INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
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The Effects of Sterilization on
Tensile Strength of Orthodontic
wires

Presented by:
Madhvi Bhardwaj
Postgraduate student
...
Introduction
• As overhead costs rise, orthodontists are
continually searching for ways to reduce costs.
• The newer ortho...
• It is unlikely that orthodontist will discontinue their
use due to their relatively high price.
• Hence, the challenge i...
• During finishing stage of treatment when
lower grade wires may be reused in the same
patient
• Also one can recycle and ...
• When considering the reuse of orthodontic
wires, it is important to:
– Evaluate the effect of sterilization on the
physi...
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
•

To evaluate the effects of sterilization on the tensile
strength of Nickel- Titanium, TMA and Stainl...
Materials
•

Wires used:

•

5 samples of each
–

0.016” (round) and 0.016”X0.022” (rectangular)
TMA (Ortho organizer)

–
...
• Control group: The used wires were
ultrasonically cleaned and air dried
but was not processed through
different steriliz...
• Experimental group: The used wires
were ultrasonically cleaned and air
dried and was processed through
different sterili...
•

Equipments used for sterilizations:

HOT AIR OVEN

STEAM AUTOCLAVE

BIOCLENZ SOLUTION
www.indiandentalacademy.com
(2% G...
• Universal testing machine:
– For measuring the ultimate tensile strengths of the
wires

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Method
• Part 1:
– The different types of sterilization methods used
on three types of wires:
• Dry heat sterilization: Ho...
• Part 2 :
– Determining the effects of repeated sterilization
on tensile strengths of 0.016 ” and 0.016”X
0.022” TMA, Nic...
• The machine consisted of two movable fixtures so
as to tightly grip the wire specimen in place when
the test is being pe...
Observation and Results
Table 1 Ultimate Tensile strength of stainless steel wire(0.016
round)
Sterilization Method
Steril...
Table 2 : Ultimate Tensile strength of stainless steel
wire (0.016 x 0.022inch)
Sterilization Method
Sterilization cycles
...
• Dry heat sterilization, Autoclaving and
Cold sterilization did not affect the
tensile strength of round and rectangular
...
Table 3 Ultimate Tensile strength of Nickel Titanium wire ( 0.016 round)
Sterilization Method

Sterilization cycles

Dry h...
Table 4 : Ultimate Tensile strength of Nickel
Titanium( 0.016 x 0.022 inch)
Sterilization Method
Sterilization cycles

0
1...
• Dry heat sterilization significantly increased the
tensile strength of both round and rectangular Nickel
-Titanium wires...
Table 5 Ultimate Tensile strength of TMA wire (0.016 round)

Sterilization Method
Sterilization cycles

Dry heat

Autoclav...
Table 6 : Ultimate Tensile strength of TMA (0.016 x
0.022 inch)
Sterilization Method
Sterilization cycles

0
1
5
F- value*...
• Dry heat sterilization significantly increased the
tensile strength of both round and rectangular
Beta-Titanium wires af...
Statistical analysis showed that with the
comparison between the cycles no significant
differences were found in the tensi...
Discussion
• The purpose of present study was to
examine the effect of repeated cycles
of different methods of sterilizati...
• Tensile strength was chosen as the parameters
as it has a direct impact on the clinical use of
wire.
• If a wire’s tensi...
• It can be concluded that sterilization of Beta –
Titanium and Nickel – Titanium wires with dry
heat or autoclave produce...
Conclusion
• Whether or not recycling is a practical method of
reducing orthodontic overhead cost
• The results of this st...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Effects of sterilization on tensile strength of orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Transcript of "Effects of sterilization on tensile strength of orthodontic wires /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy "

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. The Effects of Sterilization on Tensile Strength of Orthodontic wires Presented by: Madhvi Bhardwaj Postgraduate student Guided by: Dr.(Mrs.) P.V.Hazarey Prof. And Head Sharad Pawar Dental College Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Introduction • As overhead costs rise, orthodontists are continually searching for ways to reduce costs. • The newer orthodontic wires display an excellent combination of strength resiliency and low-load deflection rates. • Beta-titanium (TMA) three times while NiTi usually two times more expensive than stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. • It is unlikely that orthodontist will discontinue their use due to their relatively high price. • Hence, the challenge is to make more cost effective use of these wires. • Sterilization and reuse of the more expensive orthodontic wires is one option. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. • During finishing stage of treatment when lower grade wires may be reused in the same patient • Also one can recycle and reuse the same wire in different patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. • When considering the reuse of orthodontic wires, it is important to: – Evaluate the effect of sterilization on the physical properties of wires – Eliminate the risk of cross infection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. AIM AND OBJECTIVES • To evaluate the effects of sterilization on the tensile strength of Nickel- Titanium, TMA and Stainless steel wires. • To compare the effects of three different methods of sterilization methods on the tensile strength of Nickel- Titanium, TMA and Stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Materials • Wires used: • 5 samples of each – 0.016” (round) and 0.016”X0.022” (rectangular) TMA (Ortho organizer) – 0.016” (round) and 0.016”X0.022” (rectangular) Nickel – Titanium (Libral Traders) – 0.016” (round) and 0.016”X0.022” (rectangular) Stainless Steel wires (Libral Traders) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. • Control group: The used wires were ultrasonically cleaned and air dried but was not processed through different sterilization procedures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. • Experimental group: The used wires were ultrasonically cleaned and air dried and was processed through different sterilization procedures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. • Equipments used for sterilizations: HOT AIR OVEN STEAM AUTOCLAVE BIOCLENZ SOLUTION www.indiandentalacademy.com (2% GLUTERALDEHYDE)
  12. 12. • Universal testing machine: – For measuring the ultimate tensile strengths of the wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Method • Part 1: – The different types of sterilization methods used on three types of wires: • Dry heat sterilization: Hot air oven was used at 320°to 340°F (160° to 171°C) for a period of 1 to 2 hours. • Autoclaving: Used at 250 °F (121 °C) at 15 psi for 15 minutes or 270 °F (132 °C) at 30 psi. • Cold sterilization: 2% Glutaraldehyde was used for a duration of 10 minutes and upto 10 hours of time. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. • Part 2 : – Determining the effects of repeated sterilization on tensile strengths of 0.016 ” and 0.016”X 0.022” TMA, Nickel -Titanium and Stainless steel wires. • All wires were tested using a Universal Tensile Testing Machine (Model No. 1.3 D) with a load cell capacity of 2500 N having a least count of 50 N. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. • The machine consisted of two movable fixtures so as to tightly grip the wire specimen in place when the test is being performed and the speed of the machine was kept at a constant rate of 1mm/min. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Observation and Results Table 1 Ultimate Tensile strength of stainless steel wire(0.016 round) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles Dry heat Autoclave Cold 0 1237 ± 85 1211 ± 85 1087 ± 48 1 1282 ± 57 1251 ± 84 1091 ± 38 5 1212 ± 95 1238 ± 180 1088 ± 47 8.06 F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles 2.95 2.01 NS NS NS (0-1) NS --- --- (0-5) NS --- --- NS --(1-5) www.indiandentalacademy.com ---
  17. 17. Table 2 : Ultimate Tensile strength of stainless steel wire (0.016 x 0.022inch) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles Dry heat Autoclave 0 1 1855.33 ± 26.39 1825.44 ± 30.97 5 1849.71 ± 20.42 1840.27 ± 5.53 1832.12 ± 5.40 1835.32 ± 19.15 0.59 0.56 NS,p>0.05 0.54 NS, p>0.05 0.79 NS, p>0.05 0.90 NS, p>0.05 F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles (0-1) (0-5) (1-5) 1.82 0.20 NS,p>0.05 0.21 NS, p>0.05 0.93 NS,p>0.05 0.34 NS,p>0.05 www.indiandentalacademy.com Cold 1797.29 ± 17.36 1794.75 ± 19.82 1776.80 ± 19.62 1.73 0.21 NS,p>0.05 0.97 NS, p>0.05 0.24 NS, p>0.05 0.32 NS, p>0.05
