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Fillers in dentistry /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Welcome to Indian Dental Academy …

Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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  • 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. ₪ INTRODUCTION ₪ WHAT ARE FILLERS? ₪ PROPERTIES OF A FILLER₪ FILLERS USED IN VARIOUS MATERIALS ₫ COMPOSITES ₫ CERAMICS ₫ AMALGAM ₫ DIRECT FILLING GOLD ₫ TEMPORARY CEMENTS ₫ INVESTMENT MATERIALS ₫ CASTING ALLOYS ₫ IMPRESSION MATERIALS ₫ ENDODONTICS ₪ REFERENCES ₪ CONCLUSION
  • 3. MATRIX ALONE IS NOT STRONG ENOUGH TO SUPPORT OCCLUSAL LOAD AND CONTRACTS EXCESSIVELY DURING POLYMERIZATION,THERFORE REINFORCING IT WITH CERTAIN KINDOF MATERIALS USED PROVIDES THE MATERIAL ADEQUATE STRENGTH.
  • 4. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION TO INCREASE FILLER LOADING, IT ISNECESSARY TO ADD FILLER IN A RANGE OFPARTICLE SIZES. IF SINGLE SIZE IS USED SPACE WILL EXISTBETWEEN THE PARTICLE. SMALL PARTICLE SIZE FILLERS THEN FILLTHESE SPACES.
  • 5. REFRACTORY INDEX FOE ESTHETIC MATERIALS, SHOULD HAVETRANSLUCENCY SIMILAR TO THAT OF TOOTH. 1.5 AMOUNT OF FILLER ADDED AS FILLER CONTENT INCREASES, THEFLUIDITY REDUCES. DEGREE OF FILLER ADDITION ISREPRESENTED IN TERMS OF WT % AND VOL %. HIGHER FILLER CONTENT, LOWER WATER
  • 6. SURFACE ROUGHNESS FILLER PARTICLES ARE GENERALLY HARDERTHAN THE MATRIX. DURING FINISHING SOME FILLER PARTICLESMAY PROTRUDE FROM SURFACE. IF PARTICLE SIZE PROTRUDING IS SMALL,THEN RESULTING SURFACE ROUGHNESS IS OFLITTLE CONCERN.
  • 7. RADIOPACITY BARIUM ZINC THESE ARE USED BORON TO PRODUCERADIOPACITY ZIRCONIUM YTTRIUM SURFACE AREA SMALLER THE PARTICLE SIZE LARGER IS THESURFACE AREA.
  • 8. Composite is any material that is composed of hard, pebble-like filler particles similar to sand or pebbles, surrounded by a hard matrix of a second material which binds the filler particles together.  The filler particles can be any coarseness varying from large rocks to microscopically fine powder. 
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON FILLER PARTICLE SIZE MEGAFILL MACROFILL VERY LARGE 10-100 U m PARTICLE SIZE 0.5-2MM MIDIFILL 1-10 U M MINIFILL MICROFILL O.1 – 1 U M 0.1 – 0.01 U M
  • 10. HYBRID NANOFILL MIXED RANGE OF 0.005 – 0. 01 U M PARTICLE SIZES HOMOGENEOUS FILLERS +UNCURED MATRIX MATERIAL MODIFIED HETEROGENEOUS THESE ARE NOVEL FILLER MODIFICATIONPRECURED COMPOSITE IN ADDITION TO OR OTHER UNUSUAL CONVENTIONAL FILLERS FILLER
  • 11. BENIFITS INCREASES HARDNESS. INCREASES STRENGTH. REDUCES WEAR OF MATERIAL. REDUCES POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE. REDUCES THERMAL EXPANSION &CONTRACTION. IMPROVED WORKABILITY. REDUCES WATERSORPTION. REDUCES SOFTENING. REDUCES STAINING.
  • 12. DISADVANTAGE DIFFICULT TO FINISH & POLISH HARDER THAN RESIN MATRIX, SO PROTRUDESON SURFACE WHICH MAY ACT AS AREAS OFSTRESS CONCENTRATION. CAN ABRADE OPPOSING TOOTH.
