Fixed appliances and its components 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy


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Fixed appliances and its components 3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. FIXED ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2. FIXED ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES • Advantages:1)Precise tooth control is possible. 2)Multiple tooth movement is possible. 3)Patient co-operation is reduced. • Disadvantage:1)Difficult to maintain oral hygiene. 2)Unesthetic
  3. 3. 3)Special training required. 4)Increased cost of treatment. 5)Increased chair side time. 6)Anchorage control is difficult. a) Active components: 1)Separatorsthey are used to create space between two adjacent teeth generally for the purpose of banding.
  4. 4. i)Soft brass wires: -0.5-0.6mm diameter wire passed interdentally & twisted to create space. -Painful & can cause gingival trauma. ii)Ring separators: -Small elastic rings that are stretched & passed through interdental contacts with separator placing pliers.
  5. 5. iii) Dumb-bell separators: - Dumb-bell shaped pieces of elastics that is stretched & passed through the contact between adjacent teeth. - The elastics of the separators constricts over a period of time to regain it’s original space & cause separation.
  6. 6. 2)Elastics:-Can be of latex or no latex.Non latex deteriotes less than latex in oral environment. i) Class I elastics: It is used for closing the extraction space. ii) Class II elastics: These intermaxillary elastics are used to produce intrusion of maxillary anterior or decrease the overjet by retracting maxillary anterior teeth.
  7. 7. iii) Class III elastics: Used in treatment of Class III malocclusion to bring about retraction of mandibular anterior & protraction of maxillary molars. iv)Diagonal elastics: For correction of midline deviations
  8. 8. 3) Elastomerics: Made up of synthetic polyurethane material i) Elastic chain: -Also called E chain. -Mainly used for space closure. ii) Elastic threads: -Made of specialized elasticized cotton. -Used to exert forces which are used to correct derotations & reduction of anterior spacing.
  9. 9. b)Passive appliance: i) Bands: These are the metal attachment that are cemented to individual teeth provide a place for attachment of other auxillaries like buccal tubes, lingual buttons, etc. They can be soldered or welded on band.Banding is preferred on tooth that are likely to experience excessive forces. ii) Brackets: A bracket is defined as a device that projects horizontally to support auxillaries & is open on one side usually in vertical & horizontal direction.
  10. 10. Classification: 1) According to type of slota)Ribbon arch b)Edgewise 2) Based on mode of attachmenta)Weldable b)Bondable 3)Based on material used to fabricate the bracketa)Metallic b)Ceramic c)Plastic
  11. 11. • Ribbon arch bracket: -vertical slot on gingival direction. -can bring about tipping of teeth in labiolingual & mesiodistal direction. - used in Beggs fixed appliance.
  12. 12. • Edgewise bracket-horizontal slot facing labially. -has rectangular slots and accepts rectangular cross section wire. • Weldable & bondable brackets-bondable brackets bonded directly over the tooth.It has meshwork under the surface. -weldable brackets are welded over the band.
  13. 13. • Mettalic Brackets: -made up of stainless steel. -most commonly used. Advantage: -they can be recycled. -can be sterilized. -resists deformation & fracture. -least friction at wire bracket interface. -not expensive Disadvantage: -esthetically not pleasing. -can corrode & staining of tooth
  14. 14. • Ceramic Bracket: -introduce in 1980s. -made of aluminium oxide or zirconium oxide. Advantage-dimensionally stable. -durable & resists staining. -esthetically pleasing. Disadvantage-brittle. -exhibit greater friction at wire bracket interface.
  15. 15. • Plastic brackets -made up of polycaronate or modified form of polycarbonate. -improves the esthetic value. Disadvantage: -Tends to discolour in patient who smoke. -Poor dimensional stability. -Slot tends to distort. -Friction between plastic brackets & metal arch wire is high.
  16. 16. iii) Buccal tubes: These are horizontal hollow tubes which are used in molars. Classification: • Based on mode of attachment: -Weldable -Bondable • According to lumen shape: -Round -Oval -Rectagular
  17. 17. • According to number of tubes: - Single - Double - Triple • According to the technique: -Begg tube -Edge wise -Preadjusted edgewise
  18. 18. iv)Lingual attachments:• Lingual buttonFor attachment of elastics & elastomerics. • Lingual seating lugs:Helps in seating bands. Flat-Anterior & molar. Curved-Cuspid & bicuspid. • Lingual eyelets:Used to tie elastic threads or ligature wire.
  19. 19. • Lingual cleatsUsed for attachments of elastic thread & ligature wire. • Lingual sheathsUsed for attaching accessories such as transpalatal arch. • Lingual elastilugsUsed for attaching elastics. Curved – for posteriors Flat – for anterior
  20. 20. • Elastic ball hooks:-Ball attach to weldable flat arm. -Offset can be mesial or distal. -Used to attach elastics or elastomeric chain from lingual aspect. • Lock pins:-Made of brass or soft steel.-Used to hold the wire in bracket slot. • Ligature wire:-Are soft stainless steel wire of 0.008-0.010”. -Used to hold or ligate the arch wire in bracket.
  21. 21. iii) Elastic ligatures: -Used to secure the arch wire in edgewise or preadjusted edgewise bracket. -They can be easily engaged under the bracket wings.
  22. 22. 4)Spring : These are used along with the fixed orthodontic appliances.They are i) Uprighting spring- -Made up of 0.012-0.014” Australian wire. -Move tooth root in mesial or distal direction. -Standard spring used in Begg’s and Tip edgewise bracket -Side winder design made for Tip edge bracket.
  23. 23. ii)Rotating spring: - Provide simple & effective means of derotating teeth without removal archwire. iii)Torquing spring: - Made of 0.012-0.014” Australian wire. -Capable of moving tooth roots in labial or lingual direction -Force is transmitted to the crown by spurs, which contact the teeth.
  24. 24. iv)Open coil spring: -Made up of stainless steel wire or Ni-Ti wire. -Used for opening of the space. v) Closed coil spring: -Made up of stainless steel wire or Ni-Ti wire. -Used for closing of the space.
  25. 25. 5) Magnets : Are used for opening or closing spaces. Normally used magnets are-Samarium cobalt magnets -Neodymium iron boron magnets 6) Archwires: i)According to the cross section -Round -Square -Rectagular
  26. 26. Thank you Leader in continuing dental education