ENDODONTICINSTRUMENTS   INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education   www.indiandentalacademy.com     www.i...
CONTENTS•   INTRODUCTION•   HISTORY•   CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS•   EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS•   EXPLORING INST...
INTRODUCTION:     “worksman is known by his tool” As the endodontic therapy becomes a more routine part of general dental ...
HISTORY:• 2200 years old Nabatean warrior skull _ oldest root canal    filling•   1750 – Fauchard recommended removal of p...
•   1962 – Working committee on standardization .•   1964 _ Introduction of giromatic handpiece.•   1975 _ 1st report on p...
CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTICINSRUMENTSBASED ON FUNCTION     A)EXPLORING _to locate canal orifice and to assist     in obta...
ISO GROUPING      A) GROUP I _hand use only      B) GROUP II _engine driven latch type      C) GROUP III_ engine driven la...
EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS• Instruments used in examination are      1)front surface mouth mirror _ overcomes the  problem of a...
EXPLORING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXPLORERS:•   Long, narrow working ends.•   Angle away from shank – easy access.•   Locate...
PATHFINDER:• To negotiate highly calcified and constricted root canals.• Available in pre sterilized single-unit packages,...
DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXCAVATOR• Longer offset – better reach• Excise pulp tissue from pulp chamber            w...
BARBED BROACH, RASP ANDAPPLICATORS:    • Made from soft iron wire.• Differ from other H-type and K-type _ taper and workin...
• Barbed broach – Thin, flexible, tapered and pointed                      removal of intact pulp tissue, paper           ...
MICRO OPENERS•   Exploring of explorers + Instrumentation of K-files.•   7mm K-type flutes.•   10 and 15 size with 0.04/0....
ISO GROUP I INSTRUMENTSMANUFACTURE:First made from carbon steelNow made universally of Ni-Ti and stainless steels.Produced...
STANDARDIZATIONSTANDARIZATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS        The recommendations for standardization of   endodontic ins...
E) The instruments enlarge by 0.02 mm/mm from D0 to D16D) The tip angle of an instrument should be 75 ±15°Color coding of ...
TERMINOLOGIES IN INSTRUMENT DESIGN:RAKE ANGLE:     “The angle between the cutting edge and a perpendicular to the surface ...
CLEANING AND SHAPINGINSTRUMENTSK FILES• Instruments with tighter spirals.• 1.97 to 0.88 cutting flutes per mm of operating...
• More work hardened – stiffer than reamers.• Identification symbol – square            www.indiandentalacademy.com
K REAMERS•   Instruments with lesser number of flutes.•   0.80 to 0.28 cutting flutes per mm of operating head.•   Produce...
K-STYLE MODIFICATIONK-FLEX:• Forerunner of hybrid instruments.• Hybrid – strength and versatility of          K-type + agg...
HEDSTROEM FILES• Cutting spiraling flutes into shaft of round, tapered    stainless steel wire.•   Very positive rake of f...
H-STYLE MODIFICATION:•   Mcspadden – Unifile•   ‘S’ file – variation of unifile•    Double helix design.•   Cross-section ...
TIP MODIFICATION :          • Tip design led to improved cutting efficiency.              (NWU group)          •   Triangu...
FLEXOFILES:•   Flexible file_ triangular cross section stainless steel blank•   Non cutting tip(1.81 flutes per mm)•   Gol...
FLEX_R FILES•   Used in BALANCED FORCE TECHNIQUE•   Triangular blank machined•   Advantage _              increased stiffn...
HELIAPICAL:•   Resembles conventional files _ apical 4 to 5mm•   Remainder blank shank•   Smaller size _ fracture if conti...
ZIPPERER FLEXICUT• Triangular blank_ SCS spacecraft steel• High vaccum fired chrome nickel steel _ uniform    structure•  ...
FLEXOGATES:• Stainless steel instrument – similar to                             canal master•   One spiral fluting – expa...
INTERMEDIATE FILES• Produced _ trimming 1mm from tip of file and rounding    off sharp edges on a diamond file•   Files ch...
OBTURATING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC CONDENSERS ANDSPREADERS:• Smooth tapered metal instruments – compress and    compact gutt...