  • 13. TYPE OF FILLERS GROUND QUARZ COLLOIDAL SILICA GLASS OR CERAMIC CONTAINING HEAVYMETALS alumina silicate borosilicate PURE SILICA OCCURS AS CRISTOBALLITE TRIDYMITE QUARTZ
  • 14. QUARTZ USED IN CONVENTIONAL COMPOSITES. CHEMICALLY INERT. VERY HARD. DIFFICULT TO POLISH. ABRADES OPPOSING TOOTH. 0.1 – 1.00 UM
  • 15. COLLOIDAL SILICA MICROFILLER 0.04 UM OR LESS ADDED IN SMALL AMOUNT AS THEY HAVELARGE SURFACE AREA. SIZE SMALLER THAN WAVELENGTH OFLIGHT, SO BETTER POLISHING.
  • 16. CERAMIC CONTAINING HEAVY METALS PROVIDE RADIOPACITY. BARIUM ALUMINIUM ZINC YITTRIUM TRIFLOURIDE YITTERBIUM TRIFLOURIDE TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE RARELY USED, ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE STRONTIUM
  • 17. MACROFILLERS FINELY GROUND AMORPHOUS SILICA ORQUARTZ. AVERAGE SIZE 8 – 12 um. PARTICLES AS LARGE AS 50 um MAY ASLO BEPRESENT. FILLER LOADING IS 70 – 80 % BY WEIGHT 60 -70 % BY VOLUME ADVANTAGE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH IMPROVED OFCOMPOSITE DUE TO TRANSFER OF STRESS FROM
  • 18.  REDUCES WATER SORPTION,POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE, THERMALEXPANSION. DISADVANTAGE ROUGH SURFACE DEVELOPS DURINGABRASIVE WEAR OF SOFT RESIN MATRIX. EXPOSING MORE OF FILLER PARTICLE,THAT PROTRUDE FROM THE SURFACE. ALSO LEAD TO DISCOLORATION.
  • 19. MICROFILLERS 0.04 um. 80 % BY WEIGHT. 60 % BY VOLUME. PROBLEMS OF SURFACE ROUGHENING & LOWTRANSLUNENCY ASSOCIATED WITHMACROFILLED COMPOSITES ARE OVERCOME BYUSE OF COLLOIDAL SILICA.
  • 20. ADVANTAGE SMOOTH SURFACE. INORGANIC FILLER PARTICLE SMALLERTHANABRASIVES, SO SILICA REMOVED ALONG WITHRESIN, LEAVING SMOOTH, POLISHED SURFACE. DISADVANTAGE REDUCES TENSILE STRENGTH. INCREASES WATER SORPTION.
  • 21. SMALL PARTICLE 0.5 – 3 um. FILLERS ADDED ARE GROUND QUARTZ TOIMPROVE SUTFACE ROUGHNESS & RETAIN ORIMPROVE PYSICAL PROPERTIES OFTRADITIONAL COMPOSITES. 80 -90 % BY WEIGHT. 65 – 70 % BY VOLUME.
  • 22. ADVANTAGES COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH EXCEED THAT OFTRADITIONAL COMPOSITES. HIGH MODULUS OF ELASTICITY. HIGH TENSILE STRENGTH. SURFACE SMOOTHNESS IS ALMOST SIMILARTO THAT ACHIEVED BY MICROFILLERS. GREAT WEAR RESISTANCE, THUS CAN BEUSED IN HIGH STRESS BEARING AREAS.
  • 23. HYBRID FILLERS 0.6 – 1.0 um. DEVELOPED IN AN EFFORT TO OBTAIN EVENBETTER SMOOTHNESS THAN THAT PROVIDED BYSMALL PARTICLE, WHILE STILL MAINTAINING THEPHYSICAL PROPERTIES. COLLOIDAL SILICA & GROUND PARTICLES OFGLASSES CONTAINING HEAVY METAL .
