Phase 4) Phase martensitic 5) Phase 1 – Including alloys like gold and ss. II – Stabilised III – Super elastic active austhentic IV – Thermodynamic active V - Graded thermodynamic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. NITINOL Laboratory and clinical Analysis Of Nitinol Wire - G F. Andreasen, R E. Morrow ( AJO Feb 1978 ) Introduction of stainless steel wire appliances. (1930- 1940) Nitional ( Early 1960s) - William.F.Buehler, a research metallurgist at the Naval Ordinance Laboratory in Silver Springs, Maryland ( Now called the Naval Surface Weapons Center ). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. NITINOL Ni Ti Nol – Nickel – Titanium - Naval ordinance laboratory It was marketed by Unitek Clinical use of Nitinol wire started in May 1972 by G.F.ANDREASEN et al. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. NITINOL SHAPE MEMORY WIRE Nitinol has the characteristic of being able to return to a previously manufactured shape when it is heated to a transition temperature range. ELASTIC ORTHODONTIC WIRE Compared with stainless steel Nitinol wire has an out standing elasticity which is useful for orthodontic applications. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. NITINOL In orthodontic applications 1 . Requires fewer arch wire changes. 2 . Requires less chair time. 3 . Shortens the time required to accomplish the rotations and leveling 4 . Produces less patient discomfort. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. NITINOL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. Material property Nitinol Stainless steel Alloy Nickel, Titanium Iron, Chrome,Nickel Ultimate strength 230,000 to 250,000 280,000 to 300,000 p.s.i p.s.i Modulus of elasticity 4.8 x106 p.s.i www.indiandentalacademy.com 28.5 x 106 p.s.i
  37. 37. NITINOL BEND TEST A series of bend and torsion test have been performed in accordance with the new ADA Specification no.32 on orthodontic wires . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. NITINOL TORSION TEST A comparison between nitinol and stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. NITINOL STORED ENERGY COMPARISONS Stored energy of Nitinol wire is significantly greater than an equivalent SS wire.this comparison was based upon the wires being bent 90 degrees www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. NITINOL CLINICAL APPLICATIONS Class I ,II,III malocclusions in both extraction and non extraction cases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. NITINOL The most important benefits from Nitinol wire are realised when a rectangular wire is inserted early in the treatment. Simultaneous rotation, leveling, tipping,and torquing can be accomplished earlier with a resilient rectangular wire, Cross bite correction Uprighting impacted canines Opening the bite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. NITINOL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. NITINOL LIMITATIONS 1.Nitinol cannot be bent with sharp – cornered instruments. 2. It will readily break when bent over a sharp edge. 3.The bending of loops or omega bends are not recommended. ( especially closing loops ). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. NITINOL 4 . Nitinol cannot be soldered or successfully welded to it self with out annealing the wire, because the bending of tie- back hooks entails a high risk of failure. 5 . Cinch – backs distal to the buccal tubes are easily accomplished by flame annealing .Care should be taken not to over heat the wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. JAPANESE NITI The super - elastic property of the Japanese NiTi alloy wire for use in orthodontics. - Fujio Miura et al ( AJODO July 1986 ) In 1978 Furukawa electric co.ltd of Japan produced a new type of alloy 1. High spring back. 2. Shape memory. 3. Super elasticity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. JAPANESE NITI TESTS 1. Examination of mechanical property of the wire. 1. Tensile test 2. Bending test 2. Measurements of the influence of specific treatment on the wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. JAPANESE NITI 1. Tensile test Tensile testing was performed first because it is the most acceptable method. Co-Cr-Ni, Nitinol , Ss and Japanese NiTi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. JAPANESE NITI www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. JAPANESE NITI Bending test 3 point bending test was conducted in a specially designed situation similar to the conditions involved in moving teeth in the oral cavity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. JAPANESE NITI Measurement of the influence of special heat treatment on the wire. A comparative analysis was conducted for this property before and after being subjected to heat using a .016 inch Japanese NiTi alloy wire. Nitrate salt bath . 