Methods of studying bone
growth
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

w...
Bone growth ?
Bone = bone cells(osteoblasts ,osteocytes ,osteoclasts)
+matrix (collagen + calcium hydroxyapatite 65-70%)
W...
Passion & controversy may have a place in discussion &
interpretation but certainly not in study of rigorously
collected b...
Source of data
Census
Registration of vital events
Hospital records & other health records
Survey of population
Health int...
Types of data
Opinion :it is a clever guess .
Observation :Done to see presence or
absence of certain
phenomena
Rating & r...
Methods of collecting data
Cross sectional method :based on single

examination of a cross-section of population at
one po...
Cross-sectional method
ADVANTAGES
easy & quick
less expensive
no attrition of sample
various factors acting
at that time c...
Longitudinal method
ADVANTAGES
more specific
factors acting at
different time can be
analyzed
less no of subjects
individu...
Semi-longitudinal method
ADVANTAGES
Tries to combine advantages of both
longitudinal & cross-sectional method.
Data of 15 ...
Approach for analysis of
obtained data.
MEASUREMENT
APPROACH
Here animals & humans
are measured without
inducing any chang...
Methods of presenting data
Simple tables
Graphs (special
curves)
Charts
Bar charts
Histograms
Pie charts
Pictograms
www.in...
Explanation concerning craniofacial
growth in current literature
Deductive:logically explained consequence of certain
prem...
Methods of studying bone
growth.
Mineralized sections
Polarized light birefringence
Craniometry
Fluorescent labels
Compara...
Craniometry
Measurement of skull of human skeleton.
Broca (1875) defined landmarks &
instruments used for measurements.
Co...
Anthropometry
Measurement of skeletal dimensions on
living individuals
Physical anthropology :Study of mans
biologic behav...
Radiology /Imaging
Conventional radiographs
Nature and production of x-rays
How does it detect bone growth ?
Films :compos...
Techniques of
conventional radiography
Intra oral
IOPA

Extra oral

paralleling technique
Bisecting angle

Bite wing
occlu...
Broadbent-Bolton cephalometer

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Cephalometry
ADVANTAGES
Combines advantages of anthropometry
and craniometry that is direct bony
measurement & study of sa...
Specialized radiographic
technique
Digital imaging (CCD -voltage-bits 0-255)
Direct digital radiography (R V G )
Indirect ...
3-D Imaging
3-D analysis would be the ideal way of
analyzing soft/hard tissue profile
Source of data
Multiple video imagin...
Specific experimental
method
Mineralized sections
Finite element modeling
Polarized light
Vital staining
Fluorescent label...
Histopathological technique
Preparation of tissues for microscopy
Soft tissue embedded in paraffin
Fixation
processing

co...
Mineralized sections
Critical analysis of tissues as there is less
distortion during processing
Both inorganic mineral & o...
Polarized light birefringence
Fringe pattern indicate collagen
orientation within bone
Loading conditions during bone form...
Fluorescent labels
In vivo administration of Cl binders act as
time markers of bone formation
Six fluorescent bone labels ...
Microradiography
Higher resolution images of polished 100um
mineralized sections obtained
1 week primary mineralization
8 ...
Autoradiography
Specific radioactive labels for proteins
carbohydrates ,& nucleic acids are injected at
known intervals be...
Nuclear volume
morphometry
Cytomorphometric procedure for accessing the
size of osteoblastic precursor cells
Mechanism of ...
Cell kinetics
By noting the -increase in nuclear volume
or labeling S-phase cells in vivo using
Bromodeoxyuridine (BDU) ce...
Microelectrodes
Tungsten or glass electrodes are inserted
atraumatically into PDL in live animals via
gingival sulcus
chan...
Finite element modeling
Finite element modeling is a branch of
mechanical engineering where in the stress &
strain of mech...
Vital staining
Reported initially by Belchier (1796) &
John Hunter where in they attributed
staining to alizarin
This meth...
Metallic implants
Method of study used extensively by Prof
Bjork & coworkers R D C Copenhagen
They gave new dimension to s...
Conclusion
Tooth movement has been
possible because bone
behaves dynamically
Better understanding of
physiology of bone PD...
References
Enlow;Hand book of facial growth, W B Saunders
Company,1982
Orbans:Oral histology &embryology,Delhi, C B S
publ...
References ctd
Goaz & White:Oral radiology, St Louis,C V Mosby,
1994
K Park : Preventive &social medicine, Jabalpur , M/S
...
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Methods of study bone growth /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • Methods of study bone growth /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

    1. 1. Methods of studying bone growth INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. Bone growth ? Bone = bone cells(osteoblasts ,osteocytes ,osteoclasts) +matrix (collagen + calcium hydroxyapatite 65-70%) Woven bone Lamellar bone (compact bone) Composite bone (cancellous bone) Bundle bone Vitamin-D PTH 9-11mg/dl Serum Ca++ www.indiandentalacademy.com Calcitonin
    3. 3. Passion & controversy may have a place in discussion & interpretation but certainly not in study of rigorously collected biomedical &clinical data A. G. Petrovic Study Acquisition of knowledge by investigation. Collection of data Explanation Analysis of this data Presentation of data www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. Source of data Census Registration of vital events Hospital records & other health records Survey of population Health interview survey (opinion) Health examination survey Health record survey mailed question survey www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. Types of data Opinion :it is a clever guess . Observation :Done to see presence or absence of certain phenomena Rating & ranking. Measurements :Most scientific approch direct data indirect data derived data www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. Methods of collecting data Cross sectional method :based on single examination of a cross-section of population at one point in time . Longitudinal method :observations period are repeated in the same population over a prolonged of time by means of follow up examination. Semi-longitudinal method : www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Cross-sectional method ADVANTAGES easy & quick less expensive no attrition of sample various factors acting at that time can be analyzed can be repeated DISADVANTAGES variability with in the sample larger size of sample factors acting at various time period cannot be analyzed www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. Longitudinal method ADVANTAGES more specific factors acting at different time can be analyzed less no of subjects individual variations DISADVANTAGES more expensive difficulty in maintaining lab & data more time attrition of samples cannot be repeated Eg Bolton Brush study ,Michigan study ,Iova child welfare study www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Semi-longitudinal method ADVANTAGES Tries to combine advantages of both longitudinal & cross-sectional method. Data of 15 yrs of study obtained in 3 yrs DISADVANTAGES Not as authentic as longitudinal study www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. Approach for analysis of obtained data. MEASUREMENT APPROACH Here animals & humans are measured without inducing any change in them. Dead/alive Longitudinal/crosssectional EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Here growth is manipulated and observations are made. More detailed study. Mainly animal study. Longitudinal/crosssectional www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. Methods of presenting data Simple tables Graphs (special curves) Charts Bar charts Histograms Pie charts Pictograms www.indiandentalacademy.com Diagrams (pictures)
    12. 12. Explanation concerning craniofacial growth in current literature Deductive:logically explained consequence of certain premises. Deductivoprobabilistic: tries to relate various items explained by the deductive explanation with certain assumptions.Forms basis of D/D &prognosis. Functional: Based on single assumption.Generally Noncolinear relations are seen here . Phylogenetic:Growth trends explained based on www.indiandentalacademy.com evolutionary trends.
    13. 13. Methods of studying bone growth. Mineralized sections Polarized light birefringence Craniometry Fluorescent labels Comparative Micro radiography anatomy Auto radiography Anthropometry nuclear volume morphometry Cell kinetics Radiology/Imaging Micro electrodes Finite element modeling EXPERIMENTAL Vital staining Metallic implants www.indiandentalacademy.com MEASUREMENT
    14. 14. Craniometry Measurement of skull of human skeleton. Broca (1875) defined landmarks & instruments used for measurements. Congress of German anthropological society held at Frankfurt in 1882. Comparative anatomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 15. Anthropometry Measurement of skeletal dimensions on living individuals Physical anthropology :Study of mans biologic behavior in time and space Special instruments are used ADV :Longitudinal study No harm to subjects DISADV :Soft tissue error www.indiandentalacademy.com Operator error
    16. 16. Radiology /Imaging Conventional radiographs Nature and production of x-rays How does it detect bone growth ? Films :composition size: 22*35 24*40 32*41 57*76 mm 8*10” :Image formation ,developing & fixing Intensifying screens (calcium tungstate & rare earth) Grids (parallel ,focused &Potter Bucky grids.80-100lines/Inch) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 17. Techniques of conventional radiography Intra oral IOPA Extra oral paralleling technique Bisecting angle Bite wing occlusal projection Posterio-anterior Walters occipitofrontal Riverse-Towne sub mento vertex Lateral oblique mand Lateral skull Pt position Cephalostat Cephalometry www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. Broadbent-Bolton cephalometer www.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 19. Cephalometry ADVANTAGES Combines advantages of anthropometry and craniometry that is direct bony measurement & study of same individual DISADVANTAGES 2-dimensional Head position critical Direction of growth not clear Panoramic www.indiandentalacademy.com
    20. 20. Specialized radiographic technique Digital imaging (CCD -voltage-bits 0-255) Direct digital radiography (R V G ) Indirect digital radiography Digital subtraction radiography Digitized image interpretation Computed tomography Magnetic resonance Radionuclide imaging Ultrasound www.indiandentalacademy.com Electronic thermography
    21. 21. 3-D Imaging 3-D analysis would be the ideal way of analyzing soft/hard tissue profile Source of data Multiple video imaging Sonic digitizing Laser scanning Disadv: Pt movement during digitizing Primitive soft ware not very accurate Norms & data not extensive www.indiandentalacademy.com
    22. 22. Specific experimental method Mineralized sections Finite element modeling Polarized light Vital staining Fluorescent labels Metallic implants Micro radiography Auto radiography nuclear volume morphometry Cell kinetics Micro electrodes www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. Histopathological technique Preparation of tissues for microscopy Soft tissue embedded in paraffin Fixation processing colloidal embedding - hard tissues(decalcified) Acid treatment chelation Hydrolysis Ground sections- hard tissues(undecalcified) Frozen sections for immediate examination www.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 24. Mineralized sections Critical analysis of tissues as there is less distortion during processing Both inorganic mineral & organic matrix can be studied 100um -tissue level details 25um-Enhanced cellular details Bone labels quench rapidly Tissue density inadequate for microradiography www.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. Polarized light birefringence Fringe pattern indicate collagen orientation within bone Loading conditions during bone formation dictates orientation of collagen Longitudinal alignment -Tension Transverse alignment -compression www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. Fluorescent labels In vivo administration of Cl binders act as time markers of bone formation Six fluorescent bone labels are used Tetracycline -bright yellow Calcein - green Xylenol- orange Alizarin- complexone red Demeclocyclin- gold Oxytetracycline- greenish yellow www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. Microradiography Higher resolution images of polished 100um mineralized sections obtained 1 week primary mineralization 8 months secondary mineralization Experimental animals analyzed by both microradiography & using fluoroscentlabels midfacial sutures PDL Alveolar process Mandibular condyle www.indiandentalacademy.com temporal fossa
    28. 28. Autoradiography Specific radioactive labels for proteins carbohydrates ,& nucleic acids are injected at known intervals before sampling Detected by coating histologic sections with nuclear track emulsion 3H thymidine labels DNA synthesis 3H Proline for bone matrix www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. Nuclear volume morphometry Cytomorphometric procedure for accessing the size of osteoblastic precursor cells Mechanism of osteogenesis in orthodontically activated PDL Preosteoblasts have larger nucleus than committed osteoprogenitor cells and their precursors www.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 30. Cell kinetics By noting the -increase in nuclear volume or labeling S-phase cells in vivo using Bromodeoxyuridine (BDU) cell movement & differentiation is noted Generally done in PDL under normal conditions under metabolic stimuli mechanical stimuli www.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 31. Microelectrodes Tungsten or glass electrodes are inserted atraumatically into PDL in live animals via gingival sulcus changes in electric potential are noted Widened areas have a negative charge Compressed areas have positive charge This coincides with the age old principle, that bone forms near cathode & resorbs at www.indiandentalacademy.com anode
    32. 32. Finite element modeling Finite element modeling is a branch of mechanical engineering where in the stress & strain of mechanically loaded structures are analyzed. Initial stress for periodontium are derived by assuming linear elastic properties For complex tissues like periodontium with viscoelastic properties both solid & fluid mechanics mustwww.indiandentalacademy.com be considered
    33. 33. Vital staining Reported initially by Belchier (1796) & John Hunter where in they attributed staining to alizarin This method reveals the site ,manner, amount , direction ,timing & duration of bone growth Tetracycline stains in humans www.indiandentalacademy.com
    34. 34. Metallic implants Method of study used extensively by Prof Bjork & coworkers R D C Copenhagen They gave new dimension to study of dentofacial growth. Remodeling changes in the contours of jaws was better understood Rotational pattern of jaw growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. Conclusion Tooth movement has been possible because bone behaves dynamically Better understanding of physiology of bone PDL interface is necessary All these methods have given us the tool for further study it is up to us to use it www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. References Enlow;Hand book of facial growth, W B Saunders Company,1982 Orbans:Oral histology &embryology,Delhi, C B S publishers,1990 Rakosi ,Jones & Graber:Colour atlas of orthodontic diagnosis,New York,Thieme medical publishers,1993 Farkas L G:Anthropometry of head &face, New York, Raven press,1994 Jacobson :Radiographic cephalometry,quintessence www.indiandentalacademy.com books,1995
    37. 37. References ctd Goaz & White:Oral radiology, St Louis,C V Mosby, 1994 K Park : Preventive &social medicine, Jabalpur , M/S Banarsidas Bhanot,1997 Profitt W R:Contemporary orthodontics,St Louis,C V Mosby,1997 Graber,Rakosi,Petrovic:Dentofacial orthopedics with functional appliances, 1997 Graber Vanarsdall:Orthodontics current principles &technique, St Louis,C V Mosby,2000. X www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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