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Growth of cranial vault and base /fixed orthodontic courses

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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  • 1. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL VAULT AND BASE Anatomy Function Prenatal growth Postnatal growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL VAULT AND BASE INTRODUCTION Skull is a blend of the morphogenesis & growth of three skull entities. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. skull Cranial vault/calvaria. 1. Neurocranium Cranial Base 2. The face Orognathofacial complex ( Splanchocranium,viserocranium) 3. The masticatory appartus(i.m.) Dentition www.indiandentalacademy.com Neural Crest and Paraxial Mesoderm Tissue.
  • 5. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. The Neurocranium Cranial vault Cranial Base (Desmocranium)  Cranial floor  The newly expanded associated with the brain. nasal and auditory  Intramembranous bone sense organs. of paraxial mesoderm  Endochondral bone of origin. neural crest origin.  It’s cartilaginous precursor is known as chondrocranium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. Face Orognathofacial complex Brachial arch structure Intramemranous bone of neural crest origin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. ANATOMY Norma Verticalis – Above Norma Basalis – Below Norma Lateralis – Side Norma Occipitalis – Back Norma Frontalis - Front www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. ANATOMY Calvaria or brain box - 8 bone 2 Paired 4 Unpaired Parietal Frontal Temporal Occipital Sphenoid Ethmoid www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. SUTURE  Metopic suture  Coronal suture  Sagittal suture  Lambdoid suture  Bregma  Lambda FUNCTION Protection of the brain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. PRENATAL GROWTH  intramembranous ossification. MEMBRANOUS NEUROCRANIUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. PRENATAL GROWTH Ectomeninx Duramater Superficial membrane Vault Endomeninx Arachnoid piamater www.indiandentalacademy.com Base
  • 13. PRENATAL GROWTH Capsular mevmbraneEndomeninx – Neural crest origin Ectomeninx – Neural crest and paraxial mesoderm Ectomeninx: Mesoderm – Frontal, Parietal, sphenoid, petrous temporal & occipital. Neural crest – Lacrimal, nasal, squamous temporal, zygomatic, maxilla & mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. PRENATAL GROWTH OSSIFICATION SITE Frontal Bone – Primary centre Super ciliary arch – Secondary centres Zygomatic process, Nasal spine, Trochlear fossa Parietal bone – Region of Parietal eminence www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. PRENATAL GROWTH Occipital bone (Squamous part) – Just above superior nuchal line Temporal bone (Squamous part) – Root of zygoma Tympanic ring of temporal bone – 4 centers in lateral wall of tympanum www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. FONATANELLES  At birth ,skull bones separated by loose connective tissue.  6 in no. Close at various times 2 months to 2 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. FONATANELLES Postnatal growth results narrowing of suture and elimination of fontanelles. Posterolateral fonatanelles Anterior www.indiandentalacademy.com posterior
  • 19. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Endosteal surface are resorptive . The ectocranial surface are depository in nature. Remodeling allow for change in contour. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. POSTNATAL GROWTH  Arc of curvature of whole bone decrease and bone becomes flatter . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. POSTNATAL GROWTH Only the inner aspects of frontal bone can be used as stable reference point for growth studies from age 7 yrs. Onwards. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. CALVARIAL GROWTH Suture growth-major mechanism. 2. Remodeling/ surface apposition-after 4 yrs. 3. Centrifugal displacement by the expanding brain (FMH) 1. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF CRANIAL BASE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. ANATOMY OF CRANIAL BASE  ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA  MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA  POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA 1. Orbital plate of frontal bone 2. Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. 3. Anterior part of the body of sphenoid & lesser wing of sphenoid. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. CRIBRIFORM PLATE OF ETHMOID It separates the fossa from nasal cavity & forms the roof of the nasal cavity. A median crest like elevation -CRISTA GALLI THE SPHENOID BONE Anterior part of the upper surface of its body is termed the JUGUM SPHENOIDALE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. ORBITAL PLATE OF FRONTAL BONE It separates the orbit and its contents from the inferior surface of the frontal lobe of the brain. Its antero medial part split into 2 laminae FRONTAL SINUS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29. MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA It is deeper than the anterior fossa  It shaped like a butterfly.  In front it is bounded by posterior borders of the lesser wing of the sphenoid and the body of the sphenoid,  Behind by superior borders of the temporal bones & Dorsum sellae of sphenoid bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA Centrally  OPTIC CANAL  HYPOPHYSEAL FOSSA Laterally  SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE  FORAMEN ROTUNDUM  FORAMEN OVALE  FORAMEN SPINOSUM  FORAMEN LACERUM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA Largest and deepest of the cranial fossa Anteriorly – Dorsum sellae & body of the sphenoid Posteriorly –Squamous part of the occipital bone Laterally – Petrous & mastoid parts of temporal bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32. POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA VARIOUS FORAMINA FORAMEN MAGNUM JUGULAR FORAMIN INTERNAL ACOUSTIC MEATUS HYPOGLOSSAL CANAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33. CRANIAL BASE FUNCTIONS  Supports & protects the brain & spinal cord.  Articulation of skull with vertebral column , mandible & maxilla.  Buffer zone between the brain, face & pharyngeal region. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. PRENATAL GROWTH Cranial base develops by endochondral bone formation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35. PRENATAL GROWTH CHONDRIFICATION  Mesenchyme paraxial mesoderm and neural crest .  