• M series plugger-spreaders – double-ended      long-handled instruments  Handles colour coded  Corresponds to standard  ...
ENDODONTIC PLIERS ANDFORCEPS:• Handling and placement of silver point and gutta-percha    cones.•   Pliers – tapered groov...
RECENTADVANCESSENSEUS FLEXOFILE•   Unique silicone handle.•    Stainless steel triangular core file and safe ended tip.•  ...
NEW C-PILOT FILE:•   Probing calcified canals.•   Creating smooth passage for rotary NiTi preparation.•   Extra sturdy – u...
ENDO HANDLE:• Colour coded handles with locking chamber• Micro files used with file holder             www.indiandentalaca...
NiTi spreaders• NiTi finger spreaders• Used in curved canals for good obturation            www.indiandentalacademy.com
FLEX MASTER•   K-type cutting blades with Blunt tip.•   Cross-section – convex.•   Sufficient space between blades – remov...
CC+ SERIES•   Includes H-file, R-reamer, K- file, flexicut file, C-pilot file.•   Additional longitudinal ridge – increase...
ISO GROUPS II AND III    Engine – driven instrument use – 3 types of contra angle     handpiece.   • A full rotary handpie...
ROTARY CONTRA ANGLEHANDPIECE• Instrumentation – Straight line drilling or side    cutting.•   With round or tapered burs –...
• Solution – Use of slower handpiece.             Ex: 1) Medidenta/ Micro Mega MM 324                      reduction gear ...
RECIPROCATING HANDPIECE:• Giromatic handpiece – Accepts latch type    instruments.•    Canal insruments available for use ...
• M4 safety handpiece – 30 degree reciprocating                            motion.                       Regular hand file...
VERTICAL STROKE HANDPIECE:•   Air or electrically driven – Vertical stroke, 0.3 to 1mm.•   On binding – Quarter turn recip...
• Canal leader – speed reducing handpiece with 4:1 step                       down•   Vertical movement of 0.4 to 0.8mmwit...
RANDOM HANDPIECE• Excalibur _ lateral vibrational movement         20000 to 25000 r.p.m.               Use modified K file...
ENDO IT PROFESSIONAL• Individually programmed torque limit and speed for each    instrument.•   Fast reaction auto stop – ...
ISO GROUP IIInstruments with shaft and operating head as separate   pieces:Ex:• B-2 reamer – cylindrical working head     ...
• Quarter-turn reamer – power-operated,                      tapered and pointed                      used with giromatic ...
EZ FILL• It has patented bi_directional spiral produces a coronal    and apical cement flow simultaneously•   When the opp...
ISO GROUP IIIShaft and operating head as 1 piece.• G-type reamer – GG drill                  stainless steel or NiTi      ...
• O-type reamer – long, tapered head                3 spiralling blades – plane angle   short     neck.• P-type reamer – P...
• A-type and D-type – similar design.• A-type – long, tapered, pyramid shaped          4 side cutting blade          c.s –...
• Ko reamer – longer than tapered and pointed fissure but   with out cross-cut.           8 side cutting blades with spira...
BURS:• Burs with extended shank –    preparation in pulp space with low    speed handpiece.•   Surgical length – 26mm.•   ...
ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS:• System in which sound as an energy source activates an    endodontic file resulting in a three di...
• Various ultrasonics used        Cavitron endodontic system.        Enac unit.        Piezon master 400.•   20 to 25 KHZ ...
• Cavi-Endo ultrasonic unit – 1st• Use either inert sterile or chemically active irrigant.• Modifications of K-type or R-t...
SONIC INSTRUMENTS:•   Sonic systems – vibration in audible frequency range•   Frequency – 2 to 3 KHZ.•   Micro Mega 1500 s...
• Rispisonic – old rat tail file                       (8 cutting blades)                coronal third•   Shaper sonic – h...
ISO GROUP IV:• Not strictly endodontic instrument but have been  considered part of armamentarium under developing  intern...
ROOT CANAL FILLING POINTS• Smaller, slender cones of solid material.• Used for canal obturation.  Ex: silver points, gutta...
NON-ISO INSTRUMENTS•   Advent of NiTi _ newer instrument system•   Instruments with greater taper•   Tapers _ 4% ,6% ,8% ,...
