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GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF
MANDIBLE
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INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

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INTRODUCTION
The human mandible has no one design for
life. Rather it adapts & remodels through the
seven stages of life, ...
prenatal growth of mandible

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PRENATAL GROWTH OF
MANDIBLE

www.indiandentalacademy.com
prenatal growth of mandible
°Nerve→osteogenesis(Neurotrophic
factors)
Ectomesenchyme
interacts(36-38days iul)
Epi of 1st A...
Trough for acc dev Tooth buds

1 centre of ossification(6th week)
below

around

Inferior Alv Nerve
Incisive branch
www.in...
prenatal growth of mandible
• spread of IM ossification
dorsally and ventrally
→body and ramus of the
mandible

presence o...
Fate of Meckel`s cartilage

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PRENATAL GROWTH OF
MANDIBLE
SECONDARY ACC CARTILAGES
(10TH -14TH WEEK I U L)
-condylar cartilage
-coronoid cartilage
-Ment...
PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE
• Secondary cartilage of coronoid process
• Develop within temporalis muscle
• Incorporated in...
PRENATAL GROWTH OF
MANDIBLE
• 1/2 Cartilages
Ossify (7th month of IUL)

Mental ossicles
syndesmosi
s

Intramembranous bone...
PRENATAL GROWTH OF
MANDIBLE
• CONDYLAR CARTILAGE(10TH WEEK IUL)
• Grow interstitially and oppositionally

www.indiandental...
CONDYLAR CARTILAGE
• 1ST Evidence of endochondral bone (14th week iul)
• Much of cartilage replaced with Bone by middle of...
NEONATAL MANDIBLE
Ramus→Low & wide
coronoid→large & above
the condyle
Body→open shell
containing tooth buds
Mand canal→low...
DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH
During fetal life
8weeks - MANDIBLE> MAXILLA
11weeks -MANDIBLE= MAXILLA
13-20weeksMAXILLA>MANDIBLE
AT ...
POST NATAL GROWTH &
DEVELOPMENT OF
MANDIBLE

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MECHANISMS OF GROWTH
Growth Of The Mandible Primarily Involve
Bone remodeling
Process Of Bone Deposition And Resorption
Co...
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THEORIES OF GROWTH
• GENETIC THEORY

Bone ̶ primary determinent
Cartilage̶ primary determinent
www.indiandentalacademy.com...
SUTURAL THEORY
• Craniofacial growth→sutures
• Suture transplanted
• Sutures pulled apart
• Sutures compressed
• Sutures a...
CARTILAGINOUS THEORY
• Growth of maxilla ̶ Nasalseptum cartilage
• Transplantation
Epiphyseal plate
Nasalseptal cartilage
...
FUNCTIONAL MATRIX THEORY OF
GROWTH
• Skeletal growth occur as a response to
functional needs & mediated by the soft
tissue...
ENLOW’S EXPANDING ‘V’
PRINCIPLE
The growth movement &
enlargement of these Bones
occur towards the wide ends
of the ‘V’ as...
ENLOW’S COUNTERPART
PRINCIPLE
• The growth of any given facial /cranial part
relates specifically to other structural &
ge...
Parts of Mandible derived From
1. INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION
* Whole body of mandible except the anterior part
* Ramus o...
Timing of growth
• Growth in width is completed 1st then
growth in length finally growth in height

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Growth in width
• Intercanine width does not ↑ much after 12yrs
• Both molar & bicondylar width show small ↑
until the end...
Growth in length
• Continues through the period of puberty
Girls – 14 -15 yrs
Boys – 18 yrs

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POST NATAL GROWTH OF
MANDIBLE
• Mandible – Developmentally & Functionally
divisible into skeletal subunits

www.indiandent...
• Mandible undergoes largest amt of growth
postnatally and exhibits largest variability in
morphology
• The main sites of ...
THE RAMUS
• Key role of ramus in placing the corpus &
dental arch into ever changing fit with
growing maxilla & the faces ...
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THE RAMUS
Relocates postly
Resorption

Deposition posteriorly
anteriorly

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LINGUAL TUBEROSITY
• Direct Anatomic equivalent of Max tuberosity
• Inaccessible to cephalometric studies
• Major Growth &...
LINGUAL TUBEROSITY
• Deposition
• Resorption

