1. BRANCHIAL ARCHES
2. DEVELOPMENT OF FACE
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
BRANCHIAL ARCHES






Develop during the late somite period
i.e. 4th week I.U
The mesoderm of the ventral foregut regi...
Development of Branchial Arches


Branchial arches separated on the external
aspect of the embryo
BRANCHIAL GROOVES


Correspond internally with outpouching of
the elongated pharynx
PHARYNGEAL POUCHES


Each pair of Branchial arches contain a
basic set of structures.
1. Cartilage component.
2. Muscular component.
3. Vasc...


Cartilage component :
Adapt to form Bony, Cartilagenous or
Ligamentous structures



Muscle component:
Give rise to sp...


Nerve component :
Nerve fibers of special cranial nerves
Enter mesoderm of branchial arches
Initiate muscle development...






1st BRANCHIAL ARCH
(Mandibular arch)
Precursor of both the jaws:
Maxilla + Mandible
Initially gives rise to a lar...
COMPONENTS OF 1st ARCH
1. Cartilage : MECKEL’S CARTILAGE
--Arises 41st – 45th Day I.U
--It provides a template for subsequ...


Derivatives of Meckel’s Cartilage :
-- Mental Ossicle (Endochondral Oss.)
-- Head and neck of Malleus.
-- Short crus of...
2. Musculature Derived from 1st arch:
-- Muscles of Mastication.
-- Mylohyoid Muscle.
-- Ant. Belly of Digastric.
-- Tenso...
4. Nerve components:
-- Mandibular division of Trigeminal.N
( Vth Cranial Nerve)

-- Sensory component supplies
: Mandible...
2nd BRANCHIAL ARCH

(Hyoid Arch)



Components:
1. Cartilage : Reichert’s Cartilage
(45th – 48th I.U)
-- Greater part of ...
2. Muscles :
-- Stapedius
-- Stylohyoid
-- Post. Belly of Digastric.
-- Mimetic muscles of face.
-- Levator Veli Palatini.
3. Nerve :
-- Facial / VII Cranial nerve.
-- Special sensory component
- Chorda tympani nerve
(Ant 2/3rd of Tongue)
4. Art...
Muscles
Nerves ass. with Branchial arches
Anomalies associated with
branchial arches




Deficient development of the branchial arches
result in syndromes accordi...
Trecher Collins syndrome
DEVELOPMENT OF FACE


Development of the head depends upon
inductive activities of 2 organizing centers
-- Prosencephalic...
ORGANIZING CENTER’S


Prosencephalic organizing center :
-- Derived from prechordal mesoderm
that migrates from the primitive streak.
-- Situ...
-- Induces the formation of :





Visual apparatus
Inner ear apparatus
Upper third of face


Rhombencephalic organizing center :
-- Caudal in relation to the Prosencephalic
centre.
Induces the formation of:
-- Mi...


Oral development in embryo is demarcated
extremely early in life by the appearance
of the prechordal plate (14th day)
+...


Oropharyngeal membrane is a temporary
bilaminar membrane which functions
as:
1. Site of junction of ectoderm and
endode...
Cranial portion


Embryo
Caudal portion



Rapid development of the cranial portion
than the caudal portion.


This differential rates of growth results in the
formation of pear-shaped embryonic disc.
-- Cranial/Head region formin...




Therefore during 5th to 8 wks.
- Head constitutes nearly half the
total body size.
This explains the

“Cephalo-cauda...


The face derives from five prominences that
surround a central depression,
--The Stomodeum ( Future mouth)



Prominen...


Frontonasal prominence :
Surrounds the forebrain
sprouts lateral optic diverticula
Eyes


The frontal portion of the prominence
b/w the eyes forms the Forehead.


At the infero-lateral corners, thickened
ectodermal nasal placodes arise


These placodes induced by the underlying
olfactory nerves
Invaginate
Demarcate the medial and
lateral nasal
prominences...


Next, is the union of the facial prominences
by either of the 2 below
developmental events.
1. Merging of the frontonas...


