Infection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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Infection /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Infection INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Overview • Types of Microorganisms • Principles of Infection – – – – Transmission Host resistance Virulence and pathogenicity Control of transmission and infection • Development of Infection – Onset and course – Clinical signs and symptoms – Diagnostic tests • Antimicrobial Drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Microbiology • Study of microorganisms – Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi • Many are prokaryotes – Simple in structure – Complex cell wall • Many are pathogenic • Vary widely in growth needs – Specific req are basis for lab tests • Grown in petri dish in specific culture medium – Culture contains nutrients for specific microbial group » Need for oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, temp varies www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  5. 5. Classification of Bacteria • Bacilli – Clostridium tetani • Spirals – Treponema pallidum • Cocci – Diplocci – Streptococci – Staphylococci • Staphylococcus aureus www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  7. 7. Bacterial Structure • Rigid cell wall – 2 types • Gram negative • Gram positive • Cell membrane – Semipermeable – Metabolic processes occur here • External capsule/slime layer – On some; extra protection, interferes w/ phagocytosis • Flagellae www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. Bacterial Structure • Pili or fiimbriae – Usually gram neg; attach bacterium to tissue – Transfer DNA to another bacterium = mutation • Cytoplasm – Chromosome (long strand of DNA) – Ribosome (RNA) – Plasmids (DNA fragments) • Imp for drug resistance www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  10. 10. Bacterial Structure • Some secrete toxic substances, toxins, enzymes – Toxins • Exotoxins: gram pos; diffuse thru body fluids – Often interfere w/ nerve conduction – Stimulate antibody/antitoxin production • Endotoxins: gram neg; released after organism dies – Causes fever, weakness, circ problems » Increase cap perm, loss vasc fluid, endotoxic shock – Enzymes • Damage host cells/tissues • Ex: Hemolysin destroys RBC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Hemolysin and RBC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Bacterial Structure • Some form spores – Latent form resistant to heat – Survive long time as spore; cannot reproduce in this state – Resume normal state when conditions favorable – Ex: tetanus, botulism www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Tetanus, Botulism Spores www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Bacteria: Reproduction • Duplicate thru binary fission • Generation time: minutes – hours • Limiting factors to growth: – Nutrients, oxygen, effects of increased metabolic wastes, changes in pH and temp www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Viruses • Very small intracellular parasite • Obligate • Called virion when outside of cell • Consists of: – Protein coat (capsid) – Core • RNA or DNA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Viruses: Replication • Attach to host cell and inserts genetic material • Viral DNA or RNA takes over cell – Uses host cell to replicate new viral components • New viruses assembled, leave host cell • Host cell damaged to killed in process • Viruses then attack more healthy cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  18. 18. Viruses • Tend to mutate – Difficult to acquire immunity, develop antibodies and vaccines • Some alter host chromosomes – Leads to malignant cells and cancer • Viruses difficult to control – Unique structure – Hide in host cells – Drugs cannot attack b/c lack own metabolic processes and structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Chlamydiae, Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas • Similar to bacteria and viruses • Divide by binary fission – Require living cells for reprod • Chlamydiae – Very primitive; lack many metabolic processes – Common STD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Chlamydiae Reproduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Rickettsiae • • • • • Gram neg Live inside host cell Transmitted by insects (ticks, lice) Attack bv walls (rash, sm hemorrhages) Typhus fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Mycoplasma • Smallest cellular microbe • Lack walls – Not affected by antimicrobial drugs • Common cause of pneumonia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Fungi • Found everywhere • Infection results from 1-celled yeasts or multicellular molds • Eukaryotes • Growth promoted by warmth and moisture • Some beneficial – Produce yogurt, beer – Source of antibiotic drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Pathogenic Fungi • • • • Tinea pedis Candida Histoplasma Ringworm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. Protozoa • Eukaryotes • Unicellular, mobile, lack cell wall, irreg shapes • Some can live indep (dead or organic matter); others are parasites www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Protozoa • Trichomonas vaginalis – Flagella, sexually transmitted, attach to mucous membrane and cause inflammation • Plasmodium vivax – Malaria; nonmotile; found in RBC and undergo stages of life cycle • Amoebas – Entamoeba histolytica • Parasite in lg intestines; cause amebic dysentery; resist phagocytosis • Infection spread thru oral-fecal route www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  28. 28. Other Parasites: Helminths • NOT microorganisms; but are parasitic worms • Multicellular, eukaryotic, vary in size • 3 stage life cycle – Ovum – Larva – Adult • Found in intestines, blood • Diagnosis by observation of ova in stool specimen • Common in NA: – Pinworms, hookworms, whipworms, round worms www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Ascaris (Round worm) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Principles of Infection: Transmission • Chain of events • Reservoir: Source of infection – Person with obvious infection – Carrier – Animal – Contaminated food, water, soil, equipment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. CHAIN OF INFECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Modes of Transmission • Direct contact • Indirect contact • Droplet transmission • Hands • Vector-borne • Nosocomial www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  34. 34. Host Resistance • What factors would decrease host resistance? • Prophylactic antimicrobial medication – Required for indiv w/ low resistance prior to exposure to microbes • Interferon – Proteins produced by human host cells • In response to viral invasion of cell – “Save yourselves”!!! www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Virulence and Pathogenicity • Pathogenicity: capacity of microbes to cause disease • Virulence: degree of pathogenicity of specific microbe – Based on: • • • • Invasive qualities Toxic qualities Presence of pili or fimbrae for adhesion Ability to avoid host defenses (mutate) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Drug Resistant Microbes • Staphylococcus aureus • Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Myobacterium tuberculosis • Streptococcus pneumoniae • Haemophilus influenzae www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Steps to Minimize Risk of Infection 1. Locate, remove reservoir host 2. Block portal exit of microbes from reservoir 3. Know mode(s) of transmission of specific infections 4. Block portals of entry 5. Cleaning 6. Sterilization 7. Disinfectants 8. Antiseptics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. CHAIN OF INFECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. The interaction between the 6 elements of the chain determine whether an infection will result. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  41. 41. Development of Infection: Onset and Course • Incubation period – Organism present; no clinical signs, symptoms • Prodomal period – Symptoms; don’t feel like yourself • Acute period – Fully developed infection www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  43. 43. Development of Infection: Clinical Signs and Symptoms • Local signs – Inflammation – Purulent exudate if bacterial infection; serous exudate if viral – Tissue necrosis – Lymphadenopathy – Respiratory effects • Systemic signs – Fever, fatigue, headache, nausea www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Development of Infection: Diagnostic Tests • Cultures and stains – bacteria • Blood tests – Bacteria • Leukocytosis – Virus • Leukopenia – Increase in neutrophils w/ acute; increase in lymphocytes and monocytes w/ chronic • Radiologic exams www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Guidelines for Antimicrobial Drug Usage • • • • • • Regular intervals Until prescribed meds used Follow directions Choose best drug Patient allergies Antibiotics = BACTERIA, NOT VIRUSES! www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Classification of Antimicrobial Drugs • • • • • Antibiotics Antimicrobials Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic Broad vs. Narrow Spectrum 1st and 2nd Generation Drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Mode of Action • Antibacterial drugs • Antiviral drugs • Antifungal drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Mode of Action: Antibacterial Drugs • Operate in 1 of 4 ways: • Interferes with bacterial wall synthesis – Ex: Penicillin • Increase permeability of bacterial cell membrane – Ex: Polymyxin • Interferes w/ protein synthesis and reproduction – Ex: Tetracyclin • Interferes w/ synthesis of essential metabolites – Ex: Sulfonamides www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Mode of Action: Antiviral Drugs • Decrease reproduction of virus inside host cell – Does not destroy virus • Meant to control not cure • May interfere with: – – – – Viral attachment to host cell Shedding of protein coat Protein synthesis Viral replication • Significant adverse effects www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  51. 51. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Clinical Periodontology 9th Ed, by –Newman, Takei and Carranza • Oral microbiology 4th edition by Philip marsh and Michael v.martin. • Text book of microbiology for dental students by Pro C.P Baveja • essential microbiology for dentistry by L.P Samaranayake. • Jawetz,Melnick and adelberg’s medical microbiology by Brooks,butel and morse • lippincott’s illustrated reviews : microbiology by William,harriet and bruce. • Textbook of diagnostic microbiology by Coonie R.Mabon and george manuselis • Textbook of microbiology 6th edition by ananthanarayan and CKJ Paniker. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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