ProFile• Design – U grooves and radial lands• Lands – prevent uncontrolled cutting            Prevents premature fractures...
• Available – ISO sizing             series 29 standards  4% taper – small canals and apical regions  6% taper – mid root ...
GT PROFILES          •   Made of Ni-Ti.          •   Both hand and rotary.          •   Instruments – size 20.          • ...
•   6% taper – moderate to severely curved canals in small roots•   8% taper – straight to moderately curved canals in sma...
LIGHTSPEED•   NiTi instrument.•   Resemble a GG drill.•   Rotary instrument.•   Sizes – 20 to 140•   Half sizes – upto. 60...
• Laser etched length control rings – eliminate need for    silicone stops•   Advantage – finish apical third preparation ...
QUANTEC FILES• Design – similar to ProFile            Double helical flute design with               extensive peripheral ...
• Quantec flare series – 0.08, 0.10, 0.12mm/mm taper                         25 size                         shape coronal...
Hero 642• Design – tri helical Hedstroem with sharp flutes    Increased distance between flutes – reduced risk of    bindi...
PROTAPER:• Multiple tapering – fewer files required to create a    tapered shape.•   Used – curved canals, restricted cana...
Shaping filesSX shaper – canals of teeth with shorter roots            expand the coronal aspect of preparation           ...
Finishing filesTo plane away variation in canal diameter in apical one   thirdF1 – size 20, taper 0.07mm/mm (D0 to D3)F2 –...
K3 ROTARY INSTRUMENTS:•   Triple fluted, asymmetric Endo file system.•   Taper – 0.02, 0.04, 0.06mm/mm.•   3 modified land...
RaCe ROTARY INSTRUMENTS:•   Triangular cross-section.•   2 sets of cutting edge•   Alternating helical design•   Spade sha...
CANAL MASTER SYSTEM:•   Both hand and engine driven instruments.•   Instrument similar to GG drill.•   Hand instrument – a...
• Major features:    a) Replace usual cutting tip with non-cutting pilot.    b) Cutting head – 1-2mm.    c) Shaft diameter...
RAPID BODY SHAPERS AND POW – R ROTARY FILESRapid body shapers – 4 NiTi rotary engine reamers                   pattern bul...
POW – R rotary files – NiTi with non ledging bullet tip                     0.02, 0.04 taper                     clean and...
RECENTADVANCESV – taper system• Variable decreasing rate of taper starting from tip  towards shaft• Ex: V10          0 to ...
M2 SYSTEM:• NiTi rotary system• Flutes _ minimum contact         maximum space for debri removable  Radiographically visib...
LIBERATOR•   Taper _ 2%,4%,6%•   Sizes _ 15 to 40•   Speed _ 1000 to 2000 rpm•   Straight flute design cannot selfthread• ...
NEW CONCEPT IN INSTRUMENTDESIGN:• New instruments based on constant percent change• Percent change – difference between D0...
