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Lasers in orthodontics  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
 

Lasers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078




The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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    Lasers in orthodontics  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Lasers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Presentation Transcript

    • Lasers in Orthodontics www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Introduction • History of lasers • Uses of lasers in orthodontics 1. Laser scanning 2. Holography 3. Soft tissue uses 4. Hard tissue uses 5. Laser welders • Conclusion • References www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Introduction Lasers were developed in the early 1960's and rapidly found a number of uses in medicine and surgery. Although only recently introduced into general dentistry, they have been used in orthodontics for a number of years. This seminar gives a brief summary of some of the current applications & ongoing research for lasers in orthodontics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The term laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser energy is produced when a suitable medium, for example a ruby crystal, is subjected to certain physical constraints at high energy. The medium is stimulated by an external power source to produce photons of light energy which are then amplified to produce laser emission. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The mediums are molecules in solid, liquid, or gas state. Gas lasers such as CO2 or helium-neon, use an electrical discharge to produce the emissions whereas doped-insulator lasers (ruby or Nd:Y AG) employ flash lights as the energy source. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The photons are made to pass back and forth through the laser medium by parallel facing mirrors gathering more photons of energy which are thus amplified by this process. One of the mirrors is semi silvered and allows a proportion of the energy to escape and form the laser beam. The laser radiation has the unique properties of being coherent, mono-chromatic and columnated; that is, it has the same amplitude, phase and wavelength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • It is these properties that distinguish laser radiation from types of radiation or light sources and allows a considerable amount of energy to be focused onto an extremely small area. The effect that the laser beam has on various tissues depends on the nature of the tissue itself, the energy level (power) and wavelength of the beam. The wavelength of the beam is altered principally by changing the laser medium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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    • EARLY DENTAL LASER RESEARCH • The first laser constructed by Maiman was a pulsed ruby laser, which emitted light of 0.694 µm wavelength (Maiman, 1960). Surprisingly, the second laser to be developed was the neodymium laser, which followed only one year later (Snitzer, 1961). Nearly all of the early dental laser research was performed with the ruby laser, which may have resulted in a delay in the development of laser dentistry. Had dental researchers focused on the neodymium laser sooner, laser dentistry may have progressed to its www.indiandentalacademy.com present status some 10 years earlier.
    • The Ruby Laser • Dental laser research began in 1963 at the University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry with the investigations of Ralph H. Stern and Reidar F. Sognnaes. Like most of the early dental laser researchers, interests centered around the thermal effects of the ruby laser on the dental hard tissues (enamel and dentin) and restorative materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • They reported the development of cratering and glasslike fusion of enamel, and the penetration and charring of dentin following a single millisecond pulse of the ruby laser at 500 to 2,000 J/cm2 (Stern, 1964). • In further experiments they observed that under specific parameters of exposure to the ruby laser there occurred an increased resistance to acid penetration into enamel, suggesting a possible role for the laser in caries prevention (Stern, 1974). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The first report of laser exposure to a vital human tooth appeared in 1965 when Leon Goldman, MD, applied two pulses of a ruby laser to the tooth of his brother, Bernard, who was a dentist. According to their report (Goldman et al, 1965), the first dental laser patient experienced no pain with only superficial damage to the crown. Ironically, the first laser dentist was a physician and the first dental laser patient was a dentist. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Unfortunately, the results of other early dental research with the ruby laser were not as promising. Most experiments involving the application of this laser to teeth produced unfavorable results, which may be attributed to the destructive interaction of the 6.943-nm wavelength with dental hard tissue.. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • The Carbon Dioxide Laser • From the 1960s to the early 1980s, dental researchers continued to search for other types of lasers that might be more effective for application to hard tissue. In the United States, Stern at UCLA and Lobene at the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston shifted their attention to the carbon dioxide laser. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Because its wavelength of 10.6 µm is well absorbed by enamel, it was thought that the carbon dioxide laser might be suitable for selected surface applications to teeth, such as the sealing of pits and fissures; the welding of ceramic materials to enamel; or the prevention of dental caries (Lobene and Fine, 1966; Lobene et al, 1968; Stern et al, 1972). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • The Neodymium Laser • The first report of dental application of the neodymium laser to vital oral tissue in experimental animals was that of Yamamoto and others from Tohoku University School of Dentistry in Japan (Yamamoto and Ooya, 1974). In a series of experiments, Yamamoto determined that the Nd:YAG laser was an effective tool for inhibiting the formation of incipient caries both in vitro and in vivo (Yamamoto et al, 1974; Yamamoto and Sato, 1980). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • During this same time, Adrian, who was working at the U.S. Army Institute of Dental Research at Walter Reed Medical Center, began to consider the neodymium laser for use on teeth and for laser welding of dental alloys (Adrian, 1977; Adrian and Huget. 1977). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Regulations cover the use of lasers and they are classified from I (safe) to IV (use with care). Type III and IV lasers have the strictest control and must be used in designated areas, where suitable safety precautions to prevent accidental injuries to staff and patients have to be complied with. In general, hard lasers will cut through tissue whereas 'soft' lasers will not. • The main applications for lasers in orthodontics are for laser scanning, holography, soft tissue and hard tissue uses. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Laser Scanning • This is a method of three dimensional image capture which has been described by Arridge et al, (1985) and further developed by Moss et al, (1988). • A low power, Helium-Neon, type II laser is fanned across the subject's face or body and the reflected beam is captured by a video camera. • The information is then analyzed by specially developed software and stored cn a computer. The image can then be viewed on a computer screen and rotated in any direction so that -all the individual features can be viewed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Super imposition of serial scans is now possible and therefore, longitudinal assessment of facial growth or the results of facial surgery can be assessed. Further developments of this technology may allow superimposition of laser scan on a hard tissue CT scan, thus producing a composite model of the patient's soft and hard tissue. • This technology awaits further development, but has many exciting prospects, particularly in the areas of facial growth study and the outcome of facial surgery. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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    • Shortcomings of3D laser scanning • the slowness of the method, making distortion of the scanned image likely; • safety issues related to exposing the eyes to the laser beam, especially in growing children; • inability to capture the soft tissue surface texture, which results in difficulties in identification of landmarks that are dependent on surface color. Even with the new white-light laser approaches that www.indiandentalacademy.com capture surface texture color, the shortcomings persist
    • Holography • Holographs can be used for three dimensional record collection and stress analysis in hard tissues subjected to various loading forces. • Although holograms have been used for three dimensional facial image recording, their main application in terms of record collection is as a substitute for orthodontic study casts (Keating et al.,84). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Harradine et al., (1990) carried out a study to assess the feasibility of this technique. Although study models have the advantage of being both accurate and cheap, they suffer from the disadvantage of being bulky and fragile. • It has been estimated by the Dental Practice Board that 50% of plaster models that are received by post are broken on arrival. They are also bulky and expensive to transport and store. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Study models constitute part of a patient's record and may need to be retained for some time after the completion of orthodontic treatment. • This problem has been highlighted in a joint statement from the Medical Defence Union and Dental Protection ,society (1994), which states: 'as a rule of thumb, it is clear that the minimal possible time that records should be kept would be eleven years, or seven years after the age of majority (twenty-five years) which ever is the longer'. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Holograms are about the same size as radiographs or photographs and are very resistant to damage. A special camera is required which will take white laser light reflection holograms from study casts (Holocam System 70 camera, Holofax Limited, Rotherwas, Hereford). Although holograms do produce a three dimensional image, it is not possible to see all aspects of the occlusion from one single picture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • For each set of study casts, four views as a minimum are needed; an occlusal view and three views in occlusion-left buccal, right buccal and frontal. These must be viewed with a special light box (Holo-fax viewer, Holofax Limited) which allows viewing and measurement of the hologram. • However, there were some problems, principally relating to a lack of familiarity with the hologram and the fact that some views of the teeth were poor, particularly in assessing overbite and actually measuring the overjet. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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    • Soft tissue applications • CO2 lasers have been used in oral techniques for operating on both hard and soft tissue (Shoji et ai., 1985). This laser has the major drawback that due to the wave length of the emitted light (10.6 microns), the guiding system has to consist of a number of jointed arms with mirrors to reflect the beam into a large hand-held type of 'gun' delivery unit. This makes this type of unit extremely unyielding and because this wavelength is largely absorbed by water molecules, it will www.indiandentalacademy.com both hard and soft cut many tissues, and has to be used with caution.