  • 24. ADVANTAGES SMALLER PARTICLE SIZE + GREATTERAMOUNT OF MICROFILLERS INCREASES SURFACE AREA THUS, OVERALL FILLER LOADING IS NOT ASHIGH AS SMALL PARTICLE. PROVIDING A SMOOTH &POLISHEDSURFACE. PHYSICAL & MECHANICAL PROPERTIESRANGE BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND
  • 25. PACKABLE COMPOSITES BASED ON PRIMM, WHERE THE FILLER CONTENT ISINCREASED AND MATRIX CONENT REDUCED. THE NOVEL FILLERS USED INCREASED THEFILLER SURFACE AREA THAT WOULD ABSORB MOREMATRIX & THUS AVOID STICKINESS. THE FIRST FEW PACKABLE COMPOSITES USEDFUSED PARTICLE AGGLOMERATES, FIBROUS FILLERADDITINS AND BETTER FILLER PARTICLE PACKINGARRANGEMENTS. ALL THIS WILL REDUCE THE VISCOELASTICITY OF
  • 26. EXAMPLESSOLITAIRE FILLER USED IS CRUSHED BARIUMALUMINOSILICATE . THESE PARTICLES ARE BONDED AT HIGHTEMPERATURES, CREATING LARGE PARTICLES WITHCOARSE STRUCTURE. THE UNIQUE GEOMETRY OF THE FILLERCOMPONENT CREATES AN UNSET COMPOSITE WITHPACKABLE BEHAVIOUR. THIS IS BECAUSE OF FRICTION CAUSED BY SLIDING
  • 27. ALERT FILLER USED IS CRUSHED BARIUMBOROALUMINOSILICATE + COLLOIDAL SILICA. THESE ARE CHOPPED MICROGLASS FILLER +CONVENTIONAL HYBRID FILLERS. THE OVERALL CONSISTENCY IS SIMILAR TI THAT OFTRITURATED AMALGAM.
  • 28. SUREFIL FILLER USED IS CRUSHED MIDIFILLER,MINIFILLER, MICROFILLER. THESE FILLER PARTICLES ARE MADE OFBARIUMFLOURO ALUMINOSILICATE GLASS + SILICA. THIS PERMITS HIGH PACKING DENITY ANDAMALGAM LIKE PROPERTIES.
  • 29. FLOWABLE COMPOSITES LOWER FILLER CONTENT THAN PACKABLECOMPOSITES. 0.04 – 1.00 UM. 20 -25 % LESS THAN TRADITIONALCOMPOSITES. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES INFERIOR. FILLER CONTENT WAS REDUCED TO LET THEMATERIAL FLOW READILY, SPREADUNIFORMLY & INTIMATELY ADAPT TO CAVITY
  • 30. COMPOMERS THESE MATERIALS CONTAINFUNCTIONAL GROUP OF POLY ACRYLIC ACID +METHACRYLATE, FILLERS TO WHICH GLASSPARTICLES ARE ADDED. THERE FILERS HAVE FLOURIDE RELEASEPROPERTY. Eg. DYCRAT – CALCIUM FLOUROAMINO SILICATEGLASS - FINELY MILLED GLASS
  • 31. SMART COMPOSITES THESE CONTAIN BARIUM, ALUMINIUM,FLOURIDE SILICATE GLASS FILLER WITHYTTERBIUM TRI FLOURIDE, SILICON DIOXIDEAND ALKALINE GLASS. FILLER CONTENT 80% BY WEIGHT 60% BY VOLUME. FLOURIDERELEASE IS LOWER THAN GLASSIONOMER BUT MORE THAN COMPOMERS.
  • 32. ORMOCERS THESE ARE ORGANICALLY MODIFIEDCERAMICS. FILLER USED IS SILICON OXIDE. THESE ARE MODIFIED BY ADDING FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITESPOLYMERIZABLE SIDE CHAINS.  FILLER HERE ARE THE IMPREGNATEDFIBERS. GENERALLY 10-15 UM, CAN BE SUPPLIED AS, PARALLEL GLASS FIBERS WOVEN FIBERS
  • 33. NANOFILLERS 0.005 – 0.01 UM. THAT IS BELOW THE WAVELENGTH FORVISIBLE LIGHT (0.02 – 2UM), AS THESE PARTICLES DO NOT INTERACTWITH VISIBLE LIGHT THEY DO NOT PRODUCESCATTERING OR SIGNIFICANT ABSORPTION. THE FILLERS HERE ARE NON-SILICATEBASED, AS THEY DO NOT AGGLOMERATE,UNLIKE THE SISLICA BASED FILLERS.
  • 34. Current resin-based filling materials shrink, leak,and wear away. This process allows decay to develop,
  • 35. The new nanofiller and liquid-crystal filling materialreduce leakage by preventing shrinkage and resisting wear. Before the cavity is filled with this resin, a new treatment is applied to the pulp chamber to encourage
  • 36. REFRACTORY MATERIAL A material that withstands high temperature withoutdecomposing or disintegrating. Resists heat & force of casting. Expands and compensates for casting shrinkage. Silica
  • 37. Quartz, Cristoballite, Tridymite, FusedQuartz inverts Low form High form(Alpha quartz) 575 0 C ( Beta quartz) Cristoballite 200 0 C to 270 0 C Tridymite 2 inversions at 117 0 C & 163 0 C. Density decreases as alpha form converts to beta form, with resulting increase in linear expansion. Fused quartz is amorphous & glass like & exhibits noinversion at
  • 38.  IN ADMIXED ALLOY, WHICH IS MADE OF 2PARTS BY WEIGHT OF AgSn LATHE CUT ALLOYAND 1 PART OF AgCu EUTECTIC ALLOY . HERE AgCu ALLOY ACTS AS THE FILLER.THIS HELPS IN STRENGTHENING OF SILVERMATRIX.TOTAL AMOUNT OF COPPER IS 9-20%.COPPER GIVES STRENGTH REDUCES FLOW & CREEP INCREASES SETTINGEXPANSION
  • 39.  ELECTROLYTE PRECIPITATE GOLD, ALLOYEDWITH CALCIUM. HERE CALCIUM ACTS AS FILLER. 0.1% CALCIUM. ITS PURPOSE IS TO PRODUCE STRONGERRESTORATIONS BY DISPERSIONSTRENGTHENING. OTHER FILLERS THAT CAN BE ADDED ARE PALLADIUM PLATINUM INDIUM
  • 40.  PALLADIUM IS GENERALLY USED AS THEFILLER HERE. IN CLASS I ALLOYS 1-5% PALLADIUM CLASS II ALLOYS 60% PALLADIUM CLASS III ALLOYS MAINLY COMPOSED OF PALLADIUM PALLADIUM GIVES STRENGTH TO THECASTING ALLOYS.