CONCLUSION• Successful endodontic treatment requires accurate    diagnosis , proper access opening, cleaning and shaping  ...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Endodontic instruments /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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  1. 1. ENDODONTICINSTRUMENTS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYLeader in Continuing Dental Education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. CONTENTS• INTRODUCTION• HISTORY• CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS• EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS• EXPLORING INSTRUMENTS• DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTS• CLEANING AND SHAPING INSTRUMENTS• STANDARDISATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENT• ISO GROUP I INSTRUMENTS• ISO GROUP II INSTRUMENTS• ISO GROUP III INSTRUMENTS• ISO GROUP IV INSTRUMENTS• NON-ISO INSTRUMENTS• NEW CONCEPT IN INSTRUMENT DESIGN• CONCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION: “worksman is known by his tool” As the endodontic therapy becomes a more routine part of general dental practice the clinician is bombarded with number of newer products designed to make treatment more precise and easier to perform. Newer instruments overcome the deficiency seen in earlier instruments. Thus a thorough knowledge in evolution of instruments is mandatory for operator. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. HISTORY:• 2200 years old Nabatean warrior skull _ oldest root canal filling• 1750 – Fauchard recommended removal of pulp• 1850 _ wooden pegs for debriding pulp• Early 1900 – Introduction of files ,reamers ,pathfinder , lentulospiral• 1915_kerr manufacturing company obtained patent for all instruments later known as k_type instruments• 1957 _Richman introduced first ultrasonic system• 1958_introduction of racer file handle• 1958 – Ingle & Levine 1st proposed standardization.• 1959 – New line of standardized instruments & filling materials. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. • 1962 – Working committee on standardization .• 1964 _ Introduction of giromatic handpiece.• 1975 _ 1st report on potential application of NiTi alloys• 1976 – 1st approved specification for root canal instruments.• 1976 to 1984_ Martin and Cunningham provided instruments that were set for vibration at 25 to 40KHz• 1984 _introduction of canalfinder system• 1988 _ 1st use of NiTi in endodontic instruments• 1989 – ANSI approval of “ADA specification number 28 for endodontic files & reamers.”• 1989_Wildey and Senic introduced canal master www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF ENDODONTICINSRUMENTSBASED ON FUNCTION A)EXPLORING _to locate canal orifice and to assist in obtaining patency of root canal B) DEBRIDING _to extirpate pulp and remove debris C) CLEANING AND SHAPING _ clean and shape root canals laterally and apically D) OBTURATING _To pack filling material into root canalMODE OF USE A) HAND B) ROTARY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. ISO GROUPING A) GROUP I _hand use only B) GROUP II _engine driven latch type C) GROUP III_ engine driven latch type drills orreamers D) GROUP IV_ root canal points www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. EXAMINING INSTRUMENTS• Instruments used in examination are 1)front surface mouth mirror _ overcomes the problem of associated with double image 2)periodontalprobe 3)explorer 4)cotton forceps www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. EXPLORING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXPLORERS:• Long, narrow working ends.• Angle away from shank – easy access.• Locate canal openings.• Explore pulp chambers. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. PATHFINDER:• To negotiate highly calcified and constricted root canals.• Available in pre sterilized single-unit packages, in 19, 21 and 25 mm lengths and two sizes, K1 and K2.• The carbon steel shaft – greater sharpness and strength for penetrating calcified root canals. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. DEBRIDING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC EXCAVATOR• Longer offset – better reach• Excise pulp tissue from pulp chamber www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. BARBED BROACH, RASP ANDAPPLICATORS: • Made from soft iron wire.• Differ from other H-type and K-type _ taper and working portion length. (ANSI sp. No :63)• The length of working portion of shaft _ 10mm.• Taper – 0.007mm/mm (Broach). 0.015mm/mm (rasp).• Difference between broach and rasp _ depth and angle of cut.• Barb height – half of core diameter (Broach).• Barb height – one third of core diameter (rasp). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. • Barbed broach – Thin, flexible, tapered and pointed removal of intact pulp tissue, paper points and cotton dressings. Identification symbol – 8 pointed star• Rasps – rough walled canal preparation. Previously rattail file Identification symbol – 8 pointed polyhedron• Applicators – slender, tapering, flexible, pointed C.S. – circle Incisive cuts – shallow, slight elevation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. MICRO OPENERS• Exploring of explorers + Instrumentation of K-files.