Postly & Medially
Below (Lingual fossa )

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Lingual Tuberosity
Remodels in post direction with
slight lateral shift

Lingual shift of Ant part of Ramus

↑ Length of c...
Ramus to carpus Remodeling
• Making room last
Molar

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Ramus to carpus Remodeling

Growth direction fallows‘V’PRINCIPLE
‘X’ arrows
Remodeling activity does not occur only
on ant...
Coronoid process
• Propellar like twist
• Lingual side faces
posteriorly
superiorly
medially

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Coronoid process
Fallows ‘V’ PRINCIPLE

‘V’ oriented vertically

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Coronoid process
‘v’ PRINCIPLE
‘V’Oriented horizontally

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Coronoid process
Coronoid process → medially
to become post part of carpus

Buccal side → Resorptive

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Ramus
• Superior part of
ramus the area below
sigmoid
notch

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Ramus

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Antigonial notch
Size of the notch ↑ed –
downward rotation
Of carpus relative to the
Ramus

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The size of the notch depends upon Ramus – Carpus junction

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Post edge Ramus is a major
growth site
Condyle grows obliquely upward &
backward
The angle of growth is variable
The gonia...
Mand Foramen – midway b/n
Ant & post borders of Ramus

www.indiandentalacademy.com
The Mandibular condyle
• Secondary cartilage
•

not a primary center of growth, but rather
* Secondary in Evolution
* Seco...
condyle
• Cartilage is special nonvascular tissue
• firm matrix – unyielding to the pressure
• Endochondral growth mechani...
• Provides pressure tolerant articular
contact
• Multidimensional growth capacity in
response to ever changing development...
• Capsular layer of poorly
vascularised connective
tissue –highly cellular
• Chondroblasts –cellular
proliferation
• Chond...
• Proliferative process
produces upward &
backward growth
movement
• Multidirectional
proliferative capacitythe arrangemen...
• The cortical layer of IMB
continues on to the
condylar neck
Ant margin of condylar
neck – depository
grows supe’ly
post ...
• Lingual & Buccal
sides - Resorptive

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• V-shaped cone of condylar neck growing
towards its wider end

www.indiandentalacademy.com
• The condyle can’t play king pin role of
“Master center” in pace-setting the growth
Bilaterally condyle-lacking mand occu...
Current concept
• Condylar cartilage does have some intrinsic
genetic programming
• But extracondylar factors are needed t...
• Mandible is less responsive to orthopedic
forces than maxilla
• Mand orthopedics must modify growth
signals targeted at ...
MENTAL FORAMEN

www.indiandentalacademy.com
ALVEOLAR PROCESS
Adds ht & thickness to the
body of the Mand
Teeth absent fails to develop
Resorbs after tooth extraction
...
Alveolar process
• Maintain occlusal relationship during differential
mandibular & midfacial growth– buffer zones
• Mainta...
Lingual movement of anteriors

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Mental protuberance
Formed by mental ossicles from accessory
cartilage and ventral end of Meckel’s cartilage
Poorly develo...
Mental protuberance
Forms by osseous deposition
during childhood
Prominence is accentuated by
bone resorption above it
Rev...
Chin
• Protrusive chin is unique human trait
• More prominent in male
• Less prominent in female

www.indiandentalacademy....
Factors Affecting Growth
Systemic Factors
Genetic
Hormonal imbalance
Nutrition
Systemic illness or chronic illness
Localiz...
B) Local factors
1. Vascular abnormality
2. Lymphatic disturbance
3. Neurologic disease
4. Local infection
5. Ear infectio...
Anomalies of mandible
Some of the syndromes associated with
mandibular abnormality
1)Down’s syndrome
2)Marfan’s syndrome
3...
Congenital
• Agnathia
• Micrognathia
• Macrognathia
• Facial hemihypertrophy
• Facial hemiatropy

www.indiandentalacademy....
Developmental
• Infantile cortical hyperostosis
• Achondroplasia
• Torus mandibularis
• Stafne’s cyst
• Odontogenic cyst
•...
Age changes of Mandible
At birth

Adult

Old age

1 Mental
foramen

Near the lower
border

Midway b/n upper
& lower border...
References
* Craniofacial embryology – SPERBER
* Facial growth – ENLOW
* Contemporary orthodontics – PROFFIT
* Handbook of...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Thank you
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Growth & development of mandible /fixed orthodontic courses