  18. 18. • Dry heat sterilization, Autoclaving and Cold sterilization did not affect the tensile strength of round and rectangular Stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Table 3 Ultimate Tensile strength of Nickel Titanium wire ( 0.016 round) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles Dry heat Autoclave Cold 0 1226 ± 11 1226 ± 11 1226 ± 11 1 1382 ± 60 1366 ± 54 1222 ± 15 5 1364 ± 31 1382 ± 29 1234 ± 14 32.2 S,p<.01 28.6 S,p<.01 (0-1) P<.01 P<.01 --- (0-5) P<.01 P<.01 --- (1-5) NS NS --- F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles www.indiandentalacademy.com 1.06 NS
  20. 20. Table 4 : Ultimate Tensile strength of Nickel Titanium( 0.016 x 0.022 inch) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles 0 1 5 F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles (0-1) (0-5) (1-5) Dry heat Autoclave 1748.92 ± 20.64 1836.36 ± 21.68 1758.79 ± 17.02 28.99 0.00 S,p<0.05 0.00 S, p<0.05 0.71 NS,p>0.05 0.00 S,p<0.05 1746.45 ± 23.42 1826.71 ± 21.47 1844.98 ± 21.68 27.83 0. 00 S,p<0.05 0.00 S, p<0.05 0.00 S, p<0.05 0.42 NS, p>0.05 www.indiandentalacademy.com Cold 1748.92 ± 20.64 1768.31 ± 0.27 1748.26 ± 1.75 4.53 0.30 NS 0.06 NS, p>0.05 0.99 NS, p>0.05 0.05 NS, p>0.05
  21. 21. • Dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of both round and rectangular Nickel -Titanium wires after one cycle. • Autoclaving increased the tensile strength of rectangular and round Nickel -Titanium wires. • Cold sterilization did not affect the tensile strength of both round and rectangular Nickel -Titanium wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Table 5 Ultimate Tensile strength of TMA wire (0.016 round) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles Dry heat Autoclave Cold 0 1087 ± 48 1087 ± 48 1087 ± 48 1 1282 ± 57 1251 ± 84 1091 ± 38 5 1212 ± 95 1238 ± 180 1088 ± 47 2.95 8.06 S,0.01 F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles 0.01 S,0.02 NS,0.2 (0-1) S --- --- (0-5) S S --- (1-5) NS NS --- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Table 6 : Ultimate Tensile strength of TMA (0.016 x 0.022 inch) Sterilization Method Sterilization cycles 0 1 5 F- value* p-level Comparison Between Cycles (0-1) (0-5) (1-5) Dry heat 1673.53 ± 20.64 1840.89 ± 22.70 1672.03 ± 33.65 68.12 0.00 S,p<0.05 0.00 S, p<0.05 0.90 NS,p>0.05 0.00 S,p<0.05 Autoclave Cold 1866.02 ± 16.83 1773.53 ± 20.64 1823.73 ± 21.26 1766.03 ± 4.87 1878.45 ± 21.89 1792.68 ± 22.11 10.15 3.01 0.003 0.08 S,p<0.05 NS,p>0.05 0.01 0.78 S, p<0.05 NS, p>0.05 0.60 0.24 NS, p>0.05 NS, p>0.05 0.003 0.08 S, p<0.05 NS, p>0.05 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. • Dry heat sterilization significantly increased the tensile strength of both round and rectangular Beta-Titanium wires after one cycle. • Autoclaving also increased the tensile strength of in case of round and rectangular Beta-Titanium wires • Cold sterilization did not affect the tensile strength of both round and rectangular BetaTitanium wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Statistical analysis showed that with the comparison between the cycles no significant differences were found in the tensile strength of wires between zero cycle and five cycles of sterilization but increases after one cycle of sterilization. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Discussion • The purpose of present study was to examine the effect of repeated cycles of different methods of sterilizations on tensile strength of round and rectangular (0.016” and 0.016”X 0.022” ) Beta – Titanium, Nickel – Titanium, and Stainless steel wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. • Tensile strength was chosen as the parameters as it has a direct impact on the clinical use of wire. • If a wire’s tensile strength decreases it is more prone to breakage, which may cause a problem for both the patient and the orthodontist www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. • It can be concluded that sterilization of Beta – Titanium and Nickel – Titanium wires with dry heat or autoclave produces an increase in their tensile strength. • The decrease in tensile strength of stainless steel wires produced by autoclave or dry heat sterilization may not present a clinical problem since only few Orthodontists reuse these wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Conclusion • Whether or not recycling is a practical method of reducing orthodontic overhead cost • The results of this study suggest that Orthodontists who choose to recycled Nickel – Titanium, TMA or Stainless steel arch wires do not need to be concerned about reducing the wire’s ultimate tensile strength by sterilization procedures. • Instead, tensile strength increases in case of NickelTitanium and TMA wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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