Impression materials /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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  • 1. Impression Materials www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. Plaster Non-elastic Compound Waxes Impression Materials ZnO - Eugenol Agar (reversible) Aqueous Hydrocolloids Alginate (irreversible) Elastic Polysulfide Non-aqueous Elastomers Condensation Silicones Polyether Addition www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 4. Aqueous Hydrocolloids Elastic Agar (reversible) Alginate (irreversible) Polysulfide Non-aqueous Elastomers Condensation Silicones Polyether Addition www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 5. Impression Materials • Non-elastic • Elastic – Aqueous hydrocolloids • Agar • Alginate – Non-aqueous elastomers • Polysulfide • Silicones – Condensation – Addition • Polyether www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. Indications • Diagnostic casts – preliminary – opposing • Indirect reconstruction – fixed – removable • Bite registration www.indiandentalacademy.com Giordano Gen Dent 2000
  • 7. Elastomeric Impression Materials • Viscoelastic – physical properties vary • rate of loading • Rapidly remove – decreases permanent deformation • chains recoil from a recoverable distance – increases tear strength www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 8. Aqueous Hydrocolloids • Colloidal suspensions – chains align to form fibrils – traps water in interstices • Two forms – sol • viscous liquid – gel • elastic solid • Placed intra-orally as sol – converts to gel • thermal or chemical process www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 9. Aqueous Hydrocolloids • Semi-permeable membranes – poor dimensional stability • Evaporation • Syneresis – fibril cross linking continues • contracts with time • exudes water • Imbibition – water absorption • swells www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 10. Reversible Hydrocolloid (Agar) • Indications – crown and bridge • high accuracy • Example – Slate Hydrocolloid (Van R) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Composition • Agar • Potassium sulfate – complex polysaccharide – improves gypsum surface • seaweed • Water (85%) – gelling agent • Borax – strength cool to 43 C agar hydrocolloid (hot) (sol) agar hydrocolloid (cold) heat to 100 C (gel) www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 12. Manipulation • Gel in tubes – syringe and tray material www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. Manipulation • 3 chamber conditioning unit – (1) liquefy at 100°C for 10 minutes • converts gel to sol – (2) store at 65°C – place in tray – (3) temper at 46°C for 3 minutes – seat tray – cool with water at 13°C for 3 minutes • converts sol to gel www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 14. Advantages • Dimensionally accurate • Hydrophilic – displace moisture, blood, fluids • Inexpensive – after initial equipment • No custom tray or adhesives • Pleasant • No mixing required www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 15. Disadvantages • Initial expense – special equipment • Material prepared in advanced • Tears easily • Dimensionally unstable – immediate pour – single cast • Difficult to disinfect www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 16. Irreversible Hydrocolloid (Alginate) • Most widely used impression material • Indications – study models – removable fixed partial dentures • framework • Examples – Jeltrate (Dentsply/Caulk) – Coe Alginate (GC America) www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 17. Composition • Sodium phosphate • Sodium alginate – retarder – salt of alginic acid • Filler • Potassium fluoride • mucous extraction of seaweed (algae) • Calcium sulfate – improves gypsum surface – reactor 2 Na3PO4 + 3 CaSO4 Na alginate + CaSO4 (powder) Ca3(PO4)2 + 3 Na2SO4 H2 O Ca alginate + Na2SO4 www.indiandentalacademy.com (gel) O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 18. Manipulation • Weigh powder • Powder added to water – rubber bowl – vacuum mixer • Mixed for 45 sec to 1 min • Place tray • Remove 2 to 3 minutes – after gelation (loss of tackiness) www.indiandentalacademy.com Caswell JADA 1986
  • 19. Advantages • Inexpensive • Easy to use • Hydrophilic – displace moisture, blood, fluids • Stock trays www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 20. Disadvantages • Tears easily • Dimensionally unstable – immediate pour – single cast • Lower detail reproduction – unacceptable for fixed pros • High permanent deformation • Difficult to disinfect www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 21. Non-Aqueous Elastomers • Synthetic rubbers – mimic natural rubber • scarce during World War II • Large polymers – some chain lengthening – primarily cross-linking • Viscosity classes – low, medium, high, putty – monophasic www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 22. Aqueous Hydrocolloids Elastic Agar (reversible) Alginate (irreversible) Polysulfide Non-aqueous Elastomers Condensation Silicones Polyether Addition www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 23. Polysulfide • First dental elastomers • Indications – complete denture – removable fixed partial denture • tissue – crown and bridge • Examples – Permlastic (Kerr) – Omni-Flex (GC America) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Composition • Base – polysulfide polymers – fillers – plasticizers • Catalyst – lead dioxide (or copper) – fillers • By-product – water www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 25. Polysulfide Reaction --SH HS---------------------SH = Pb S H O S + 3PbO + H O 2 S = = Pb -S-S---------------S-S- O = O HS-- O = Pb = O O H S mercaptan + lead dioxide polysulfide rubber + lead oxide + water www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 26. Manipulation • Adhesive to tray • Uniform layer – custom tray • Equal lengths of pastes • Mix thoroughly – within one minute • Setting time 8 – 12 minutes • Pour within 1 hour www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. Advantages • Lower cost – compared to silicones and polyethers • • • • Long working time High tear strength High flexibility Good detail reproduction www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 28. Disadvantages • Poor dimensional stability – water by-product – pour within one hour – single pour • Custom trays • Messy – paste-paste mix – bad odor – may stain clothing • Long setting time www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 29. Condensation Silicone • Indications – complete dentures – crown and bridge • Examples – Speedex (Coltene/Whaledent) – Primasil (TISS Dental) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. Composition • Base – poly(dimethylsiloxane) – tetraethylorthosilicate – filler • Catalyst – metal organic ester • By-product – ethyl alcohol www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s 1996 Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 31. CH3 Condensation Silicone Reaction CH3 HO – Si – O – Si - O - H CH3 CH3 C2H5O OC2H5 n Si CH3 CH3 HO – Si – O – Si - O - H CH3 CH3 C2H5O OC2H5 n metal organic ester CH3 CH3 HO – Si – O – Si - O CH3 CH3 OC2H5 n + 2C2H5OH Si CH3 CH3 HO – Si – O – Si - O CH3 ethanol CH3 OC2H5 www.indiandentalacademy.com n Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 32. Manipulation • Mix thoroughly – paste - paste – paste - liquid • Putty-wash technique – reduces effect of polymerization shrinkage – stock tray • putty placed • thin plastic sheet spacer • preliminary impression – intraoral custom tray • inject wash material www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. Advantages • Better elastic properties • Clean, pleasant • Stock tray – putty-wash • Good working and setting time www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 34. Disadvantages • Poor dimensional stability – high shrinkage • polymerization • evaporation of ethanol – pour immediately • within 30 minutes • Hydrophobic – poor wettability www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 35. Addition Silicones • AKA: Vinyl polysiloxane • Indications – crown and bridge – denture – bite registration • Examples – – – – – Extrude (Kerr) Express (3M/ESPE) Aquasil (Dentsply Caulk) Genie (Sultan Chemists) Virtual (Ivoclar Vivadent) www.indiandentalacademy.com Click here for DIS evaluations of VPS impression materials
  • 36. Composition • Improvement over condensation silicones – no by-product • First paste – vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) prepolymer • Second paste – siloxane prepolymer • Catalyst – chloroplatinic acid www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s 1996 Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 37. CH3 ---O – Si – CH = CH2 Addition Silicone Reaction CH3 O H - Si – CH3 CH3 O CH3 CH = CH2 – Si – O --- CH3 - Si - H CH3 O O Chloroplatinic Acid Catalyst ---O – Si – CH2 - CH2 - Si – CH3 CH3 O CH3 CH3 - Si - CH2 - CH2 – Si – O --O CH3 www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 38. Manipulation • Adhesive to tray • Double mix – custom tray • heavy-body – light-body to prep • Putty-wash – stock tray www.indiandentalacademy.com Craig Adv Dent Res 1988
  • 39. Advantages • Highly accurate • High dimensional stability – pour up to one week • • • • Stock or custom trays Multiple casts Easy to mix Pleasant odor www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 40. Disadvantages • Expensive • Sulfur inhibits set – latex gloves – ferric and Al sulfate retraction solution • Pumice teeth before impressing • Short working time • Lower tear strength • Possible hydrogen gas release – bubbles on die – palladium added to absorb www.indiandentalacademy.com Manikos Aust Dent J 1998
  • 41. Addition Silicones • Surfactants added – reduce contact angle – improved • castability – gypsum • wettability?? – still need dry field clinically www.indiandentalacademy.com Pratten J Dent Res 1987 Mandikos Aust Dent J 1998
  • 42. Polyether • Indications – crown and bridge – bite registration • Examples – – – – – Impregum F (3M/ESPE) Permadyne (3M/ESPE) Pentamix (3M/ESPE) P2 (Heraeus Kulzer) Polygel (Dentsply Caulk) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. Composition • Base – difunctional epimine-terminated prepolymer – fillers – plasticizers • Catalyst – aromatic sulfonic acid ester – fillers • Cationic polymerization – ring opening and chain extension www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 44. Polyether Reaction R R base CH3 – CH – CH2 – CO2 – CH – (CH2)n – O – CH – (CH2)n – CO2 –CH2 – CH –CH3 m N N H2C CH2 H2C + R+ CH2 catalyst SO3- R– N+ H2C N + CH2 H2C R – N – CH2 – CH2 – N + CH2 ring opening www.indiandentalacademy.com H2C CH2 Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 45. Manipulation • Adhesive to tray – stock or custom tray • very stiff • Paste-paste mix • Auto-mixing – hand-held • low viscosity – mechanical dispenser • high viscosity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. Advantages • • • • • Highly accurate Good dimensional stability Stock or dual-arch trays Good surface detail Pour within one week – kept dry • Multiple casts • Good wettability www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 47. Disadvantages • Expensive • Short working time • Rigid – difficult to remove from undercuts • Bitter taste • Low tear strength • Absorbs water – changes dimension www.indiandentalacademy.com Phillip’s Science of Dental Materials 1996
  • 48. Handling Properties Agar Alginate Polysulfide Condensation Silicone Addition Silicone Polyether Preparation Boil, temper, store Powder, water 2 pastes 2 pastes or paste/liquid 2 pastes 2 pastes Ease of Use Technique sensitive Good Fair Fair Excellent Good Patient Reaction Thermal Shock Pleasant, clean Unpleasant, stains Pleasant, clean Pleasant Unpleasant clean Ease of removal Very easy Very easy Easy Moderate Moderate Moderate to difficult Disinfection Poor Poor Fair Fair Excellent Fair www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 49. Handling Properties Condensation Addition Silicone Silicone Agar Alginate Polysulfide Polyether Working Time (min) 7 – 15 2.5 5–7 3 2 –4.5 2.5 Setting Time (min) 5 3.5 8 – 12 6–8 3–7 4.5 Stability 1 hour 100% RH Immediate pour 1 hour Immediate pour 1 week 1 week kept dry Wettability and castability Excellent Excellent Fair Fair Fair to good Good Cost Low Very low Low Moderate High to very high Very high www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 50. Properties Agar Alginate Polysulfide Condensation Silicone Addition Silicone Polyether Elastic Recovery (%) 98.8 97.3 94.5 – 96.9 98.2 – 99.6 99 – 99.9 98.3 – 99.0 Flexibility (%) 11 12 8.5 – 20.0 3.5 – 7.8 1.3 – 5.6 1.9 – 3.3 Flow (%) -- -- 0.4 – 1.9 < 0.10 < 0.05 < 0.05 Shrinkage, 24 hours (%) Extreme Extreme 0.4 – 0.5 0.2 – 1.0 0.01 – 0.2 0.2 – 0.3 Tear Strength (g/cm) 700 380 – 700 2240 – 7410 2280 – 4370 1640 – 5260 1700 4800 www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 51. Comparison of Properties • Working time – longest to shortest • agar > polysulfide > silicones > alginate = polyether • Setting time – shortest to longest • alginate < polyether < agar < silicones < polysulfide www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 52. Comparison of Properties • Stiffness – most to least • polyether > addition silicone > condensation silicone > polysulfide = hydrocolloids • Tear strength – greatest to least • polysulfide > addition silicone > polyether > condensation silicone >> hydrocolloids www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 53. Comparison of Properties • Cost – lowest to highest • alginate < agar = polysulfide <condensation silicone < addition silicone < polyether • Dimensional stability – best to worst • addition silicone > polyether > polysulfide > condensation silicone > hydrocolloid Phillip’s 1996 www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 54. Comparison of Properties • Wettability – best to worst • hydrocolloids > polyether > hydrophilic addition silicone > polysulfide > hydrophobic addition silicone = condensation silicone • Castability – best to worst • hydrocolloids > hydrophilic addition silicone > polyether > polysulfide > hydrophobic addition silicone = condensation silicone www.indiandentalacademy.com O’Brien Dental Materials & their Selection 1997
  • 55. Summary • Study models – Alginate most widely used • • • • inexpensive displaces moisture lower detail reproduction dimensionally unstable www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. Summary • Prosthodontics – Addition silicones most popular • • • • accurate dimensionally stable user friendly expensive www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. • A good Impression must aid to fulfill M.M. Devan’s dictum: “It is the perpetual preservation of what already exists and not the meticulous replacement of what is missing.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. • DEFINITION • A COMPLETE DENTURE IMPRESSION is the negative registration of the entire denture bearing, stabilizing and border seal areas, of either the maxillas or mandible in a plastic material that becomes relatively hard or set while in contact with these tissues. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. A PRELIMINARY IMPRESSION is made for the purpose of diagnostic treatment planning and the construction of a custom tray while a FINAL IMPRESSION is used for making the master cast over which the denture bases are fabricated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. • According to GPT, 7th Edition, 1999 Impression is defined as a negative likeness or copy in reverse of the surface of an object; an imprint of the teeth and adjacent structures for use in dentistry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. • The five objectives of an impression as stated by Carl.D. Boucher in 1944 are • 1) PRESERVATION OF THE ALVEOLAR RIDGES. This is achieved by using impression techniques which cover maximum supporting areas as possible and using pressure within physiologic limit of the tissue. • (2) RETENTION - The factors of retention are (1) adhesion (2) cohesion (3) interfacial surface tension (4) mechanical locking into undercuts (5) peripheral seal and atmospheric pressure and (6) oral and facial musculature. Henry A. Collet in 1965 stated that primary retention depends upon close adaptation to the tissues and is proportionate to the area covered. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. • . (3) STABII.ITY - It is the relationship of the denture base to the underlying bone. • Samuel Friedman in 1957, stated that stability is developed in the impression technique through more intimate contact of the labial and buccal flanges with the labial and buccal slopes and of the lingual flanges with the lingual slopes of the ridges. Boucher stated that stability requires maximum use of all bony foundations where the tissues are firmly and closely attached to bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. • . (4) SUPPORT - Support is provided by the maxillary and the mandibular bones and their covering of mucosal tissue. It is enhanced by selective placement of pressures that are in harmony with the resiliency of the tissues that make up the basal seat. • (5) ESTHETICS - Role of esthetics in impression making refers to the development of the labial and buccal borders, so that they are not only retentive but also support the lips and cheeks properly. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. • Fisher R.D. in 1951 laid down six fundamental rules for making full denture impressions – • (1) Roentgenographics, visual and digital examination of the oral cavity • (2) Surgical removal of such abnormal formations as would prevent successful completion of impressions. • (3) the require extension outlines. • (4) the location and position for area of variable tissue displaceability ( • 5) the required retention outline and www.indiandentalacademy.com • (6) the required adaptation.
  • 65. • IMPRESSION TECHNIQUES may be classified depending on, [A] Amount of pressure used (Based on the theories of impression). • Pressure technique based on pressure theory • Minimal pressure technique - based on mucostatic theory. • Selective pressure technique -based on selective pressure theory. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. • [B] 1. Open or • 2. Closed mouth • [C] 1. Hand-manipulation or • 2. Functional movements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. • [D] Type of tray • 1. Stock tray : 1. Caulks Edentulous Rimlock Trays. • 2. McGowen Winkler Trays (mandibular) • 3. STO-K Trays. (Square, round or Tapering shapes of ridges). • • • • 2. Custom or special tray 1. Shellac 2. Acrylic 3. Wax. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com