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    1. 1. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF MANDIBLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION The human mandible has no one design for life. Rather it adapts & remodels through the seven stages of life, from the slim arbiter of things to come in infant, through a powerful dentate machine & even weapon in the full flesh of maturity, to the pencil thin, porcelain like problem that we struggle to repair in the adversity of old age.” “ www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. prenatal growth of mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. prenatal growth of mandible °Nerve→osteogenesis(Neurotrophic factors) Ectomesenchyme interacts(36-38days iul) Epi of 1st Arch Osteogenic Memberane www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Trough for acc dev Tooth buds 1 centre of ossification(6th week) below around Inferior Alv Nerve Incisive branch www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. prenatal growth of mandible • spread of IM ossification dorsally and ventrally →body and ramus of the mandible presence of neuromuscular bundle→Mandibular foramen and canal and mental foramen www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Fate of Meckel`s cartilage www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE SECONDARY ACC CARTILAGES (10TH -14TH WEEK I U L) -condylar cartilage -coronoid cartilage -Mental ossicle cartilage www.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 11. PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE • Secondary cartilage of coronoid process • Develop within temporalis muscle • Incorporated into IMB of ramus • Disappear before birth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE • 1/2 Cartilages Ossify (7th month of IUL) Mental ossicles syndesmosi s Intramembranous bone → www.indiandentalacademy.com synostosis
    13. 13. PRENATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE • CONDYLAR CARTILAGE(10TH WEEK IUL) • Grow interstitially and oppositionally www.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 14. CONDYLAR CARTILAGE • 1ST Evidence of endochondral bone (14th week iul) • Much of cartilage replaced with Bone by middle of fetal life • Upper end →Growth cartilage and Articular cartilage • Changes Mand position and form • Growth ↑ at puberty peak b/n 12 ½ -14yrs • Ceases →2o yrs of life www.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 15. NEONATAL MANDIBLE Ramus→Low & wide coronoid→large & above the condyle Body→open shell containing tooth buds Mand canal→low in the body www.indiandentalacademy.com
    16. 16. DIFFERENTIAL GROWTH During fetal life 8weeks - MANDIBLE> MAXILLA 11weeks -MANDIBLE= MAXILLA 13-20weeksMAXILLA>MANDIBLE AT BIRTH Mandible tends to be retrognathic Early postnatal life -orthognathic www.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 17. POST NATAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF MANDIBLE www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. MECHANISMS OF GROWTH Growth Of The Mandible Primarily Involve Bone remodeling Process Of Bone Deposition And Resorption Cortical drift Combination of bone deposition and resorption resulting in growth movement towards deposition surface Displacement Movement of whole bone as a unit I) Primary displacement II) Secondary displacement www.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    20. 20. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    21. 21. THEORIES OF GROWTH • GENETIC THEORY Bone ̶ primary determinent Cartilage̶ primary determinent www.indiandentalacademy.com The soft tissue matrix
    22. 22. SUTURAL THEORY • Craniofacial growth→sutures • Suture transplanted • Sutures pulled apart • Sutures compressed • Sutures are sites that react ̶ not primary dereminants www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. CARTILAGINOUS THEORY • Growth of maxilla ̶ Nasalseptum cartilage • Transplantation Epiphyseal plate Nasalseptal cartilage Condylar cartilage Removal of condyle www.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 24. FUNCTIONAL MATRIX THEORY OF GROWTH • Skeletal growth occur as a response to functional needs & mediated by the soft tissue in which it is embedded www.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. ENLOW’S EXPANDING ‘V’ PRINCIPLE The growth movement & enlargement of these Bones occur towards the wide ends of the ‘V’ as a result of differential deposition & selective resorption www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. ENLOW’S COUNTERPART PRINCIPLE • The growth of any given facial /cranial part relates specifically to other structural & geometric ‘counterparts’ in the face & cranium Diff parts & counter parts Maxillary & Mandibular arches Middle cranial fossa breadth of Ramus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. Parts of Mandible derived From 1. INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION * Whole body of mandible except the anterior part * Ramus of mandible as far as mandibular foramen 2 . ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION * Anterior portion of the mandible (symphysis) * Part of ramus above the mandibular foramen * Coronoid process * Condylar process www.indiandentalacademy.com
    28. 28. Timing of growth • Growth in width is completed 1st then growth in length finally growth in height www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. Growth in width • Intercanine width does not ↑ much after 12yrs • Both molar & bicondylar width show small ↑ until the end of growth in length • Ant width stabilize earlier www.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 30. Growth in length • Continues through the period of puberty Girls – 14 -15 yrs Boys – 18 yrs www.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 31. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    32. 32. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    33. 33. POST NATAL GROWTH OF MANDIBLE • Mandible – Developmentally & Functionally divisible into skeletal subunits www.indiandentalacademy.com
    34. 34. • Mandible undergoes largest amt of growth postnatally and exhibits largest variability in morphology • The main sites of postnatal growth ‫٭‬At condylar cartilages ‫ ٭‬Posterior border of rami ‫٭‬Alveolar ridges www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. THE RAMUS • Key role of ramus in placing the corpus & dental arch into ever changing fit with growing maxilla & the faces limitless strl variations • By Remodeling adjustments in Ramus length & Ant post width. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    37. 37. THE RAMUS Relocates postly Resorption Deposition posteriorly anteriorly www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. LINGUAL TUBEROSITY • Direct Anatomic equivalent of Max tuberosity • Inaccessible to cephalometric studies • Major Growth & Remodeling site • Effective boundary b/n Ramus & corps www.indiandentalacademy.com
    39. 39. LINGUAL TUBEROSITY • Deposition • Resorption Postly & Medially Below (Lingual fossa ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    40. 40. Lingual Tuberosity Remodels in post direction with slight lateral shift Lingual shift of Ant part of Ramus ↑ Length of corpus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    41. 41. Ramus to carpus Remodeling • Making room last Molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
    42. 42. Ramus to carpus Remodeling Growth direction fallows‘V’PRINCIPLE ‘X’ arrows Remodeling activity does not occur only on ant & post barder www.indiandentalacademy.com
    43. 43. Coronoid process • Propellar like twist • Lingual side faces posteriorly superiorly medially www.indiandentalacademy.com
    44. 44. Coronoid process Fallows ‘V’ PRINCIPLE ‘V’ oriented vertically www.indiandentalacademy.com
    45. 45. Coronoid process ‘v’ PRINCIPLE ‘V’Oriented horizontally www.indiandentalacademy.com
    46. 46. Coronoid process Coronoid process → medially to become post part of carpus Buccal side → Resorptive www.indiandentalacademy.com
    47. 47. Ramus • Superior part of ramus the area below sigmoid notch www.indiandentalacademy.com
    48. 48. Ramus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    49. 49. Antigonial notch Size of the notch ↑ed – downward rotation Of carpus relative to the Ramus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    50. 50. The size of the notch depends upon Ramus – Carpus junction www.indiandentalacademy.com
    51. 51. Post edge Ramus is a major growth site Condyle grows obliquely upward & backward The angle of growth is variable The gonial region is Anatomically variable www.indiandentalacademy.com
    52. 52. Mand Foramen – midway b/n Ant & post borders of Ramus www.indiandentalacademy.com
    53. 53. The Mandibular condyle • Secondary cartilage • not a primary center of growth, but rather * Secondary in Evolution * Secondary in Embryonic origin * Secondary in adaptive responses www.indiandentalacademy.com
    54. 54. condyle • Cartilage is special nonvascular tissue • firm matrix – unyielding to the pressure • Endochondral growth mechanism www.indiandentalacademy.com
    55. 55. • Provides pressure tolerant articular contact • Multidimensional growth capacity in response to ever changing developmental conditions & variations www.indiandentalacademy.com
    56. 56. • Capsular layer of poorly vascularised connective tissue –highly cellular • Chondroblasts –cellular proliferation • Chondroblasts – hypertrophy • Zone of resorptive & Bone deposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
    57. 57. • Proliferative process produces upward & backward growth movement • Multidirectional proliferative capacitythe arrangement of daughter cells does not reflect direction of growth www.indiandentalacademy.com
    58. 58. • The cortical layer of IMB continues on to the condylar neck Ant margin of condylar neck – depository grows supe’ly post margin - depository grows on to post barder www.indiandentalacademy.com
    59. 59. • Lingual & Buccal sides - Resorptive www.indiandentalacademy.com
    60. 60. • V-shaped cone of condylar neck growing towards its wider end www.indiandentalacademy.com
    61. 61. • The condyle can’t play king pin role of “Master center” in pace-setting the growth Bilaterally condyle-lacking mand occupy normal Anatomic position Condylar remodeling acts with displacement as co-participants but not as driving force www.indiandentalacademy.com
    62. 62. Current concept • Condylar cartilage does have some intrinsic genetic programming • But extracondylar factors are needed to sustain this activity 1)Intrinsic & extrinsic biomechanical forces 2)physiologic inductors ENLOW; ↑amt of pressure – inhibit the growth www.indiandentalacademy.com ↓ amt of pressure – stimulate the growth
    63. 63. • Mandible is less responsive to orthopedic forces than maxilla • Mand orthopedics must modify growth signals targeted at both ramus & condyle to be maximally effective www.indiandentalacademy.com
    64. 64. MENTAL FORAMEN www.indiandentalacademy.com
    65. 65. ALVEOLAR PROCESS Adds ht & thickness to the body of the Mand Teeth absent fails to develop Resorbs after tooth extraction www.indiandentalacademy.com
    66. 66. Alveolar process • Maintain occlusal relationship during differential mandibular & midfacial growth– buffer zones • Maintains vertical height • Adaptive remodeling makes orthodontic tooth movement possible www.indiandentalacademy.com
    67. 67. Lingual movement of anteriors www.indiandentalacademy.com
    68. 68. Mental protuberance Formed by mental ossicles from accessory cartilage and ventral end of Meckel’s cartilage Poorly developed in infants www.indiandentalacademy.com
    69. 69. Mental protuberance Forms by osseous deposition during childhood Prominence is accentuated by bone resorption above it Reversal between 2 growth fields Concave  convex Reversal line could be High or www.indiandentalacademy.com low
    70. 70. Chin • Protrusive chin is unique human trait • More prominent in male • Less prominent in female www.indiandentalacademy.com
    71. 71. Factors Affecting Growth Systemic Factors Genetic Hormonal imbalance Nutrition Systemic illness or chronic illness Localized alteration/ diseases of uterus Systemic illness in mother Drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
    72. 72. B) Local factors 1. Vascular abnormality 2. Lymphatic disturbance 3. Neurologic disease 4. Local infection 5. Ear infection or mastoiditis 6. Ankylosis 7. Trauma or fracture 8. Birth injury 9. Habits www.indiandentalacademy.com
    73. 73. Anomalies of mandible Some of the syndromes associated with mandibular abnormality 1)Down’s syndrome 2)Marfan’s syndrome 3)Turners syndrome 4)Kleinfelter’s syndrome 5) Pierre-robin syndrome 6) Treacher- collin syndrome www.indiandentalacademy.com
    74. 74. Congenital • Agnathia • Micrognathia • Macrognathia • Facial hemihypertrophy • Facial hemiatropy www.indiandentalacademy.com
    75. 75. Developmental • Infantile cortical hyperostosis • Achondroplasia • Torus mandibularis • Stafne’s cyst • Odontogenic cyst • Odontogenic tumor www.indiandentalacademy.com
    76. 76. Age changes of Mandible At birth Adult Old age 1 Mental foramen Near the lower border Midway b/n upper & lower border Near the upper border 2 Angle of the mandible 3 coronoid & condyloid processes Obtuse (180) Right angle Obtuse (140) Coronoid is larger & above condyle Condyle is above the coronoid 4 Mandibular canal Runs little above the mylohyoid line Present;two halves united fibrous tissue Runs parallel to the mylohyoid line Condyle is above the coronoid but in extreme old age –bent backwards Runs close to the upper border 5 Symphysis menti Reprasented by faint ridge only in the upper part www.indiandentalacademy.com Not recognisable or absent
    77. 77. References * Craniofacial embryology – SPERBER * Facial growth – ENLOW * Contemporary orthodontics – PROFFIT * Handbook of orthodontics – MOYERS * Principles and practice of orthodontics –GRABER www.indiandentalacademy.com
    78. 78. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    79. 79. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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