• 7mm K-type flutes.• 10 and 15 size with 0.04/0.06mm/mm taperMICRO DEBRIDERS •Instrumenting or retreating – hard to reach canals. •H-type configuration – 20 and 30 size. 0.02mm/mm taper with 16mm cutting flutes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. ISO GROUP I INSTRUMENTSMANUFACTURE:First made from carbon steelNow made universally of Ni-Ti and stainless steels.Produced by two techniques.1st technique Grinding graduated sizes of round “piano” wire into various shapes and second grinding for taper. Then, twisted in counter clockwise direction for programmed number of times.2nd technique Grind spirals into tapered wire rather than twisting. Ni-Ti instruments are produced by this technique. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. STANDARDIZATIONSTANDARIZATION OF ENDODONTIC INSTRUMENTS The recommendations for standardization of endodontic instruments A) Instruments numbered from 10 to 100, based on diameter of the instruments in hundreds of a millimeter at the beginning of the tip of the blades B)The instruments from size 10 to size 60 advance by 5 units then by 10 units to size 140. C) The working blade (flutes) shall begin at tip, designated site D0 (diameter 1) and extend up to the most coronal part of the cutting edge at D16 (diameter 2). The flutes extend 16mm up the shaft. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. E) The instruments enlarge by 0.02 mm/mm from D0 to D16D) The tip angle of an instrument should be 75 ±15°Color coding of instruments _ easier identification ofinstruments www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. TERMINOLOGIES IN INSTRUMENT DESIGN:RAKE ANGLE: “The angle between the cutting edge and a perpendicular to the surface being cut”HELICAL ANGLE: “The angle the cutting edge makes with the long axis of the instrument” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. CLEANING AND SHAPINGINSTRUMENTSK FILES• Instruments with tighter spirals.• 1.97 to 0.88 cutting flutes per mm of operating head.• Produced mainly from square blank.• Cutting action – either filing (rasping) or reaming (drilling) motion.• Filing – rake of flutes rasp the walls as the instrument is withdrawn without turning.• Reaming – penetration, rotation and retraction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. • More work hardened – stiffer than reamers.• Identification symbol – square www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. K REAMERS• Instruments with lesser number of flutes.• 0.80 to 0.28 cutting flutes per mm of operating head.• Produced mainly from triangular blanks.• Cutting action penetration, rotation and retraction.• Identification symbol – equilateral triangle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. K-STYLE MODIFICATIONK-FLEX:• Forerunner of hybrid instruments.• Hybrid – strength and versatility of K-type + aggressive cutting of H-type.• Cross-section – rhombus or diamond.• Cutting edge – Two acute angles.• Alternating low flutes – obtuse angle – increase debri removal.• Space reservoir – reduced compacting dentinal filing.• Increase flexible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. HEDSTROEM FILES• Cutting spiraling flutes into shaft of round, tapered stainless steel wire.• Very positive rake of flute design.• Impossible to ream or drill.• Cut in one direction – retraction.• Cross-section – single helix teardrop www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. H-STYLE MODIFICATION:• Mcspadden – Unifile• ‘S’ file – variation of unifile• Double helix design.• Cross-section – ‘S’ shaped.• Helical angle – less than 90 degrees• Unifile , ‘S’ file _ flutes less deep than H files• Differs _ angle of flutes – constant depth of flute _ increases from tip to handle• ‘A’ file _ hand and rotary steep flutes and 40 degree helical angle non cutting tip• Safety Hedstroem files – non cutting side – prevent ledging. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. TIP MODIFICATION : • Tip design led to improved cutting efficiency. (NWU group) • Triangular pyramidal tips outperformed conical tips. (NWU group) • University of Oklahoma – redesigning tips eliminating their cutting ability. • Powell et al – “grinding to remove the transition angle” from tip to first blade. • Modified tip _ less transportation and more inner curvature preparation. (Sabala et al 1988) • Flex-R-files, control safe files, Anti-Ledging file and safety Hedstrom file. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. FLEXOFILES:• Flexible file_ triangular cross section stainless steel blank• Non cutting tip(1.81 flutes per mm)• Golden medium _similar in design www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. FLEX_R FILES• Used in BALANCED FORCE TECHNIQUE• Triangular blank machined• Advantage _ increased stiffness and strength _ smaller files increased flexibility _ larger files• cut efficiently _ anti clockwise rotary motion• safe ended tip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. HELIAPICAL:• Resembles conventional files _ apical 4 to 5mm• Remainder blank shank• Smaller size _ fracture if continuous rotation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. ZIPPERER FLEXICUT• Triangular blank_ SCS spacecraft steel• High vaccum fired chrome nickel steel _ uniform structure• Advantage _ flexibility and non aggressive tip www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. FLEXOGATES:• Stainless steel instrument – similar to canal master• One spiral fluting – expanded head• Non cutting tip• Smooth flexible shank _ circular in C.S• Shank _ deliberately weak at handle end www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. INTERMEDIATE FILES• Produced _ trimming 1mm from tip of file and rounding off sharp edges on a diamond file• Files changed from 10 to 12 15 to 17 20 to 22 25 to 27• Advantage _ smooth progress through files• Disadvantage _ disposable , edges difficult to smooth may cause ledging• Overcomed _ “GOLDEN MEDIUM” intermediate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. OBTURATING INSTRUMENTSENDODONTIC CONDENSERS ANDSPREADERS:• Smooth tapered metal instruments – compress and compact gutta-percha• Pluggers or condensers – blunt or flat-ended tips Spreaders – more tapered and pointed tips Long handled – chrome plated or stainless steel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. • M series plugger-spreaders – double-ended long-handled instruments Handles colour coded Corresponds to standard sizing and taper of K-type files• Finger held spreaders and condensers – similar to K-type files with plastic or metal handles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. ENDODONTIC PLIERS ANDFORCEPS:• Handling and placement of silver point and gutta-percha cones.• Pliers – tapered groove in beak for grasping silver cone.• Forceps – grooved or serrated beaks for holding gp cones.• Have latch mechanism for locking in closed position. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. RECENTADVANCESSENSEUS FLEXOFILE• Unique silicone handle.• Stainless steel triangular core file and safe ended tip.• Large, ergonomic handle provides comfort and excellent tactile feedback.• X-ray visible calibration ring (25mm and 31mm) to improve accuracy and diagnosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. NEW C-PILOT FILE:• Probing calcified canals.• Creating smooth passage for rotary NiTi preparation.• Extra sturdy – unique thermo process.• Thin but strong for obliterated canals.• ISO 6%, 8%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%.• Length – 19, 21, 25mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. ENDO HANDLE:• Colour coded handles with locking chamber• Micro files used with file holder www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. NiTi spreaders• NiTi finger spreaders• Used in curved canals for good obturation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. FLEX MASTER• K-type cutting blades with Blunt tip.• Cross-section – convex.• Sufficient space between blades – removal of dentinal debris.• Highest cutting efficiency – efficient preparation.• 50% faster. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. CC+ SERIES• Includes H-file, R-reamer, K- file, flexicut file, C-pilot file.• Additional longitudinal ridge – increased grip.• Anti slip effect.• Easier, less tiring.• X-ray visible calibration rings Continuous depth control during preparation. Faster stopper positioning.• Increased accuracy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. ISO GROUPS II AND III Engine – driven instrument use – 3 types of contra angle handpiece. • A full rotary handpiece – Latch or friction grip. • Reciprocating/Quarterturn handpiece. • Special handpiece – vertical stroke with reciprocating quarterturn.ISO GROUP II – Instruments with shaft and operating head as separate pieces ISO GROUP III – Instruments with shaft and operating head as one piece. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. ROTARY CONTRA ANGLEHANDPIECE• Instrumentation – Straight line drilling or side cutting.• With round or tapered burs – coronal access to canal orifice.• With special reamers – Funnel out orifices.• With Nickel titanium reamer type instruments – Clean and shape canals,• Misdirected or forced behind limits – Perforations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. • Solution – Use of slower handpiece. Ex: 1) Medidenta/ Micro Mega MM 324 reduction gear Handpiece. 2) Aseptico Electric Motor handpiece. 3) The Quantec ETM. 4) The Moycol union broach sprint EDM.• Speeds – 300 rpm for NiTi profiles. 2000 rpm for Light Speed instruments.• Newer electric handpieces – Both speed and torque control.• New rotary handpiece – Morita tri Autozx.• Tri Auto ZX – Battery – powered slow-speed (280 rpm) handpiece with a built in apex locator.• NiTiMatic _ 16:1 gear reduction handpiece 300 rpm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. RECIPROCATING HANDPIECE:• Giromatic handpiece – Accepts latch type instruments.• Canal insruments available for use with GIROMATIC giro pointer _ 16mm long orifice opener giro broach or cleanser giro file,a hedstroem configuration giro reamer heli girofile_3 cutting blades in c.s• Quarter-turn motion – 3,000 times per minute. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. • M4 safety handpiece – 30 degree reciprocating motion. Regular hand files by their handles.• Endo-Gripper – 10:1 gear ratio, 45 degree turning motion.• Endo Cursor _ press button chuck Take hand instruments www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. VERTICAL STROKE HANDPIECE:• Air or electrically driven – Vertical stroke, 0.3 to 1mm.• On binding – Quarter turn reciprocating motion.• Canal finder system – A file, variation of H file. Reciprocal rotation with filing motion. Penetration of severely curved and constricted canals without perforation or ledging. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. • Canal leader – speed reducing handpiece with 4:1 step down• Vertical movement of 0.4 to 0.8mmwith 30 degree contra rotational movement• 3 instruments available_ K file with safe ended tip,H file and universal file• Racer handpiece – vertical oscillation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. RANDOM HANDPIECE• Excalibur _ lateral vibrational movement 20000 to 25000 r.p.m. Use modified K files www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. ENDO IT PROFESSIONAL• Individually programmed torque limit and speed for each instrument.• Fast reaction auto stop – reverse.• Warning signal at 75% torque limit.• Warning signal – motor in reverse rotation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. ISO GROUP IIInstruments with shaft and operating head as separate pieces:Ex:• B-2 reamer – cylindrical working head 2 cutting edges – spiral c.s – rectrangle working head and shaft – similar to K-type. Used with contraangle or straight handpiece• Lentulospiral – power-operated, spiral. Used with contraangle or straight handpiece www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. • Quarter-turn reamer – power-operated, tapered and pointed used with giromatic or racer handpiece enlarge/widen root canal similar to blank of K-type.McSpadden compactor – specially designed Apically directed spirals. frictional heat softens guttapercha•Other group II – K-reamer, H file, R-type rasp, barbed broach Used with giromatic or racer handpiece www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. EZ FILL• It has patented bi_directional spiral produces a coronal and apical cement flow simultaneously• When the opposite flows of cement meet they are forced to laterally• Used in slow up and down and circular motion for 5 seconds• Used in contra angle in forward direction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. ISO GROUP IIIShaft and operating head as 1 piece.• G-type reamer – GG drill stainless steel or NiTi Short, flame-shaped head with side cutting blades Short, non-cutting guide at tip Long-thin neck connects working head and shaft. Number 1 to 6 Used with gear reduction, slow speed, high torque handpiece Speed – 750 to 1000 RPM• B-1 reamer – similar to G-type. Twice long working head. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. • O-type reamer – long, tapered head 3 spiralling blades – plane angle short neck.• P-type reamer – Paeso drill Long, narrow, tapering head Side cutting, spiral blades Tip – cutting /non-cutting. Thick neck Number 1 to 6 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. • A-type and D-type – similar design.• A-type – long, tapered, pyramid shaped 4 side cutting blade c.s – square short, narrow neck.• D-type – shorter pyramidal point Short narrow neck.• Ko, T-, M- reamers- orifice enlargers straight/contra angle handpiece www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. • Ko reamer – longer than tapered and pointed fissure but with out cross-cut. 8 side cutting blades with spiraling Short neck.• T reamer – 12-16 straight side cutting blades Short head length.• M reamer – round head 6-8 cutting blades Neck-long and flexible.• Root facer – power operated rotary Crownless tooth. Thin wheel shaped end cutting with center cylindrical truncated cone with www.indiandentalacademy.com the canal. Smooth surface entering
  57. 57. BURS:• Burs with extended shank – preparation in pulp space with low speed handpiece.• Surgical length – 26mm.• Extra long shank – 34mm Ex: Brasseler, shank 25 Good visibility and control• Friction grip tapered fissure burs (557 or 701) – correct outline form.• Round burs – normal and extra long Size 2, 4, 6 Deroofing• Longer and smaller round burs – fine calcified canals.• Safe ended diamond / tungsten carbide bur / endo2 www.indiandentalacademy.com bur – taper, smooth access cavity.
  58. 58. ULTRASONIC INSTRUMENTS:• System in which sound as an energy source activates an endodontic file resulting in a three dimensional activation of the file.• File – Vibrates in a sinus wave like fashion.• Antinodes _ maximal displacement (tip).• Nodes – no displacement.• Fracture – at the nodes.• Debriding action – Cavitation and acoustic streaming.• Cavitation – positive pressure followed by a negative pressure in the fluid. Cavity formed in the negative phase implodes with great force during next positive pressure phase.• Acoustic streaming – small, intense, circular, fluid movement. occurs closer to the tip. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. • