IMPLANT DESIGN
AND
ITS CONSIDERATIONS
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy....
Contents
 Introduction
 Character of forces applied to dental implants
 Surface area
 Bone volume
 Bone quality
 Imp...
INTRODUCTION
www.indiandentalacademy.com
A SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR ROOT
FORM DENTAL IMPLANT DESIGN
 Dental implants function to transfer load to surrounding biol...
CHARACTER OF FORCES
APPLIED TO DENTAL IMPLANTS
 Stress and strain have been shown to be important parameters for
crestal ...
1. Force Magnitude
 Forces in molar, premolar and canine.
 Titanium alloy
 Commercially pure titanium
 Density of bone...
2. Force Duration
 Swallowing and eating
 Bruxism
 High stress
www.indiandentalacademy.com
3. Force Type
 Physiologic Constraints on Design
 Three types of forces may be imposed on dental implants within
the ora...
 Influence on Implant Body
Design
 A smooth cylinder implant body results
in essentially a shear type of force at the
im...
Thread shapes in dental implant designs includes :
 square
 V-shape
 buttress
www.indiandentalacademy.com
4. Force Direction
 Physiologic Constraints on Design
 The anatomy of the mandible and maxilla places significant
constr...
 Influence on Implant Body Design
 As the angle of load increases, the stresses around the implant
increase, particularl...
The face angle of the thread can change the direction of load from
the prosthesis to abutment connection, to a different f...
5. Force Magnification
 A surgical placement resulting in extreme angulation of the implant
and/or a patient exhibiting p...
Surface area
 For a given bone (and implant) volume, implant surface area must
be optimized for functional loads.
 Thus ...
Design Variables in Surface Area
Optimization
 Implant Macro geometry
 Smooth-sided, cylindric implants provide ease in ...
 Implant Width
 Over the past five decades of endosteal implant history, implants
have gradually increased in width.
 T...
 Thread Geometry
 Functional surface area per unit length of the implant may be
modified by varying three thread geometr...
 Thread Pitch is defined as the distance measured parallel with its
axis between adjacent thread forms
 Or the number of...
The thread shape is another very important characteristic of overall
thread geometry. As described previously, thread shap...
Differences in shear loading on the standard V-
thread and the square thread
 V-thread has 10 times greater
shear loads o...
 The thread depth refers to the distance between the major and
minor diameter of the thread.
 Conventional implants
prov...
 As the length of an implant increases, so does the overall total surface
area. As a result, a common idea has been to pl...
Crest Module Considerations
 The crest module of an implant body is the transosteal region from
the implant body and char...
 A smooth, parallel-sided crest module
will result in shear stresses in this
region, making maintenance of bone
very diff...
Apical Design Considerations
 Most root form implants are
circular in cross-section. This
permits a round drill to
prepar...
 As a result, an anti-rotational feature is
incorporated, usually in the apical region of
the implant body, with a hole o...
Surface Coatings
Titanium Plasma Spray
Hydroxyapatite Coatings
 The clinical advantages of TPS or HA coatings may be summ...
Disadvantages of coatings include
1. Flaking, cracking, or scaling upon insertion
2. Increased plaque retention when above...
Machined surface Blasted surface (Tio-blast)
Plasma sprayed surfacewww.indiandentalacademy.com
 The present designs fall into four morphological
categories:
 Screw or Threaded
 Bullet or Conical
 Basket or Vented
...
Screw root forms are threaded into bone
site and have macroscopic retentive elements for initial
bone fixation. Screw type...
Screw Root Form contd….,
 Branemark Standard Fixture
 Branemark Self tapping Fixture
 Fixture (Impla-med)
 Self tappin...
Cylindrical Basket
 The hollow basket design provides nearly twice the bone contact of a
solid cylinder of the same lengt...
Cylindrical Basket
 The ITI implants are made from
CP titanium, have a titanium
plasma-sprayed surface and
promote increa...
Cylindrical Basket
 Core-Vent basket design
combines a superior threaded
screw section with an inferior
hollow vented bas...
Cylindrical Basket
 The Core-Vent implant is
manufactured in two
diameters: 3.5 and 4.5 mm
 The threaded portion adds 0....
Cylindrical Fin Finned or serrated root form
implants can offer advantages in
certain clinical situations.
 These implan...
Titanium Plasma Sprayed Screw Implant
 It consist of fine grain titanium particles applied to the
cylinder in an argon en...
