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Intelligent archwire 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Intelligent archwire 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit ,or call

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  • 1.
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  • 3. Introduction Orthodontic therapy is a force management procedure, largely based on the use of wires. Wires are a mainstay in storing and distributing the therapeutic force to the teeth thus bringing them to the ideal function and esthetic position.
  • 4. •Ideally, archwires are designed to move teeth with light continuous forces. •It is important that the forces do not decrease rapidly. •Light forces reduce patient discomfort, tissue hyalinization and undermining resorption.
  • 5. LOOPED VS NiTi • Tissue injury • Unhygienic environment • Fabrication complexity • Time consuming
  • 6. Evolution of NI-TI alloys Buehler’s preliminary results led to the development of the first Ni-Ti orthodontic alloy by pioneers such as ANDREASEN and his colleagues. The engineering of nickel- titanium alloys has made remarkable progress since the original work of BUEHLER for the Naval Ordinance Laboratory in the early 1960’s.
  • 7. • Chinese Ni-Ti – the General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals –(1978) • Japanese Ni-Ti – the Furukawa Electric Company Ltd – Japan (1978) • Copper Ni-Ti – Rohit Sachdeva (1995) These advanced alloys have different transition temperatures and present a phase transformation. Further research led to the advent of Superelastic and Thermodynamic Ni-Ti alloys.
  • 8. Wire characteristics and clinical relevance. • Large spring back • Low stiffness • High Formability • High Stored Energy • Biocompatibility • Environmental Stability
  • 9. Atomic structure of Ni-Ti The crystallographic,tri-dimensional lattice of the Ni-Ti alloy is present in 2 phases: Martensite phase:the lattice is body-centered (cubic or tetragonal) Austenitic phase: the lattice is face - centered (hexagonal close packed) An intermediate rhombohedral ‘R’phase with a simple hexagonal lattice has also been
  • 10. • Ni-Ti alloys has a specific temperature range in which the phase transition takes place from the austenite to the martensitic phase(reversible change) and this TTR contributes to the shape memory effect of Ni-Ti alloys.
  • 11. SHAPE MEMORY is a phenomenon whereby the alloy is soft and readily formable at a low temp.,but can easily be returned to its original configuration when heated to a suitable TTR.
  • 12. …An interesting feature of shape memory • Through deflection and repeated temp. cycles, the wire in the austenitic phase is able to “memorize”a preformed shape. • By lowering the temp.,the alloy is transformed into martensite and becomes pliable and easily deformed. • However, every time the temp. rises above austenitic phase,the wire will remember and recover the ideal
  • 13. Superelasticity Superelasticity is a phenomenon wherein the stress remained nearly constant despite the strain change within a specific range. • This allows a constant force to be delivered over an extended portion of the deactivation range,and is therefore more likely to generate physiologic tooth movement and greater patient comfort.
  • 14. Pseudoelasticity –stress-related behavior of Ni-Ti • The deflection in an austenitic archwire at oral temp. generates a local martensitic transformation and produce stress induced martensite-SIM. • SIM is unstable and undergoes reverse transformation as soon as stress is removed. • In clinical application SIM forms where the wire is tied to brackets on misaligned teeth so that the wire becomes pliable ,with seemingly permanent deformation.
  • 15. Cu Ni-Ti…Advancing towards ideal archwire • Cu Ni-Ti alloy wire represents a major advancement in shape memory wires by reducing hysteresis and by providing precise transformation temperature at four different
  • 16. Role of Copper :- • Cu enhances the thermal reactive properties of Ni-Ti alloys thus providing equal loading (engaging) and unloading (tooth driving) forces. • Cu gives precise control of the transformation temperature. • Cu produces lubricants to the system and decreases
  • 17. Configuration of available Superelastic Ni-Ti and Heat-activated Ni-Ti Round Ni-Ti Rectangular & Square Ni-Ti
  • 18. After Before
  • 19. After Before
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22. Recycling of Ni-Ti Recycling involves • Repeated exposure of the wire for several weeks or months to mechanical stresses and elements of the oral environment • Sterilization between uses
  • 23. • Heat sterilization is the most reliable method - (Steam autoclaving at 1210 C,15-20psi for 20 min) • Chemical sterilization are corrosive &attack metals immersed in them (2% acidic Glutaraldehyde)
  • 24. Advantages of Ni-Ti Fewer archwire changes Less chair side time Reduction in time required to accomplish rotations and leveling Less patient discomfort
  • 25. Limitations to use of Ni-Ti Poor formability Fractures readily when bent over sharp edge and effects springback property Bending loops and stops in Ni-Ti is therefore not recommended.(cinch- backs can be obtained by flame – annealing the end of wire)
  • 26. …and to conclude In contemporary practice no one archwire material meets all ideal requirements and the best results are obtained by using specific archwire material for specific
  • 27. Thank you For more details please visit