    • • The recently introduced Nd:Y AG (Neodymium: Yttrium Aluminium-Garnet) laser, has a wave-length of 1.06 microns and can be transmitted via a fiberoptic cable to handpieces which resemble conventional dental instruments in size and shape. • Using this laser in a pulsed mode, with each pulse lasting only 30 picoseconds it is possible to cut soft tissues relatively painlessly. This means that soft tissue surgery can be performed without the need for local anaesthetic, which may be useful for removing opercula from partly erupted teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • It is important to realize that this type of laser cannot be used on bone because it will destroy bone cells at a considerable depth, producing necrosis. Therefore, it is not suitable for raising mucoperiosteal flaps, or for performing extensive fraenectomies. However, it can be used for simple exposures of teeth where no flap is raised. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The use of soft, non-cutting lasers has been suggested for various dental applications including the desensitization of hypersensitive dentine, to aid the healing of dry sockets, promote healing and reduce the discomfort associated with aphthous ulcers. However, much of the evidence relating to this is anecdotal and has never been proven by any properly conducted scientific study. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Rossman and Cobb summarized the advantages of lasers in soft tissue surgery: (1) the laser cut is more precise than that of a scalpel, (2) the cut is more visible initially because the laser seals off blood vessels and lymphatics, leaving a clear dry field, (3) the laser sterilizes as it cuts, reducing the risk of blood-borne transmission of disease, (4) minimal postoperative pain and swelling have been reported, (5) less postoperative infection has been reported because the wound is sealed with a biological dressing, www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • (6) less wound contraction occurs during mucosal healing, thus scars do not develop, and (7) less damage occurs to adjacent tissues. These qualities result in a shorter operative time and faster postoperative recuperation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Three types of lasers are available for use in dentistry: the CO2 laser, the erbium laser, and the diode laser. (Sarver & Yanosky 2005) • The CO2 laser can be somewhat difficult to use in practice. It does not contact the tissue during the cutting phase; thus there is no tactile feedback during the surgical incision. It operates with a wavelength that is invisible to the eye, so the fiber optic delivery system has a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser with a wavelength of 632 nm incorporated as an aiming beam. There is slight delay between when the incision is made and when it can be seen. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The erbium laser has a wavelength of 2790 to 2940 nm, which makes it ideal for absorption by both hydroxyapatite and water. It can also be used to cut soft tissue, but it does not control bleeding. • The diode laser has a wavelength of 812 to 980 nm, which is in the same range of the absorption coefficient of melanin. The laser energy is absorbed by pigmentation in the soft tissues, and this makes the diode laser an excellent hemostatic agent. Because it is used in contact mode, it also provides tactile feedback during the surgical procedure. The diode laser can often be used without anesthesia to perform very precise anterior soft tissue esthetic surgery or surgery in other areas of the mouth without bleeding or discomfort. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Diode laser. A, Small size lends itself to placement on mobile cart; B, instrument is pencil-sized, making it convenient for intraoral use. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Soft tissue reacts differently to a diode laser than to a scalpel. The laser can deliver energy in either a continuous or a pulsed mode. In the continuous mode, the tissues tend to absorb more energy, resulting in greater heat. The pulsed mode permits intermittent cooling between pulses of energy. Because the amount of heat generated during the procedure translates directly into the amount of collateral damage—and thus postoperative discomfort—it is generally recommended that the laser be used at a lower setting and in the pulse mode for soft tissue procedures. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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    • Hard tissue applications • Current interest in the use of lasers in clinical dentistry has suggested that this technology may be applicable to the pretreatment of enamel for the bonding of orthodontic adhesives, in a similar fashion to acid etching. White et at., (1991) in an ex vivo study found that Nd:Y AG pretreatment of enamel improved composite bond strength to metal orthodontic brackets. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Roberts-Harry, (1992) compared acid etching and laser pre-treatment of enamel prior to the clinical placement of orthodontic brackets. The laser used in this study was considerably slower, produced slightly more discomfort and was substantially less reliable than acid-etching. The laser was in fact, twenty times slower than conventional acid-etching and gave a bracket failure rate of 20.3% compared to nil bracket failures with acid etching. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Appliance and Adhesive OrtholuxTM XT Curing Light (3M Unitek) Metal Brackets (APCTM Adhesive or TransbondTM XT Adhesive) 10 seconds mesial + 4 seconds mesial + 10 seconds distal 4 seconds distal 2 seconds mesial + 2 seconds distal Ceramic Brackets (APCTM Adhesive or TransbondTM XT Adhesive) 10 seconds through the bracket 2 seconds through the bracket AccuCure 250 mW (LaserMed) 4 seconds through the bracket Apollo 95E (DMD) Molar Bonds (APCTM Adhesive or 20 seconds mesial + 10 seconds mesial + 4 seconds mesial + TransbondTM XT 20 seconds occlusal 10 seconds occlusal 4 seconds occlusal Adhesive) Molar Bands (TransbondTM Plus Light Cure Band Adhesive) 30 seconds 15 seconds 6 seconds Molar Bands (UnitekTM Muti Cure G.I. Band Cement) 40 seconds 20 seconds 8 seconds www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • A Obata et al (1999) used super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding. • Both super pulse & normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength than that of chemical etching. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Debonding ceramic brackets using lasers • The removal of ceramic orthodontic brackets can present problems, including bracket wing failure, enamel fracture, & toothache. • The mechanism of conventional laser debonding is based on the thermal softening of adhesive resin. This occurs by heating the brackets with laser irradiation to decrease the bond strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • This debonding mechanism however posses several problems :1. Different adhesive resins require different softening temperatures. Rueggeberg & Lockwood reported that the temperature to soften adhesive resins & thus weaken their bonding strengths depend on the type of adhesive & ranges from 44º C to 228º C. Because of the potential thermal pulpal damage during laser application, the method & duration of laser pulse must be precisely controlled & appropriate to the adhesive resin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • 2. The temperature of the heated brackets is another concern. The surface temperature of a bracket heated to sufficiently soften the adhesive resin is reported to reach 150º C, which is extremely high for oral cavity. Therefore, bracket removal requires careful attention & expertise on practitioner part. 3. For safety reasons, continuous force is applied to debond the brackets. Laser debonding requires that the bracket be removed immediately after the adhesive resin has softened to prevent the laser from damaging the pulpal tissue. During laser application the technician may apply continuous force to debond the bracket, contributing to patients discomfort. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Kotaro Hayakawa (2005) did a study to develop an effective method for debonding ceramic brackets with a high- peak power Nd: YAG laser. Result showed that application of a high peak power Nd: YAG at 2.0 J or more is effective for debonding ceramic brackets. Maximum temperature rise measured on the pulpal walls at the lasing points was 5.1º C. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Porcelain surface treatment by laser for bracket porcelain bonding • The demand for adult orthodontic treatment has been gradually increasing. Because many adult patients have porcelain crowns & bridges, orthodontist are faced with the problem of bonding brackets onto porcelain surfaces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Optimal bracket adhesion to a porcelain surface requires that orthodontic forces be applied without bond failure during treatment & that the porcelain integrity not be jeopardized during the debonding procedure. • Porcelain is not appropriate for orthodontic bonding because of the physical properties of glazed surfaces & the chemical properties of bonding resins. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Various techniques have been suggested for surface treatment of porcelain before bonding attachments including deglazing the porcelain by roughening the surface with a diamond bur or microetching with aluminum oxide particles & then bonding the brackets with or without a coupling agent, & chemical preparation of the previously deglazed porcelain surface by etching with orthophosphoric or hydrofluoric acid & then bonding brackets with or without a coupling agent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • However previous studies have indicated that sand blasting & acid- etching with OFA produces insufficient bond strength for clinical requirements. • Bond strength with hydrofluoric acid etching has been shown to be clinically acceptable but the danger of acid burns must be considered. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Studies on the use of silane coupling agent have presented evidence of increased bond strength of brackets to porcelain but have also shown the risk of cohesive failure during debonding. • Tolga Akova et al (2005) did a study to investigate the effect of laser irradiation on the adhesion of brackets bonded to feldspathic porcelain & compare it with brackets bonded with conventional techniques. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. They compared 10 different groups:Sand blasted (SB) Sand blasted with silane (SB + S) Ortho phosphoric acid (OFA) Ortho phosphoric acid with silane (OFA + S) Hydro fluoric acid (HFA) Hydro fluoric acid with silane (HFA + S) Laser etched (L) Laser etched with silane (L+S) Glazed (Control 1/ C1) & Deglazed (Control 2/ C2) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • HFA + S(15.07 ±1.44) SB+S(13.81 superpulse CO laser ± 2.0) They concluded that 2watt/ 20 secs HFA(10.78 ± 0.2) 2 irradiation might be an alternative conditioning method for pretreating ceramic surfaces. Increased bond strength can be achieved by silanation after CO2 laser irradiation. OFA + S(10.73 ± 1.12) L + S(8.25 ± 0.90) L(6.27 ± 0.58) C2(2.45 ± 0.54) OFA(2.37 ± 0.41) SB(2.04 ± 0.41) www.indiandentalacademy.com C1(1.54 ± 0.33)
    • Effect of laser irradiation on Enamel Decalcification • Many previous studies using several types of laser apparatus including 1. Ruby laser (Sognnaes & Stern 1965; Stern et al 1966), 2. CO2 laser (Stern et al 1972; Nelson et al 1986, 1987), 3. Nd - YAG laser (Yamamoto & Ooya 1974; Moroika et al 1982, 1984), 4. Krypton laser (Moroika et al 1982), & 5. Argon laser (Goodman & Kaufman 1977; Oho & Morioka 1987) all reported increased acid resistance in lased enamel.www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • AccuCure 3000 argon laser. B. Fiberoptic curing wand. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • However the mechanism of acid resistance has not been clarified. Using quantitative microradiography, argon laser irradiation of enamel reduces the amount of demineralization by 30 to 50%. • Fox et al, found that, in addition to decreasing enamel demineralization & loss of tooth structure, laser treatment can reduce threshold pH at which dissolution occurs by about a factor of 5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Westerman et al showed that Argon laser treatment at low fluences could considerably alter the surface morphology while maintaining an intact enamel surface. • A number of studies have also shown that combining laser irradiation with fluoride treatment can have a synergistic effect on acid resistance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Mechanism of action The most likely mechanism for demineralization resistance is through creation of microspores within lased enamel. During demineralization, acid solution penetrate into the enamel & result in release of calcium, phosphorus & fluoride ions. In sound enamel, these ions diffuse into acid solution & are released into the oral environment. With lased enamel, the microspaces created by laser irradiation, trap the released ions & act as sites for mineral reprecipitation within the enamel structure. Thus lased enamel has increased affinity for calcium, phosphates & fluorides. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Powell & Hicks, Lloyd Noel (2003), Anderson et al (2002) have all shown a decrease in enamel demineralization in orthodontic patients when treated with lasers. • However J Elaut & H Wehrbein (2004) did not find any difference between laser group & control group. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Effect of low level laser therapy in reducing orthodontic post adjustment pain • Low level laser has been shown by many investigators to provide analgesic effects in various therapeutic & clinical applications. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is the new internationally accepted designation & is defined as laser treatment in which energy output is low enough so as not to cause a rise in the temperature of the treated tissue above 36.5º C or normal body temperature. • Because of its low energy output & intensity, its effects are mainly non thermal & biostimulatory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • The mechanisms of laser analgesia have not been established, but it has been attributed to its antiinflammatory & neuronal effects. • It has been proposed by Harris that LLLT has a benign stimulatory influence on depressed neuronal & lymphocyte respiration. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Other neuronal effects include sterilization of membrane potential & release of neurotransmitters. • The transmission of laser through tissue is highly wavelength specific & is most optimal in the optical window of 500 - 1200 nm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Hong - Meng Kim et al (1995) did a study to test the efficacy of LLLT in controlling orthodontic post adjustment pain. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to quantify the pain experienced by the subjects before & after laser application for each day. • Analysis of VAS median scores showed that teeth exposed to laser treatment had lower levels of pain as compared with those in placebo group. However nonparametric statistical analysis of the data showed that the difference between treatments & placebo within each subject were not statistically significant. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Effects of Low power laser irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture • Rapid palatal expansion (RME) is the preferred treatment approach to correct a constricted maxillary dental arch. It is known, however, that a long period of retention is necessary to prevent early relapse of the expanded arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Although the reason for the early relapse is not fully clear, bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture after expansion may affect the post treatment relapse. • It would be potentially beneficial therefore to accelerate bone formation in the midpalatal suture after expansion to prevent relapse of arch width & to abbreviate the retention period. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Shiro Shito & Noriyoshi Shimizu (1997) did a study to investigate the effects of low power laser irradiation on bone regeneration during expansion of midpalatal suture in rats. • The bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture estimated by histomorphometric method in the 7 day irradiated group showed significant acceleration at 1.2 to 1.4 fold compared with the non irradiated rats, & this increased rate was irradiated dose dependent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Irradiation during the early period of expansion was most effective, whereas neither the later period nor the one time irradiation had any effect on bone regeneration. • These findings suggest that low power laser irradiation can accelerate bone regeneration in a midpalatal suture during expansion & that this effect is dependent not only on the total laser irradiation dosage but also on the timing & frequency of irradiation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Laser welders • The EBWS-30 is a next generation, fully automated, Nd:YAG laser welding system. This new product line has been designed to provide precision micro welding capability in a production environment. While developed specifically for joining orthodontic brackets to their pads, this turnkey system may be configured for a wide range of applications including the assembly of medical devices, sensors and the photonic components used www.indiandentalacademy.com in telecommunication.
    • Conclusion In 1998, a laser-related trade journal printed an article on laser dermatology indicating that because of new applications, reduced prices, and instruments becoming more user-friendly, the dermatology laser market was becoming a billion dollar industry. If the same holds true in dentistry keeping in mind that there are only approximately 7000 dermatologists in the United States think of the potential for the dental laser market. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • It is huge, but to reach that potential, several criteria must be met: – Market penetration must double in the next 4 to 5 years. – Instrument sizes must diminish. – Laser prices must decrease to an average of $10,000 for soft tissue lasers and $25,000 for hard tissue lasers over the next 10 years. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • • Meeting these criteria would generate the necessary revenues for increased expenditures for research and development to improve existing delivery systems and develop new fiber types, continue development of a short-pulsed hard tissue laser to replace air turbines, and combine wavelengths into a single package, while looking into new wavelengths. If all of the abovementioned become a reality in 10 to 15 years, the growth of the dental laser market could be limitless because of the hugeness of the worldwide dental marketplace. The last 20 years have witnessed many new developments in dental technologies, and the next 20 years promise to be even richer in technologic advancements. Lasers will be in the forefront of that growth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • References • BJO; 1994, Aug, 21: 308- 312 • JCO 2004; May: 266- 273 • Journal of orthodontics & craniofacial research 2006; 9: 38 - 43 • Angle orthodontist; 70, 1:28 - 33 • Angle orthodontist; 73,3: 249 - 258 • EJO, 1999, 21: 193 -198 • EJO, 2004,26: 553- 560 www.indiandentalacademy.com • BDJ, 2004,196: 413- 418
    • • Journal of orthodontics & craniofacial research 2001, 4: 3- 10 • AJODO 2002, 122, 2: 342- 348 • AJODO 2005, 128, 5: 638- 647 • AJODO 2002, 122: 251- 259 • Journal of orofacial orthopedics 2001, 5: 375- 386 • AO, 75, 2: 214 • AO, 75, 5: 791 • Journal of orthodontics & craniofacial research 2006, 9: 38- 43 • AJODO 1997, 111: 525- 532 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    • Thank you Thank You www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com