  • 41. ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL PASTE 25% TALC FILLER USED. THESE ARE SMALL PARTICLES OF INERTMATERIALS ADDED TO GIVE STRENGTH TO MATERIAL REDUCES PLASTICITY OTHER FILLERS ADDED ARE FRENCH CHALKDIATOMACEOUS EARTH SOAP
  • 42. AGAR BORAX IS USED TO GIVE STRENGTH OTHER FILLERS ADDED ARE CLAYDIATOMACEOUS EARTH SILICA WAX RUBBER THESE ARE ADDED TO CONTROL STRENGTH
  • 43. ALGINATE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILLER THESE GIVE STRENGTH STIFFNESS SMOOTH TEXTURE ENSURE FORMATION OF ASMOOTH, NON-TACKY GEL FORMS SOL BY DISPERSINGALGINATE
  • 44. POLYSULFIDES TITANIUM DIOXIDE ZINC SULFATE COPPER CARBONATE CONDENSATION SILICONE ADDITION SILICONE POLY ETHER COLLOIDAL SILICA
  • 45. INLAY WAX INLAY WAX IS A COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS WAXESWITH CONTROLLED PROPERTIES OF THERMALEXPANSION AND CONTRACTION. PARAFFIN WAX IS THE MAJOR INGREDIENT OF 40 – 60%, BUT LIKELY TO FLAKE WHEN TRIMMED AND DOESNOT PRESENT SMOOTH SURFACE. GUM DAMMAR IMPROVES SMOOTHNESS, INCREASESTOUGHNESS AND RENDER IT MORE RESISTAMT TOCRACKS. CARNAUBA WAX ALSO ADDS TO GLOSSINESS AND HASHIGH MELTING POINT. CERESIN REPLACES PART OF PARAFFIN WAX TO
  • 46. CERAMICS PURE QUARTZ THIS WILL IMPART STRENGTH FIRMNESS TRANSLUCENCY ALUMINA AND LEUCITE FILLERSINFILTRATRED TO GIVE STRENGTH INHIBIT CRACK PROPAGATION
  • 47. ZINC PHOSPHATE CEMENT FILLER USED IS SILICA. 1.4 % AS FILLER CONTEMT IS INCREASED ₫STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT ALSO INCREASES TO ABOUT 17,000 PSI. ₫FLUID AND WATER SORPTION REDUCES ₫LESS SOLUBILTIY & DISINTEGRATION
  • 48. ZINC POLYCARBOXYLATE CEMENT FILLER USED IS STANNOUS FLOURIDE. AS FILLER CONTENT IS INCREASED ₫STRENGTH OF THE CEMENT ALSO INCREASES TO ABOUT 7,000 - 9,000 PSI. ₫FLUID AND WATER SORPTION REDUCES. ₫LESS SOLUBILTIY & DISINTEGRATION.₫ IMPARTS ANTICARIOGENIC PROPERTY.
  • 49. ZINC OXIDE EUGENOL CEMENT IN CONVENTIONAL CEMENT, USE OF ZINCACETATE AS FILLER HELPS INCRESING THESTRENGTH. IN EBA CEMENT, CERTAIN FILLERS LIKEQUARTZ, FUSED QUARTZ, ALUMINA,DICALCIUM PHOSPHATE, LEAD OXIDE,MERCURIC OXIDE, ETC ARE ADDED TO IMPROVETHE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES. IN RESIN MODIFIED ZOE, POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE RESIN INFILTRATED TO
  • 50. GLASS IONOMER CEMENT FILLER USED HERE IS 35 – 50 % SILICA OTHERS, CALCIUM (15-20%), SODIUM (3-6%) &ALUMINIUM (1.5-2.5%) FLOURIDE GIVES GIC A STRENGTH OF 150 – 200 MPA. RESIN MODIFIED GIC SILICA FILLER USED, ONLY THE POLY ACRYIC ACIDHAS, A DIMETHACRYLATE MONOMER GRAFTED IN IT. POLYACID MODIFIED GICMETHACRYLATE GROUP + POLYACRYLIC ACID, FILLERSTO WHICH GLASS PARTICLE ADDED
  • 51.  CALCIUM HY.DROXIDE AND MTA USED ASRETROGRADE FILLING MATERIALS HAVETITANIUM OXIDE (12- 14 %)AS FILLER. GUTTA PERCHA USES ZINC OXIDE AS FILLER(66 %). RESILON CONTAINS FILLER CONTENT OFABOUT 70% THAT COMPRISES OF CALCIUMHYDROXIDE, BARIUM SULFATE, BARIUM GLASS& SILICA.
  • 52. The effect of ceramic and porous fillers on the mechanical properties of experimental dental composites. Dent Mater. 2005 Jul 28Rare earth oxide-containing fluorescent glass filler for composite resin. Dent Mater J. 2005 Mar;24(1):49-52.
  • 53. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Oct;134(10):182-90. Distribution of nanofillers from a simplified-step adhesive in acid- conditioned dentin. J Adhes Dent. 1999;1(2):103-17.