2000 c , 3000c, 4000c, 5000c, and 6000c. 5, 10, 60, and 120 min. 20 different variations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. JAPANESE NITI RESULTS The effects of temperature were negligible up to 5000c . Super elasticity can be influenced by temperature and time. It is possible to modify the amount of orthodontic force in an individualised segment of the arch wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS 0.016” medium preformed arch wire was tied into the lateral incisor and canine bracket. INITIAL TWO MONTHS LATER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS NITI COIL SPRINGS TOOTH MOVEMENT RANGE- 0.5 mm per week . Force range 75 to 100 gms. NiTi coil springs . The concept of NiTi coil springs was suggested in 1975. 1. Open coil springs. 2. Closed coil springs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS STUDIES ON THE JAPANESE NiTi ALLOY COIL SPRINGS -F.Miura et al ( AJODO AUGUST 1988 ) study conducted to evaluate the efficiency and mechanical properties of closed & open coils as well as stainless steel coil springs. 10 mm Closed coil springs- tensile test . 50 mm Open coil spring- compression test. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPRINGS. 1. Diameter of the wires α super elastic activity. 2. Size of the lumen 1/α super elastic activity. 3. Martensite transformation temperature α super elastic activity. 4. Pitch of the open coil spring – when it is changed from fine to coarse, the load value of super elastic activity remains same but range increases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Closed coil spring After 5 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Open coil spring After 3 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS MOLAR DISTALIZATION WITH SUPER ELASTIC NiTi WIRE. - R.LOCATLLI et al ( JCO 1992 MAY ) . 100gms neosentalloy wire . Markings 1. Distal wing of first pre molar bracket. 2. 5 to 7mm distal to the anterior opening of the molar tube. 3. Between the lateral incisors and canines. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Crimp a stop to the wire at each mark Insert the wire into the molar tube until the stop abuts the tube www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS INITIAL AFTER 4 MONTHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS NICKEL TITANIUM DOUBLE LOOP SYSTEM - GIANCOTTI ( JCO APRIL 1998 ) After second molar erupts 80g Neosentalloy arch wire 2 sectional arch wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS New application of superelastic NiTi rectangular wires F.Miura, Mogi, Y.Okamoto ( JCO sept 1990 ) FINISHING WIRES NEOSENTALLOY can be used in the initial phases It has 3 dimensional tooth control. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS FACTORS CONTROLLING FORCE LEVEL HEAT TREATMENT – Changes force levels,and memory properties COMPOSITION OF THE ALLOY – Lowering the ratio of the nickel decrease the force level www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS INDIVIDUALISED PRESURGICAL ARCH FORMS - MIURA et al www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Before surgery After surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES Provides 3 dimensional control Effective in surgical orthodontic cases Eliminates need to change arch wires frequently DISADVANTAGES Bracket friction will be more when large wires are used www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS BIOEFFICIENT THERAPY ANTHONY.D.VIAZIS ( JCO Sept 1995 ) Superelasticity –Llight constant force levels Shape memory – Easy arch wire placement REFRIGERENT SPRAY – ENDO ICE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS SENTALLOY INTER ARCH COIL SPRINGS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS WIRE SELECTION Wire flexibility will be more in vertical direction than horizontal direction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ORIGINAL SUPERELASTIC WIRES ( ROUND SENTALLOY ) Light, medium, & heavy force levels RECTANGULAR NEOSENTALLOY I generation: 1OOg, 200g, & 300g force levels II generation: 80g force in the central incisor region(alignment) 320g force in the molar region (posterior leveling) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS BIOFORCE IONGUARD WIRES 3-micron nitrogen coating that is produced by ion bombardment of the wire surface. Reduce 1.Friction 2. Breakage 3.Release of nickel into the mouth . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) ARCHMATE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. DIRECT ELECTIC RESISTANCE HEAT TREATMENT METHOD (DERHT) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. COPPER NiTi VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE ORTHODONTICS - ROHIT C. L. SACHDEVA. “Variable cross sectional orthodontics”. “Variable modulus concept” - BURSTONE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. COPPER NiTi “VARIABLE TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE THERMO MECHANICS” Stress induced martensite Martensite transformation is also temperature dependent www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. COPPER NiTi AUSTENITIC FINISH TEMPERATURE ( Af ) should be lesser then body temperature.This difference determines the force generated by nickel titanium alloys. Af can be controlled by affecting the composition , thermo mechanical treatment &manufacturing process of the alloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. COPPER NiTi COPPER NiTi Introduced by Rohit sachdeva It has the advantage of generating more constant forces than any other super elastic nickel titanium alloys. More resistant to deformation. Smaller mechanical hysteresis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. COPPER NiTi QUATERNARY METAL – Nickel, Titanium, Copper, Chromium CLASSIFICATION Type I Type II Type III Type IV Af – 150 c Af - 270 c Af - 350c Af - 400c www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. COPPER NiTi Type II wire 1. Generates the highest forces . 2. Average or higher pain threshold. 3. Normal periodontal health. 4. Rapid tooth movement is required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. COPPER NiTi TYPE III WIRE 1. Low to normal pain threshold. 2. Slightly compromised periodontium. 3. When relatively low forces are desired. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. COPPER NiTi III CORRECTION AFTER WEEKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. COPPER NiTi IV TYPE IV WIRE 1. Intermittent forces . 2. Patients who are sensitive to pain. 3. Compromised periodontal conditions. 4. Patients co operation is very less. 5. Beneficial as an initial rectangular wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. COPPER NiTi IV CORRECTION AFTER 6 WEEKS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. COPPER NiTi OPTIMAL TOOTH MOVEMENT FORCE. The ideal arch wire would not exhibit any hysteresis, thus providing equal loading ( engaging ) & unloading ( tooth driving forces ). Copper enhances thermal reactive properties and creates a consistent unloading force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. COPPER NiTi Earlier shape memory wires have partially met these goals. eg : a partially corrected rotation . A major cause of this deficiency is the hysteresis that severly limits the working range of super elastic arch wires. Difficulty in setting constant TT while manufacturing . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. COPPER NiTi ADVANTAGES OF COPPER NiTi ALLOYS OVER OTHER NiTi WIRES 1. Smaller loading force for the same degree of deformation.( 20% less ) 2. Reduced hysteresis makes to exert consistent tooth movement and reduced trauma. 3. Consistent TT has ensured consistency of force from batch to batch of arch wires results in affective tooth movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. CHINESE NITI WIRE CHINESE NiTi wire - A new orthodontic wire - C. J. BURSTONE ( AJO JUNE 1985 ) Dr. TIEN HUA CHENG et al at the General Research Institute for Non- Ferrous Metals in Beijing China ( Late 1980s ). Chinese NiTi wire has much lower transitional temperature than NiTi wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. CHINESE NITI WIRE CANTILEVER APPARATUS 0.016 SS, Nitinol and A-NiTi were submitted to a flexural test www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. CHINESE NITI WIRE 3 Characteristics 1. The spring back. 2. Stiffness 3. Maximum movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. CHINESE NITI WIRE SPRING BACK The range of action of the wire. For 800 activation SS – 160 Nitinol – 520 Chinese NiTi - 730 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. CHINESE NITI WIRE STIFFNESS The force or movement produced for each unit Activation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. CHINESE NITI WIRE The magnitude of force increases if the wire is retied into a bracket. 1500 1000 500 0 20 40 www.indiandentalacademy.com 60 80
  99. 99. CHINESE NITI WIRE THE MAXIMUM MOVEMENT. . WIRE MOVEMENT SPRING BACK SS %RECOVER Y 20 3,067 16 NITINOL 2,112 52 65 NITI 1,233 73 91 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. CHINESE NITI WIRE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CHANGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. CHINESE NITI WIRE TIME DEPENDANT CHANGES. The wires remained tied between 3 brackets for periods of 1 minute,1 hour and 72 hours. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. CHINESE NITI WIRE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE 1. Applicable in situations where large deflections are required. 2. When tooth are badly malpositoned. . 3. Nitinol wire deformation is not time dependent 4.Middle range of deactivation forces are useful in designing an appliance with constant forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Effects Of Cold Disinfectants On The Mechanical Properties And The Surface Topography Of Nickel Titanium Arch Wires. - J.E.BUCKTHAL & R.P.KUSY ( AJODO 1988 ) 1. High cost 2. Super elasticity Heat sterilisation is the most reliable method of destroying pathogens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Nitinol is susceptible to a pitting type of corrosion attack. Sterilant solutions; 1. 2% acidic gluteraldehyde ( Banicide ) 2. Chlorine dioxide ( Exspor 4:1:1 ) Disinfectant solution; 3. Iodophor ( Wescodyne ) Wires tested; 12 Straight 1 inch length of rectangular 0.017 X 0.025” Nitinol and Titanol www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. 4 GROUPS; 0 ( Control ) 1 ( Group 1 ) 2 ( Group 2 ) 3 ( Group 3 )  BEND,  TENSILE and  LASER SPECTROSCOPY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. SUMMERY No significant changes were detected . The results supported the use of cold disinfectant procedures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. NICKEL HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION Strong biologic sensitizer SYMPTOMS; Contact dermatitis contact stomatitis Angular chelitis Severe gingivitis Mild erythema with or without edema www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. Nickel hyper sensitivity reaction before, during, and after orthodontic therapy. -G.R.P.JANSON et al ( AJODO JUNE 1998 ) .170 patients of both sexes were examined . 3 groups A - Before B - During C - After 5% Nickel Sulfate in white petrolium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. RESULTS Orthodontic treatment with SS does not induce a nickel hypersensitivity reaction. Frequency in females is 4 times more than in males Association between personal history of allergic reaction & nickel hypersensitivity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. BETA - TITANIUM Beta titanium: A new orthodontic alloy C.J.BURSTONE& A.J.GOLDBERG ( AJO Feb 1980) ORMCO CORPORATION 3 characteristics 1. Spring back 2. Stiffness 3. Formability - High - Low - High www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. BETA - TITANIUM Beta titanium was introduced by Dr. CHARLES BURSTONE and JON GOLDBERG in the university of CONNECTICUT ( Early 1980s ) Composition Titanium - 73.5% Molybdenum - 11.5% Zirconium - 6% Tin - 4.5 % www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. BETA - TITANIUM At temperatures below 16250F – hexagonal Closed packed crystal form. Yield strength - 55 X 103 p.s.i Modulus of elasticity - 15.5 X 106 p.s.i Spring back SS YS = 0.35 X 10–2 E - 1.1 X 10–2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. BETA - TITANIUM At temperatures above 16250 F pure titanium rearranges into body centered cubic lattice - BETA PHASE BETA STABILISED ALLOYS ( molybdenum or columbium ) Yield strength – 1,70,000 p.s.i Modulus of elasticity – 9,400.000 p.s.i YS/E -1.8X10-2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. BETA - TITANIUM TEST FOR SPRING BACK TINIUS OLSEN STIFFNESS TESTER ¼ inch span of wire A. Straight wires B. Wires with 350 bend C. Wires which are over bent to 900 and then bent back to 350 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. BETA - TITANIUM MODE STAINLESS STEEL BETA TITANIUM PERCENT INCREASE A 16.0 32.8 105% B 16.5 31.3 90% C 17.5 37.3 113% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. BETA - TITANIUM ADVANTAGES:       Low stiffness Good formability High spring back Weldable Ductile Corrosion resistance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. BETA - TITANIUM CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Ideal edgewise arches can be deflected twice than SS allows greater range of action and useful for • • Initial tooth alignment Finishing arches Forces - 0.4% of SS Eg; 0.018 x 0.025 TMA = 0.014 x 0.020 SS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. BETA - TITANIUM CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Highly ductile Tieback loops Complicated bends www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. BETA - TITANIUM LOOPS ‘ T’ Vertical Helical ‘ L’ loop www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. BETA - TITANIUM ROTATION INTRUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. BETA - TITANIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. BETA - TITANIUM Direct welding of auxillaries Helical finger spring www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. BETA - TITANIUM Welding of TMA wire - C.J.BURSTONE ( JCO Sept 1987 ) 5 basic principles; 1. Proper positioning 2. Minimum voltage 3. Small contact area 4. Single short pulse 5. Pressure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. ROCKY MOUNTAIN DIAL-A-WELD 506A www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. 1. POSITIONING SET DOWN OF 80% 25 - 60 % www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. 2. VOLTAGE 3. SMALLER CONTACT AREA 4. SINGLE PULSE 5. PRESSURE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. Improper welding Low voltage - The parts may delaminate High voltage - Wire become brittle Cracks Melting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS PASSIVE APPLICATIONS ACTIVE APPLICATIONS SPACE CLOSURE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS To gain space in The anterior Segment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS ROTATIONAL CORRECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS TO INCLUDE SECOND MOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. ALPHA TITANIUM - WILCOCK company TITANIUM - 90% ALUMINIUM - 6% VANADIUM – 4% Close packed hexagonal lattice ALPHA stabilising elements – Aluminum, Gallium, Germanium, Carbon, Oxygen and Nitrogen ‘ NEAR ALPHA ALLOY ’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. ALPHA – BETA PHASE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. ALPHA TITANIUM PROPERTIES; Heat treated to improve strength Satisfactory creep properties – Finishing & breaking arches wire becomes hard in the oral environment due to hydrogen absorption TITANIUM HYDRIDE Less ductile – one slip plane Nickel free www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM A new finishing wire alloy M. Dalstra et al ( COR 2000 July ) Nickel free Titanium alloy (SYBRON DENTAL SPECIALITIES. CALIFORNIA ) Ti - 82% Mo - 15% Nb - 3% ( or) Ti - 74% Nb - 13% Zr - 13% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM PROPERTIES      Easy to bend, fomability is less than TMA When lower forces are used than TMA Stiffness – ¾ of SS, - ¼ of TMA Load deflection rate is lower than TMA Yield strength is lower than SS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. TITANIUM-NIOBIUM ADVANTAGES;   Substitute for SS No leaching of nickel CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS;  Finishing wire with multiple bends  Fixed retainers ( Biocompatible ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. COMPOSITE WIRES The future of orthodontic materials ROBERT.P.KUSY (AJODO Jan 1998) Metals Polymers Ceramics Advantages are realised Disadvantages are minimised www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. METALS METALCERAMIC CERAMICS METALPOLYMER SEMI CONDUCTORS CERAMICCOMPOSIRE www.indiandentalacademy.com POLYMERS
  140. 140. COMPOSITE WIRES In orthodontics composite prototypes of arch wires, ligatures, brackets - S-2 glass fibers ( ceramic ) - Acrylic resins ( polymer ) Esthetically pleasing because they tend to transmit the colour of host teeth Strong & Springy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. COMPOSITE WIRES PULTRUSION The process of manufacturing components of continuous lengths & a constant cross sectional shape Eg; Arch wires Bundles of continuous fibers are impregnated with a polymeric resin pulled through a sizing die Then passed through a curing die that imparts a precise shape ( Electro magnetic radiation ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. COMPOSITE WIRES The characteristics of the arch wires can be changed by - PULTRUSION Round Rectangular Ligature wires – Polyethylene fiber + Acrylic resin 2 ½ times stronger than SS Lose most of their tying force in less than 3 hrs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. Comparison of unidirectional fiber reinforced polymeric composites to NITI alloys in bending www.indiandentalacademy.com
  144. 144. COMPOSITE WIRES ADVANTAGES; patients with allergic reactions with nickel Esthetic than previous wires Better strength & springiness DISADVANTAGES; Shape can not be changed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  145. 145. COMPOSITE WIRES OPTIFLEX WIRES A composite ceramic fiber-plastic-nylon ( ORMCO ) Dr.TALASS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  146. 146. COMPOSITE WIRES Structure – Clear optical fiber made of 3 Layers A. Silicon dioxide core - Force B. Silicon resin middle layer - Protection from moisture C. Nylon layer - Prevents from damage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  147. 147. COMPOSITE WIRES The wire can be ROUND or RECTANGULAR • • • • Wide range of action Light continuous force Sharp bend must be avoided Highly resilient - Effective in the alignment of crowded teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. TIMOLIUM WIRES Improved titanium wires 1. FRICTION 2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE 1. FRICTION Smooth surface texture Less friction Accelerate treatment time www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. TIMOLIUM WIRES 2. RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE  Surface defects  Yield strength  Compressive strength www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. BETA –III WIRES Introduced by RAVINDRA NANDA  Bendable  High force  Low deflection rate  Co-efficient of friction is more  Nickel free titanium wire with memory  Ideal for multilooping, cantilever, utility arches First choice of wire for finishing stages where tip & torque corrections fully accomplished during initial stages. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER CORRECTION OF POSTERIOR CROSS BITES - Skeletal expansion - Dental expansion The goal of palatal expansion is to maximise skeletal movement and minimise dental movement. EXPANSION APPLIANCES - Rapid palatal expansion appliances - Slow expansion appliances www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION APPLIANCES ( RPE) - Produce large forces at the suture site over a short period. Conventional RPE appliances 1. Uncomfortable 2. Require patient co- operation 3. Laborious 4. Inefficient because of the intermittent nature of their force application www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER Slow expansion appliances - Light , continuous forces - Best physiologic changes ( Both orthopedic and orthodontic ) - Produce a widening rather than an actual separation of the suture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER W.V.ARNDT ( JCO 1993 ) Tandem loop, nickel titanium , temperature activated palatal expander. - Light continuous pressure on the mid palatal suture . ( Simultaneous uprighting , rotating , and distalising the maxillary first molars ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. NICKEL TITANIUM PALATAL EXPANDER THE ACTION OF THE APPLIANCE - A consequence of nickel titanium’ s shape memory and transition temperature effects. The nickel titanium expander has a transition temperature of 940 F.   Below TTR – Metal is flexible Above TTR – Metal stiffen www.indiandentalacademy.com
  157. 157. BELOW 20 0 C www.indiandentalacademy.com AT TTR
  158. 158.    8 Different intermolar widths ( 26mm – 47mm ) Forces ranging from 180 – 300gms 26 – 32mm - Softer wires that produce lower force levels for younger patients 3mm will be added for overcorrection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  159. 159. Passive appliance Initial activation www.indiandentalacademy.com After expansion
  160. 160. “ COMPLETE MAXILLARY RIGHT CROSSBITE” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. A comparison of dental and dento- alveolar changes between rapid palatal expansion and nickel titanium expansion appliances. - C. CIAMBOTTI et al ( AJODO JAN 2001 ) The objectives; To compare – Amount of mid palatal suture separation - Alveolar process tipping - Maxillary first molar tipping - Maxillary first molar rotation - Palatal depth changes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. Mixed or early permanent dentition. 12 patients treated with RPE appliances ( 6 males, 6 females with an average age of 11.1 yrs ) Duration 127 days 13 patients treated with NiTi palatal expansion appliances. ( 3 males, 10 females with an average of 9.4 yrs ) Duration 153 days www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. RPE APPLIANCE – A tooth borne appliance Mid palatal jack screw Activation 0.5mm, 2 times per day Expansion – Occlusal aspect of lingual cusp of maxillary first molar contacted the occlusal aspect of buccal cusp of mandibular first molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. NiTi EXPANDER A tandem loop temperature activated appliance ( GAC International ) designed by ARNDT The proper size was selected by measuring the inter molar width and then adding 3 to 4mm Tetrafluoroethane refrigerant www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. NiTi expander RME www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. RESULTS 1. Palatal width change - RPE group is 28 % - In NiTi group 16 %. 2. Buccal tipping of the alveolar process - RPE group – 5.080. - NiTi group – 6.610 3. Molar rotation - RPE group 1.580 - NiTi group 26.610 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. 4. Radiographic evidence shows that mid palatal suture separation is less obvious in the NiTi group than RPE group. 5. No correlation between age and amount of dentoalveolar expansion. 6. RPE appliance widened the palate more reliably, NiTi appliance tipped the molars buccally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. A review of contemporary arch wires: Their properties and characteristics - ROBERT KUSY ( AO JUNE 1997 ) CHARACTERSTICS OF THE IDEAL ARCH WIRE Ideally archwires are designed to move teeth with light continuous forces No one wire is best for all stages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  169. 169. Strong Good range Esthetic Resilient Biocompatible Formable CRITERIA OF AN IDEAL ARCH WIRE Weldable Tough Poor Biohost Good Spring back Low friction Springy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  170. 170. APPLYING ARCH WIRES During initial stages - great range and light forces VARIABLE CROSS SECTION ORTHODONTICS - Multistranded stainless steel wire Variable modulus orthodontics - NiTi alloy wire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  171. 171. Intermediate stages of treatment   Beta titanium alloys Larger sizes of Nitinol ( under sized stainless steel wire if sliding mechanics are required ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  172. 172. FINAL STAGES OF TREATMENT More arch stability and less tooth movements - Large gauges of beta titanium or - Stainless steel wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  173. 173. A comparative study of metallurgical and working properties of two new titanium based alloy wires (TiMolium and Beta III ) with the earlier introduced titanium wires ( TMA ), and also alpha titanium wires - Jiku Abraham TiMolium – T.P.Orthodontics Beta III - Ortho organizers TMA - Ormco corp. Alpha Titanium – A.J. WILLCOCK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  174. 174. Straight rectangular wires GROUP I 4 wires in 16”x 22” dimension GROUP II 4 wires in 17”x 25” dimension GROUP III 4 wires in 19”x 25” dimension www.indiandentalacademy.com
  175. 175. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Properties studied are Yield, tensile strength & elastic modulus Maximum load via 3-point bending test Frictional resistance Welding characteristics Stress relaxation Working range / spring back Surface topography Micro hardness Elemental analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  176. 176. INSTRON MODEL NO.1193 Expr. Setup for Yield strength & ultimate tensile strength www.indiandentalacademy.com
  177. 177. Manufacturers claim that;   TiMolium is superior to TMA wires in the following; 1. Friction and surface smoothness 2. Compressive strength 3. Yield strength & breakage resistance Beta III is bendable , high force low deflection, nickel free arch wire with memory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  178. 178. Results of the study showed that  The coefficient of friction, surface smoothness,yield strength & ultimate tensile strength of TiMolium was superior to that of TMA . However TMA has low load deflection rate and high spring back than TiMolium .  Yield strength of Beta III was lower than TMA and TiMolium  Formability is good but resiliency is low. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  179. 179. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STUDY; 1. Correction of crowding or alignment of teeth TMA > Beta III 2. Intrusion TMA shows a better stress relaxation TMA > TiMolium . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  180. 180. 3. Space closure   Sliding mechanics TiMolium shows lowest values of coefficient of friction in both static as well as kinetic friction. TiMolium > Alpha titanium Frictionless mechanics – Formability - Beta III > TMA > TiMolium Resilience - TiMolium > TMA > Beta III www.indiandentalacademy.com
  181. 181. WELDABILITY TiMolium > Beta III FINISHING STAGES Incomplete tip, torque correction Beta III > TMA > TiMolium www.indiandentalacademy.com
  182. 182. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com

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