Merging is completed as a result of
proliferation of the underlying mesenchyme
into the intervening grooves.



The ab...


Failure of normal disintegration of nasal fin
Due to:
1. Cell death
2. Mesenchymal Leads to cleft of upper lip and
tran...


Midline merging of median nasal prominences
forms :
 Philtrum of upper lip
Median tubercle.
Tip of the nose.
Primar...


Post. Merging of Medial nasal processes
Median primary palate
Premaxilla
Future site of 4 upper incisors


Midline merging of the paired
mandibular prominences
Lower jaw + Lower lip
-- First to get definitely established .


Lateral merging of maxillary and
mandibular prominences.
Commisures of mouth


All the regions of the face grow in proportion
to each other and equally.



i.e. any malproportioning at this time ma...
Various Cranio- facial defects









Acephaly (Absence of head)
Anencephaly (Absence of brain)
Acrania (Absent ...


Specific structures :
-- Nose
-- Cheeks
-- Lips
-- Tongue


Nose :
Complex structure with contributions
from :
-- Frontal prominence
- Bridge
-- Merged MNP
- Median ridge
+ Tip
--...
From frontonasal process
From median nasal process


Lips :
1. Upper lip :
As the maxillary, lateral and nasal
processes fuse and the nares come close to
each other the upp...




The mesodermal basis of lateral part
Maxillary process
The mesodermal basis of median part
Frontonasal process


The ectoderm of the max. process overgrows
the philtrum to meet the opposite side.



Therefore the skin of the entire...


The fused mandibular prominences give
rise to the lower lip and jaw.
Cheeks :
After the formation of the lips the
maxil...


Tongue :
Ant 2/3rd :
-- Median triangular elevation in the
floor of the primitive pharynx ant. to foramen
caecum termed...


Median and distal tongue beds rapidly
increase in size and fuse together to form
the ant.2/3rd of the tongue.



2 ele...


External ear :
1ST Brachial groove
-- External acoustic meatus
• Auricle derived from
the auricular hillocks
i.e. the mesoderm of
the 1st and 2nd
Branchial arches.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
-- G.H.SPERBER
(Cranifacial Embryology)

-- KIETH.L.MOORE
(The Developing Human)

-- KIETH.L.MOORE
(Altas ...
Thank you
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Development of Face  /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Development of Face /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. 1. BRANCHIAL ARCHES 2. DEVELOPMENT OF FACE
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. BRANCHIAL ARCHES    Develop during the late somite period i.e. 4th week I.U The mesoderm of the ventral foregut region gets segmented Six distinct bilateral mesenchymal swellings BRANCHIAL ARCHES
  4. 4. Development of Branchial Arches
  5. 5.  Branchial arches separated on the external aspect of the embryo BRANCHIAL GROOVES
  6. 6.  Correspond internally with outpouching of the elongated pharynx PHARYNGEAL POUCHES
  7. 7.  Each pair of Branchial arches contain a basic set of structures. 1. Cartilage component. 2. Muscular component. 3. Vascular component. 4. Nervous component.
  8. 8.  Cartilage component : Adapt to form Bony, Cartilagenous or Ligamentous structures  Muscle component: Give rise to special visceral muscles composed of straited muscle fibers.  Vascular component: Provides necessary blood supply.
  9. 9.  Nerve component : Nerve fibers of special cranial nerves Enter mesoderm of branchial arches Initiate muscle development in the mesoderm Migrate and adapt to the brachial arches
  10. 10.    1st BRANCHIAL ARCH (Mandibular arch) Precursor of both the jaws: Maxilla + Mandible Initially gives rise to a large mandibular prominence. Gives rise to a small maxillary prominence which extends cranioventrally. Maxilla
  11. 11. COMPONENTS OF 1st ARCH 1. Cartilage : MECKEL’S CARTILAGE --Arises 41st – 45th Day I.U --It provides a template for subsequent development of the mandible.
  12. 12.  Derivatives of Meckel’s Cartilage : -- Mental Ossicle (Endochondral Oss.) -- Head and neck of Malleus. -- Short crus of the Incus. -- Ant. Ligament of the Malleus. -- Sphenomandibular Ligament.
  13. 13. 2. Musculature Derived from 1st arch: -- Muscles of Mastication. -- Mylohyoid Muscle. -- Ant. Belly of Digastric. -- Tensor Tympani. -- Tensor Veli Palatini Muscles. 3. Arterial Component: -- Part of Maxillary and Ext.Carotid.Art
  14. 14. 4. Nerve components: -- Mandibular division of Trigeminal.N ( Vth Cranial Nerve) -- Sensory component supplies : Mandible and covering mucosa. : Mandibular teeth including Gingiva. : Mucosa of ant. 2/3 of Tongue. : Floor of the mouth. : Skin of the lower third of Face.
  15. 15. 2nd BRANCHIAL ARCH (Hyoid Arch)  Components: 1. Cartilage : Reichert’s Cartilage (45th – 48th I.U) -- Greater part of the third ear ossicle. -- Stapes, Malleus and incus. -- Styloid process of the temporal bone. -- Stylohyoid ligament. -- Lessor horn of sphenoid. -- Cranial part - Body of Hyoid. -- Segments of the facial canal.
  16. 16. 2. Muscles : -- Stapedius -- Stylohyoid -- Post. Belly of Digastric. -- Mimetic muscles of face. -- Levator Veli Palatini.
  17. 17. 3. Nerve : -- Facial / VII Cranial nerve. -- Special sensory component - Chorda tympani nerve (Ant 2/3rd of Tongue) 4. Artery : -- Stapedial artery - Transient i.e. disappears during fetal life.
  18. 18. Muscles
  19. 19. Nerves ass. with Branchial arches
  20. 20. Anomalies associated with branchial arches   Deficient development of the branchial arches result in syndromes according to the arch involved. First arch syndromes : - Agnathia - Microstomia - Treacher Collins syndrome (mandibular dysostosis) - Pierre Robin syndrome (micrognathia+cleft palate)
  21. 21. Trecher Collins syndrome
  22. 22. DEVELOPMENT OF FACE  Development of the head depends upon inductive activities of 2 organizing centers -- Prosencephalic -- Rhombencephalic
  23. 23. ORGANIZING CENTER’S
  24. 24.  Prosencephalic organizing center : -- Derived from prechordal mesoderm that migrates from the primitive streak. -- Situated at the rostral end of the notochord below the fore brain.
  25. 25. -- Induces the formation of :    Visual apparatus Inner ear apparatus Upper third of face
  26. 26.  Rhombencephalic organizing center : -- Caudal in relation to the Prosencephalic centre. Induces the formation of: -- Middle and lower third of the face. -- Middle and external ears.
  27. 27.  Oral development in embryo is demarcated extremely early in life by the appearance of the prechordal plate (14th day) + Endodermal Thickening Oropharyngeal Membrane
  28. 28.  Oropharyngeal membrane is a temporary bilaminar membrane which functions as: 1. Site of junction of ectoderm and endoderm. 2. Demarcates the stomodeum from the rest. i.e. initial demarcation of the future mouth.
  29. 29. Cranial portion  Embryo Caudal portion  Rapid development of the cranial portion than the caudal portion.
  30. 30.  This differential rates of growth results in the formation of pear-shaped embryonic disc. -- Cranial/Head region forming the expanded portion of the pear.  Further, the 3 germ layers show specific development by the middle of the 3 rd week in the cranial portion as compared to 4-5 wks in the caudal portion.
  31. 31.   Therefore during 5th to 8 wks. - Head constitutes nearly half the total body size. This explains the “Cephalo-caudal growth gradient”
  32. 32.  The face derives from five prominences that surround a central depression, --The Stomodeum ( Future mouth)  Prominences: -- Single median Frontonasal -- Paired Maxillary + Mandibular
  33. 33.  Frontonasal prominence : Surrounds the forebrain sprouts lateral optic diverticula Eyes
  34. 34.  The frontal portion of the prominence b/w the eyes forms the Forehead.
  35. 35.  At the infero-lateral corners, thickened ectodermal nasal placodes arise
  36. 36.  These placodes induced by the underlying olfactory nerves Invaginate Demarcate the medial and lateral nasal prominences. Nasal pits Precursors to Anterior nares
  37. 37.  Next, is the union of the facial prominences by either of the 2 below developmental events. 1. Merging of the frontonasal, maxillary and mandibular prominences. OR 2. Fusion of the central maxillonasal components.
  38. 38.  Merging is completed as a result of proliferation of the underlying mesenchyme into the intervening grooves.  The above is guided by the disintegration of the contacting surface epithelium b/w the processes termed as Nasal fin
  39. 39.  Failure of normal disintegration of nasal fin Due to: 1. Cell death 2. Mesenchymal Leads to cleft of upper lip and transformation anterior palate (Due to prevention of merging of mesenchyme of max. and medial nasal processes)
  40. 40.  Midline merging of median nasal prominences forms :  Philtrum of upper lip Median tubercle. Tip of the nose. Primary palate.
  41. 41.  Post. Merging of Medial nasal processes Median primary palate Premaxilla Future site of 4 upper incisors
  42. 42.  Midline merging of the paired mandibular prominences Lower jaw + Lower lip -- First to get definitely established .
  43. 43.  Lateral merging of maxillary and mandibular prominences. Commisures of mouth
  44. 44.  All the regions of the face grow in proportion to each other and equally.  i.e. any malproportioning at this time may form a basis for craniofacial defects.
  45. 45. Various Cranio- facial defects         Acephaly (Absence of head) Anencephaly (Absence of brain) Acrania (Absent skull) Acalvaria (Roofless skull) Cranioschisis (Fissured cranium) Premaxillary agenesis (Median cleft lip/palate) Premaxillary dysgenesis (Bilateral cleft lip/palate) Agnathia (Absent mandible)
  46. 46.  Specific structures : -- Nose -- Cheeks -- Lips -- Tongue
  47. 47.  Nose : Complex structure with contributions from : -- Frontal prominence - Bridge -- Merged MNP - Median ridge + Tip -- Lateral nasal Prominence - Alae -- Cartilage nasal capsule - Septum + Nasal conchae
  48. 48. From frontonasal process From median nasal process
  49. 49.  Lips : 1. Upper lip : As the maxillary, lateral and nasal processes fuse and the nares come close to each other the upper lip forms from the -- Maxillary process -- Frontanasal process
  50. 50.   The mesodermal basis of lateral part Maxillary process The mesodermal basis of median part Frontonasal process
  51. 51.  The ectoderm of the max. process overgrows the philtrum to meet the opposite side.  Therefore the skin of the entire upper lip is formed by the maxillary process, and innervated by the maxillary nerves.
  52. 52.  The fused mandibular prominences give rise to the lower lip and jaw. Cheeks : After the formation of the lips the maxillary and mandibular processes undergo progressive fusion to form the cheeks.
  53. 53.  Tongue : Ant 2/3rd : -- Median triangular elevation in the floor of the primitive pharynx ant. to foramen caecum termed as Median tongue bed. ( Tuberculum Impar) -- Mesenchyme of the 1st arch give rise to 2 distal tongue beds on either side of median tongue bed.
  54. 54.  Median and distal tongue beds rapidly increase in size and fuse together to form the ant.2/3rd of the tongue.  2 elevations copula and the hypobranchial eminence form the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue.
  55. 55.  External ear : 1ST Brachial groove -- External acoustic meatus
  56. 56. • Auricle derived from the auricular hillocks i.e. the mesoderm of the 1st and 2nd Branchial arches.
  57. 57.  BIBLIOGRAPHY -- G.H.SPERBER (Cranifacial Embryology) -- KIETH.L.MOORE (The Developing Human) -- KIETH.L.MOORE (Altas of Human Embryology) -- WILLIAM.R.PROFFIT (Contemporary Orthodontics)
  58. 58. Thank you www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education

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