Titanium Screw Implant with a
Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating
 Beyond an increase in surface area as
compared to smooth surfa...
Subperiosteal Implants :
Are implants, which
typically lie on top of the
jawbone, but underneath
your gum tissues. The
imp...
 Indications…
 Some conditions that are contraindicated for root and blade form
may be indicated such as:
 An unusual p...
Transosseous Implants:
 Are implants, which are
similar in definition to
Endosseous implants in that
they are surgically ...
BLADE IMPLANTS
 Linkow blade implants invented in 1967.
 Long thin blade that will be surgically inserted into the groov...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 RAMUS FRAME IMPLANT developed Roberts & Roberts in 1970 .
 The endosseous implant received stabilization from its ancho...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
ITI BONE FIT IMPLANT SYSTEM
 Developed by ‘International Team for Implantology’.
 Three different types
 Single stage &...
ZYGOMATICUS FIXTURES
 Branemark.
 The long fixture can be anchored in zygoma by approaching through the
sinus .
 Severe...
OSTEOPLATE 2000
 Atrophic RAR
 The conical plate with
shoulder width 1.3 mm &
base 0.9 mm.
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 1.crest module:- the
crest module of an implant is that
portion designed to retain the
prosthetic component.
 It repres...
Antirotational features
External hex
o Most widely available
o Found on top of abutments
o Hexagonal geometry
Internal hex...
 Most common external connections
 Hexagonal (Hex) type
 Octagonal (Octa) type
 Spline
 Most common internal connecti...
EXTERNAL CONNECTION
www.indiandentalacademy.com
THE STANDARD EXTERNAL HEX TAPERED EXTERNAL HEX
EXTERNAL SPLINE CONICAL, NO HEXwww.indiandentalacademy.com
INTERNAL HEX
 IT HAS CONICAL OPENING TO
AN INTERNALLY THREADED
SHAFT
 LATERAL STABILITY IS
PROVIDED BY TIGHTENING
WITH A...
BICON NO HEX
 1 DEGREE -2DEGREE TAPERED
ABUTMENTS FRICTIONALLY
FITS INTO NON THREADED
SHAFT OF THE IMPLANT WHICH
HAS A MA...
INTERNAL CONNECTION
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Internal
Connection
Octagonal
Hexagonal
Cone screw
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 Connection can be further classified
as
 SLIP FIT JOINT
Slight space exists between the mating
parts
Passive connecti...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
 FRICTION FIT JOINT
 No space between the mating parts
 Parts are literally forced together
ONE PIECE MORSE TAPER 5 deg...
SPLINE ATTACHMENT
Splines are fin to groove anti rotational design
Consist of six external components called tines which
p...
Implant collar:-
 Designs that incorporate a microscopic component into the
implant bodies by coatings with hydroxyapatit...
COVER SCREW:-
 At the time of insertion of the
implant body or stage 1
surgery, a first stage cover is
placed into the to...

HEALING
SCREW:-
 After a prescribed healing
period sufficient to allow a
supporting interface to
develop, the second st...
 Abutment :- is the portion of the implant that supports andor
retains a prosthesis or implant super structure.
 Three c...
 TRANSFER COPING:-transfer
coping is used to position an
analog in an impression and
defined by the portion of
implant it...
 IMPLANT ANALOG:-used in
the fabrication of the
master cast to replicate
the retentive portion of the
implant body or abu...
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Implant design and consideration/ dentistry work

  1. 1. IMPLANT DESIGN AND ITS CONSIDERATIONS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Character of forces applied to dental implants  Surface area  Bone volume  Bone quality  Implant macrogeometry  Implant width  Thread geometry  Implant length  Crest module consideration  Apical design consideration  Different implant designs  Parts of implants  Surface coatings and its consideration  Review of literature  Conclusion  References www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. A SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR ROOT FORM DENTAL IMPLANT DESIGN  Dental implants function to transfer load to surrounding biologic tissues. Thus the primary functional design objective is to manage (dissipate and distribute) biomechanical load to optimize the implant supported prosthesis function.  Biomechanical load management is dependent on two factors:  the character of the applied force and  the functional surface area over which the load is dissipated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. CHARACTER OF FORCES APPLIED TO DENTAL IMPLANTS  Stress and strain have been shown to be important parameters for crestal bone maintenance and implant survival. These factors may be measured and compared for different implant body designs.  Forces applied to dental implants may be characterized in terms of five distinct, although related, factors : magnitude, duration, type, direction, and magnification. Each factor must be carefully considered, with appropriate weight, in the critical analysis of implant design. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. 1. Force Magnitude  Forces in molar, premolar and canine.  Titanium alloy  Commercially pure titanium  Density of bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. 2. Force Duration  Swallowing and eating  Bruxism  High stress www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. 3. Force Type  Physiologic Constraints on Design  Three types of forces may be imposed on dental implants within the oral environment: compression, tension, and shear. Bone is strongest when loaded in compression, 30% weaker when subjected to tensile forces, and 65% weaker when loaded in shear .  Endosteal root-form implants load the bone-to-implant interface in pure shear (e.g., a smooth sided cylinder) unless surface features are incorporated in the design to transform the shear loads to more resistant force types. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9.  Influence on Implant Body Design  A smooth cylinder implant body results in essentially a shear type of force at the implant-to-bone interface. Thus this body geometry must use a microscopic retention System by coating the implant with titanium or hydroxyapatite.  Threaded implants have the ability to transform type of force imposed at the bone interface through careful control of thread geometry. Thread shape is particularly important in changing force type at the bone interface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Thread shapes in dental implant designs includes :  square  V-shape  buttress www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. 4. Force Direction  Physiologic Constraints on Design  The anatomy of the mandible and maxilla places significant constraints on the ability to surgically place root form implants suitable for loading along their long axis. Resorptive patterns following prolonged edentulism exacerbates the normally occurring angulation challenges .  Bone is strongest when loaded in its long axis in both compression or tensile forces. A 30-degree offset load reduces the compressive strength of bone by 11%, and reduces the tensile strength by 25%. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12.  Influence on Implant Body Design  As the angle of load increases, the stresses around the implant increase, particularly in the vulnerable crestal bone region. As a result, virtually all implants are designed for placement perpendicular to the occlusal plane. This placement allows a more axial load to the implant body and reduces the amount of crestal stress. Additionally, axial alignment places less stress on the abutment components and decreases the risk of short- and long-term fracture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. The face angle of the thread can change the direction of load from the prosthesis to abutment connection, to a different force direction at the bone.  As a result, the axial load on the implant platform may be a compressive load, but the 30-degree angle of the V -shape thread can reduce the amount of load the bone interface is able to resist.  The power thread design can take the axial load of the prosthesis to abutment connection and transfer a more axial load along the implant body to compress the bone, rather than convert it to 10 times more shear. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. 5. Force Magnification  A surgical placement resulting in extreme angulation of the implant and/or a patient exhibiting parafunctional habits will likely exceed the capability of any dental implant design to withstand physiologic loads.  Cantilevers and crown heights act as levers and therefore are, force magnifiers.  Careful treatment planning with special attention to the use of multiple implants to increase functional surface area is indicated when a clinical case presents the challenge of force magnifiers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Surface area  For a given bone (and implant) volume, implant surface area must be optimized for functional loads.  Thus an important distinction is made between total surface area and functional surface area.  Functional surface area is defined as the area that actively serves to dissipate compressive and tensile non-shear loads through the implant-to-bone interface and provide initial stability of the implant following surgical placement.  Total surface area may include a "passive" area that does not participate in load transfer  For example, plasma spray coatings are often reported to provide' up to 600% more total surface area however, the amount of area that is actually exposed to bone for compressive or tensile loading may be less than 30% of the total surface area. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Design Variables in Surface Area Optimization  Implant Macro geometry  Smooth-sided, cylindric implants provide ease in surgical placement however; the bone-to-implant interface is subjected to significantly larger shear conditions.  In contrast, a smooth-sided, tapered implant allows for a component of compressive load to be delivered to the bone-to- implant interface, dependent upon the degree of taper. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17.  Implant Width  Over the past five decades of endosteal implant history, implants have gradually increased in width.  Today, dental implants generally have reflected the scientific principle that an increase in implant width adequately increases the area over which occlusal forces may be dissipated. For root form implants of circular cross-section, the load bearing area of the abutment platform increases as a function of the radius squared.  A 4-mm root form implant has 33% greater surface area than a 3- mm root form implant. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18.  Thread Geometry  Functional surface area per unit length of the implant may be modified by varying three thread geometry parameters:  Thread pitch,  Thread shape  Thread depth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  Thread Pitch is defined as the distance measured parallel with its axis between adjacent thread forms  Or the number of threads per unit length in the same axial plane and on the same side of the axis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. The thread shape is another very important characteristic of overall thread geometry. As described previously, thread shapes in dental implant designs include:  Square  provides an optimized surface area for intrusive, compressive load transmission  V-shape  the V -thread design is called "fixture" and is primarily used for fixturing metal parts together-not load transfer.  Buttress  is optimized for pullout loads www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. Differences in shear loading on the standard V- thread and the square thread  V-thread has 10 times greater shear loads on bone compared with a square thread  The reduction in shear loading at the thread-to-bone interface provides for more compressive load transfer, which is particularly important in compromised D3 and D4 bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  The thread depth refers to the distance between the major and minor diameter of the thread.  Conventional implants provide a uniform thread depth throughout the length of the implant.  This unconventional design feature results in dramatic increases in functional surface area at the crest of the bone, where the stresses are highest. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  As the length of an implant increases, so does the overall total surface area. As a result, a common idea has been to place an implant as long as possible preferably, into the opposing cortical plate.  Attempting to engage the opposing cortical plate and preparing a longer osteotomy may result in overheating the bone.  Longer implants have been suggested to provide greater stability under lateral loading conditions.  Studies have shown that the highest stresses were observed in the crestal bone regions, regardless of the implant length.  This biomechanical analysis supports the opinion- that longer implants are not necessarily better.  Instead, there is a minimum implant length for each bone density, depending on the width and design.  The softer the bone, the greater the length suggested. Implant Length www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Crest Module Considerations  The crest module of an implant body is the transosteal region from the implant body and characterized as a region of highly concentrated mechanical stress.  Instead, it is a transition zone to the load-bearing structure of the implant body  In. fact, bone loss has been observed so often, many implant crest modules are designed to reduce plaque accumulation once bone loss has occurred www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25.  A smooth, parallel-sided crest module will result in shear stresses in this region, making maintenance of bone very difficult.  An angled crest module of more than 20 degrees, with a surface texture that increases bone contact, will impose a slight beneficial compressive component to the contiguous bone and decrease the risk of bone loss. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. Apical Design Considerations  Most root form implants are circular in cross-section. This permits a round drill to prepare a round hole, precisely fitting the implant body.  Round cross-sections, however, don’t resist torsional/shear forces when abutment screws are tightened or when free- standing, single tooth implant receive a rotational (torsional) force.  The apical end of each implant should be flat rather than pointed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.  As a result, an anti-rotational feature is incorporated, usually in the apical region of the implant body, with a hole or vent being the most common design.  The apical hole region may also increase the surface area available to transmit compressive loads on the bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Surface Coatings Titanium Plasma Spray Hydroxyapatite Coatings  The clinical advantages of TPS or HA coatings may be summarized as the following:  Increased surface area ( can be up to 600%)  Increased roughness for initial stability  Stronger bone-to-implant interface  Additional advantages of HA over TPS include the following:  Faster healing bone interface  Increased gap healing between bone and HA  Stronger interface than TPS  Less corrosion of metal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Disadvantages of coatings include 1. Flaking, cracking, or scaling upon insertion 2. Increased plaque retention when above bone 3. Increased bacteria and nidus for infection 4. Complication of treatment of failing implants 5. Increased cost www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Machined surface Blasted surface (Tio-blast) Plasma sprayed surfacewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31.  The present designs fall into four morphological categories:  Screw or Threaded  Bullet or Conical  Basket or Vented  Fin or Plateau  Others are:  Titanium plasma sprayed screw implant system  Cylindrical Hydroxyapatite coated implant  Grooved Hydroxyapatite coated cylinder  Vitreous carbon implants www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Screw root forms are threaded into bone site and have macroscopic retentive elements for initial bone fixation. Screw type of implants have been used for more than two decades.  Earlier placement technique resulted in traumatic site preparation of bone and immediate or early loading of the implant that interfered with bone healing.  Branemark showed 2 keys to predictable screw implant technique and success: avoid traumatizing and overheating the bone during site preparation and allow adequate time for bone healing. Almost all commercially available screw-type implant systems recommend not to loading the implant for several months to allow osseointegration to occur.  The only system that still recommends immediate loading of the implants is the titanium plasma sprayed screw system (TPS screws).  Different surface finishes range from machine tooled, sand blasted, acid etched, to hydroxylapatite coated; an implant design can range from self tapping to those needing threads cut into the bone.www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Screw Root Form contd….,  Branemark Standard Fixture  Branemark Self tapping Fixture  Fixture (Impla-med)  Self tapping fixture (Impla med)  Osseo-Dent (Collagen)  Screw Vent (Core-Vent)  Swede Vent (Core-Vent)  Steri OSS standard  Steri OSS mini  Steri OSS HAITI solid screw (Straumann Inc )  Osteo implant (OIC)  Star-vent  Star-vent TPS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Cylindrical Basket  The hollow basket design provides nearly twice the bone contact of a solid cylinder of the same length and diameter.  The receptor site is prepared with trephines, producing minimal bone destruction and leaving a vital bone core over which the implant is seated.  Perforations in the cylinder walls enable bone growth through the implant to increase stability and improve load distribution.  Titanium or titanium alloy is used, permitting osseointegration. The fenestrated hollow-cylinder design minimizes stresses within the implant on vertical loading and providing a greater area for load transmission to the surrounding bone.  Two system currently incorporate the hollow-basket concept:  The ITI implants  The Core-Vent implant www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Cylindrical Basket  The ITI implants are made from CP titanium, have a titanium plasma-sprayed surface and promote increased bone contact by increasing the surface area by 6 fold.  Were previously provided in several designs – designated as C,E,F,H and K.- to fit alveolar ridges of varying ht. and width.  ITI hollow Cylinder  ITI 150 offset Hollow Cylinder  ITI hollow Screw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Cylindrical Basket  Core-Vent basket design combines a superior threaded screw section with an inferior hollow vented basket.  The self tapping threaded neck provides initial stability to help prevent micro movement during healing.  Within the superior threaded region there is a hexagonal- threaded chamber that extends downward towards the basket area but does not communicate with it. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Cylindrical Basket  The Core-Vent implant is manufactured in two diameters: 3.5 and 4.5 mm  The threaded portion adds 0.8 to overall dimension, creating outsides diameter of 4.3 and 5.3 respectively  Four length available are 16, 13, 10.5, and 8 mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Cylindrical Fin Finned or serrated root form implants can offer advantages in certain clinical situations.  These implants sometimes called plateau implants have a series of circumferential fins spaced along the bone interfacing portion of the implant.  They usually provides more functional load bearing surface area for efficient transmittal of occlusal loads than other implants.  Proper socket preparation should result in light friction fit for implant after insertion.  Omni (Omni Intl)  Miter 2000 (Miter Inc)  Stryker Precision  Stryker Precision/HA  Micro-Vent (Core-Vent) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Titanium Plasma Sprayed Screw Implant  It consist of fine grain titanium particles applied to the cylinder in an argon environment under extremely high temp., pressure and velocity.  It offers an increase in surface area over the smooth surface and, thus also more retention in the bone.  Some research has also shown that initial integration into the host bone is somewhat accelerated through that.  Available in diameter of 3.3 & 4 mm and length of 8, 11, 13 & 15 mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. Titanium Screw Implant with a Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating  Beyond an increase in surface area as compared to smooth surface implants, this surface has also shown to have an accelerated initial integration, which makes it ideal for quick initial post- surgical stabilization in weak bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Subperiosteal Implants : Are implants, which typically lie on top of the jawbone, but underneath your gum tissues. The important distinction is that they usually do not penetrate into the jawbone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  Indications…  Some conditions that are contraindicated for root and blade form may be indicated such as:  An unusual position of mental foramen  A dehiscence of mandibular canal  Generally atrophic mandible  A mutilated oral condition from extensive surgery  Severe gagging problems Subperiosteal Implants : www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Transosseous Implants:  Are implants, which are similar in definition to Endosseous implants in that they are surgically inserted into the jawbone.  However, these implants actually penetrate the entire jaw so that they actually emerge opposite the entry site, usually at the bottom of the chin.  Adv are immediate denture placement and function www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. BLADE IMPLANTS  Linkow blade implants invented in 1967.  Long thin blade that will be surgically inserted into the groove in the bone .  Abutment projecting out from the blade to this crown or attachment for denture can be placed.  It required the shared support of natural teeth also.  Restored within month so became most widely used in united states.  Linkow modified the design configuration for broad applicability in maxilla & mandible, narrow ridges. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46.  RAMUS FRAME IMPLANT developed Roberts & Roberts in 1970 .  The endosseous implant received stabilization from its anchorage in ramus area bilaterally & in the symphyseal region.  It is now made of grade 2 CP titanium and used as posterior support for a mandibular fixed partial denture when insufficient height and width exist in body of the mandible.  The implant remain unloaded until proper osseous healing occurs. These were used when insufficient bone(less than 6mm bone height,and 3mm bone width)is present in body of mandible to support an endosteal implant.  These are one piece blade implants which take support from bone in ramus region www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. ITI BONE FIT IMPLANT SYSTEM  Developed by ‘International Team for Implantology’.  Three different types  Single stage & two stage.  Transgingivally placed in healing phase so second surgical procedure for uncovering the implant is avoided. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. ZYGOMATICUS FIXTURES  Branemark.  The long fixture can be anchored in zygoma by approaching through the sinus .  Severely resorbed maxilla. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. OSTEOPLATE 2000  Atrophic RAR  The conical plate with shoulder width 1.3 mm & base 0.9 mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51.  1.crest module:- the crest module of an implant is that portion designed to retain the prosthetic component.  It represents the transition zone from implant body design to transosteal region of the implant at the crest of the ridge. IN THE IMPALNT BODY:- www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Antirotational features External hex o Most widely available o Found on top of abutments o Hexagonal geometry Internal hex o Provides more precise implant abutment interface o Disadvantage – screw loosening o Seats the abutment into hexagonal depression www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.  Most common external connections  Hexagonal (Hex) type  Octagonal (Octa) type  Spline  Most common internal connection  Morse taper  Internal Hex  Internal Octagon www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. EXTERNAL CONNECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. THE STANDARD EXTERNAL HEX TAPERED EXTERNAL HEX EXTERNAL SPLINE CONICAL, NO HEXwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. INTERNAL HEX  IT HAS CONICAL OPENING TO AN INTERNALLY THREADED SHAFT  LATERAL STABILITY IS PROVIDED BY TIGHTENING WITH A MATHCHING CONICAL SURFACE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. BICON NO HEX  1 DEGREE -2DEGREE TAPERED ABUTMENTS FRICTIONALLY FITS INTO NON THREADED SHAFT OF THE IMPLANT WHICH HAS A MATCHING TAPER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. INTERNAL CONNECTION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Internal Connection Octagonal Hexagonal Cone screw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60.  Connection can be further classified as  SLIP FIT JOINT Slight space exists between the mating parts Passive connection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62.  FRICTION FIT JOINT  No space between the mating parts  Parts are literally forced together ONE PIECE MORSE TAPER 5 degree TWO PIECE TAPERED HEXAGONAL 8 DEGREES 11 DEGREES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. SPLINE ATTACHMENT Splines are fin to groove anti rotational design Consist of six external components called tines which protrude 1mm from implant and are matched to a female embedded in a abutment base www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Implant collar:-  Designs that incorporate a microscopic component into the implant bodies by coatings with hydroxyapatite, at the superior aspect of the crest module.  The collar allows functional remodeling to occur to a more consistent region on implant.  It suggests that crestal modeling is limited to the smooth region of the implant.  Its designs varies from straight to flared neck, beveled, reverse beveled, tapered, smooth surfaced or micro threaded. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. COVER SCREW:-  At the time of insertion of the implant body or stage 1 surgery, a first stage cover is placed into the top of implant to prevent bone, soft tissue, or debris from invading the abutment connection area during healing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66.  HEALING SCREW:-  After a prescribed healing period sufficient to allow a supporting interface to develop, the second stage may be performed to expose the implant andor attach a transepithelial portion.  This transepithelial portion is termed a permucosal extension because it extends the implant above the soft tissue and results in development of permucosal seal around the implant www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67.  Abutment :- is the portion of the implant that supports andor retains a prosthesis or implant super structure.  Three categories of implant abutments are available. 1.screw retained 2.cement retained 3.abutment for attachment uses an attachment device to retain a removable prosthesis.  HYGIENE COVER SCREW:-place over the abutment to prevent debris and calculus from invading the internal portion of abutment during prosthesis fabrication. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68.  TRANSFER COPING:-transfer coping is used to position an analog in an impression and defined by the portion of implant it transfers to the master cast, either the implant body transfer coping or the abutment transfer coping.  Direct transfer coping  Indirect transfer coping www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69.  IMPLANT ANALOG:-used in the fabrication of the master cast to replicate the retentive portion of the implant body or abutment.  After the master impression is obtained, the corresponding analog is attached to the transfer coping and assembly poured in the die stone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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