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Growth of midface /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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  • 1. Prenatal and Postnatal Growth of Midface www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. CONTENTS  Anatomy of Midface and associated structures.  Prenatal embryology  Origin of malformations  Post natal Development  Theories of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. ANATOMY OF MAXILLA AND ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES.  Consists of 5 parts 1. Body 2. Zygomatic 3. Frontal 4. Alveolar 5. Palatine process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. BODY OF THE MAXILLA  Four parts 1. Anterior 2. Infra temporal 3. Orbital 4. Nasal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. ZYGOMATIC PROCESS     Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. FRONTAL PROCESS      Lateral Medial Superior border Anterior border Posterior border www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. ALVEOLAR PROCESS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. PALTINE PROCESS     Superior Inferior Lateral Medial www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. MAXILLARY SINUS    Largest sinus Pyramidal in shape 4 walls Apex Base Roof Floor www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. PALATINE BONE   2 plates Horizontal Perpendicular 3 process Pyramidal Orbital Sphenoidal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. NASAL BONE   2 surfaces External Internal 4 borders Superior Inferior Lateral Medial R www.indiandentalacademy.com L
  • 13. LACRIMAL BONE   2 surfaces Lateral Medial 4 borders Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. ETHMOID BONE  3 parts Cribriform plates Perpendicular plate Ethmoidal labyrinths www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. VOMER BONE •Midline structure •2 surface- lateral •4 borders Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. ZYGOMATIC BONE   Quadrangular in shape Parts 3 surfaces 5 borders 2 process www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. Nasal cavity Lateral wall Medial wall www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. Nasal Cartilages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. Prenatal Embryology www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Outline       Formation of Branchial Arches Development of Lip Development of palatal shelves Development of maxillary complex Sagittal and transverse Growth of Nasomaxillary complex Midface before birth – Changes in the facial propotions www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. Formation of Branchial Arches  1- 4 weeks – Ovum  Zygote Blastocyst Gastrula Neurulation 4- 5 weeks – Formation of 6 arches Face develops from 1 and 2 branchial arches www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. Origins of mid face at 5 weeks     Appearance of nasal pits by thickening of the ectoderm ( ecto – ectodermal interactions) Forward and downward growth of the face Formation of medial and lateral nasal process Migration of neural crest cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Face at 6 – 8 weeks    Change In the optical axes Fusion of the medial nasal processes and maxillary process giving rise to – Lip Philtrum Primary palate Fusion of the facial primordias www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. Development of Lip   Occurs during the 5th week during the fusion of maxillary and medial nasal process. Occurs in 3 stages 1. Contact of the epithelia 2. Fusion of the epithelial process 3. Invasion of the connective tissues www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. Development of the palate   5 weeks – palatine process of the maxilla Separated by the tongue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29.   6 weeks – growth of the palatine shelves caudally 7 weeks – descend of the tongue caudally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. Elevation of the palate    Region specific synthesis and accumulation of the hyaluronan It binds with water by more than 1000 times of its own weight causing swelling and expansion of the shelves Alignment of the collagen fibrils and the cells of the mesenchyme (contraction) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32.     The process occurs when there is maximum growth of the height of the head Length of the meckels cartilage Maxillary cranial base angle – 84 deg Fusion occurs late in females - 7 days www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33.  Woo 1949– Separate center of ossification for each premaxilla and maxillary centers of ossification near the canine fosse Two centers on either side have fused to form the corpus There is no longer any morphologically separate premaxilla at the end of 8th week  Bertram Kraus (J. D. Res. 1960) – 7 morphological levels www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. The 7 Stages www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. 1st stage  Fusion of Premaxilla and maxilla  Radiation of the trabecule from the future canine alveolus  K-shaped configuration www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. 1st stage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. 2nd stage – 9 weeks  Begins with ossification of the alveolar crypts of the central and lateral incisors.  Thin trabecularized network of bone of the palate  Vomer bones have appeared www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. 3rd stage – 10 weeks     Appearance of the infravomerine processes Separate centers and fuse quickly Appearance of various bony trabeculae for the formation of the palate and the palatine bone Formation of the first primary molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. 4th stage – 11 weeks    Increase in depth of alveolar sockets A pointed bony process midway on the lingual alveolar border of the central and lateral incisors Anterior bony margin of the incisive suture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. 5th stage - 13 weeks   Left and right palatal processes of the maxilla and palatine bones have reached almost to the mid-line and have achieved their maximum overlap. Divided into three zones Anterior - deeply stained trabeculae of the maxilla Middle - superior layer of palatine bone and an inferior layer of maxillary bone Posterior - horizontal trabeculae of the palatine bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44.   Buccal alveolar borders of the incisors, canine, and primary first molar have now assumed their characteristically curved shape Posterior portion of the medial edge of palate is rounded – absence of PNS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. 6th stage - 14 weeks   Two halves of the palatal processes are in apposition. at the mid-line, although no fusion has taken place and the two processes are generally not in contact. Formation of Posterior nasal spine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. 7th stage – 15 week www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. Development of the maxillary complex www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. Sagittal and transverse Growth of Nasomaxillary complex from 12 – 24 weeks  Alphonse Burdi ; J. Dent. Res. 1965  Landmarks – Nasion (N) Sella (S) Basion (Ba) Crista galli (CG) Septal point (SP) Anterior nasal spine (ANS) Posterior nasal spine Uvular point (UP). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • 58. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. Transverse growth  Palatal Breadth To Palatal Length:  The mean value is around 82 per cent for adults. In fetuses this relationship begins with 167 per cent and decreases to 125 per cent. This decrease is achieved by a constantly increasing rate of acceleration of palatal length relative to that of palatal breadth.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. Midface before birth – Changes in the facial propotions CHANGES FROM 12TH – 36 WEEKS  Length – 18mm > 120mm  Width – 12mm > 74 mm  Height – 20 mm > 100mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61.   Prior to the 5th month the increase in height is the greatest Cranial vault : face > 40 : 1- embryo > 5 : 1 – 4 months > 8: 1 – birth > 2 : 1 - adult www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. “And the end of all our exploring Will be to arrive where we started And know the place for the first time” Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com