Form ECTOMENINGEAL CAPSULE .  Earliest evidence of skull formation.  Mesenchyme Starting on day 40 i.u. Cartilage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36. GROWTH OF CRANIAL BASE (proffit)  Cartilages (initially) Endochondral ossification Bone.  Midline structure.  Moves laterally ,sutures growth & surface remodeling becomes prominent. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37. GROWTH OF CRANIAL BASE (MOYER) 1. Complex balance among sutural growth. 2. Elongation at synchondrosis. 3. Extensive cortical drift. 4. Remodeling. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38. PRENATAL GROWTH CARTILAGES  PARACHORDAL CARTILAGE  HYPOPHYSEAL / POSTSPHENOID CARTILAGE  TRABECULAR  OTIC CAPSULE  NASAL CAPSULE / PRESPHENOID CARTILAGES. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39. PRENATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. PRENATAL GROWTH PARACHORDAL CARTILAGES  The sclerotomes cartilage -four occipital somites. first part of skull to develop foramen magnum boundaries occipital bone (basilar and condylar part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. PRENATAL GROWTH 2 Hypophyseal cartilages - Postsphenoid Sella turcica Body of the sphenoid (post. Part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. PRENATAL GROWTH 2 Presphenoid cartilage- Presphenoid bone Body of the sphenoid bone (ant. Part) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43. PRENATAL GROWTH  Orbito sphenoid Lesser wing  Alisphenoid - Greater wing  Optic capsule not chondrify. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. PRENATAL GROWTH OTIC CAPSULE Mastoid and petrous portions of the temporal bones www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. PRENATAL GROWTH  MESETHMOID CARTILAGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. PRENATAL GROWTH NASAL CAPSULE - Nostril cartilages Nasal septal cartilage  Nasal septal cartilage – Functional matrix Midface growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION 110 ossification centers in embryonic human skull. Ossification starts in the 4 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION UNOSSIFIED CHONDROCRANIAL REMNANTS –  Alae & septum of the nose,  Spheno-occpital & spheno-petrous junctions,   The apex of the petrous bone and Between the separate parts of the occipital bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. CHODROCRANIAL OSSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. OSSIFICATION occipital bone – 7 centres Intramembranous Endochondral ossification centre ossification centre  Supranuchal squamous - 2  Infranuchal squamous - 2  Basilar - 1  Exoccipital - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. OSSIFICATION temporal bone -21 centers Intramembranous Endochondral ossification centre ossification centre  Squamous portion -1  Petrosal part - 14  Tympanic ring - 4  Styloid process - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. OSSIFICATION ETHMOID BONE – 3 endochondral centres  Perpendicular plate & crista galli – 1  Lateral labyrinths - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53. OSSIFICATION sphenoid - 19 Intramembranous ossification centres  Medial pterygoid plates – 2  Lateral pterygoid plates -2 centres Endochondral ossification centres  Presphenoid – 3  Postsphenoid – 4  Orbitosphenoids - 2  Alisphenoids - 2  Pterygoid hamuli - 2 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. OSSIFICATION VOMER Alae – 2 intramembranous centres Inferior nasal concha Lamina – 1 endochondral centre Sphenoidal conchae -2 endochondral centre www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55. CRANIAL BASE ANGULATION Hypophyseal fossa ( prechordal & chordal parts) Nasion     - Sella - Basion . Precartilage stage – 150°, highly obtuse Cartilage stage 130° Preossification stage – 115°-120°,more acute Ossification stage – 125°-130 , postnatally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. CRANIAL BASE ANGULATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. PRE NATAL GROWTH Highly Uneven Anterior cranial base increases its length and width by 7 folds( 10th & 40thweek of I.U) Posterior cranial base grows only 5 fold www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. POSTNATAL GROWTH Cranial base acts as a template from which the face develops. Suture growth is unidirectional. So remodeling is requried. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. POSTNATAL GROWTH  The mid ventral segments of cranial base grows more slowly than the floor of the lateral located fossae.  To accommodate the medulla,pons,hypothalamus & optic chiasma. Foramen Spinal Cord Drift process Differential remodelling www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. POSTNATAL GROWTH SYNCHONDROSIS - They are a retention left from the primary cartilages of the chondrocranium after the endochondral ossification centers appear during fetal development. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. POSTNATAL GROWTH SYNCHONDROSIS – Fetal & early postnatal peroids. 1. Spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis 2. Inter-spenoidal synchondrosis - before birth 3. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. POSTNATAL GROWTH SPHENO-OCCIPITAL SYNCHONDROSIS Major contributor in the postnatal growth. Fuses at 12-13 years in girls & 14-15 years in boys and ossifies at 20 years of age www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. POSTNATAL GROWTH Sinus secondarily grows as the body of the sphenoid bone expands with the moving naso-maxillary complex www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65. POSTNATAL GROWTH ZONES OF SYNCHONDROSIS 1. Familial reserve zone 2. Cell division zone 3. Hypertrophic zone 4. Calcified zone A growth centre Bipolar direction of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. POSTNATAL GROWTH Middle cranial fossa & it’s neural contents Secondary displacement effect (Anterior cranial floor , nasomaxillry complex & mandible) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. POSTNATAL GROWTH Frontal lobe growth completes by 5years. Temporal lobes continue to enlarge for several more years and displaces the frontal lobe forward. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. POSTNATAL GROWTH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69.  Craniofacial Embryology -G.H.SPERBER  Essentials Of Facial Growth -D.H.ENLOW  Anatomy –Gray  Contemporary orthodontics W.R.PROFFIT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com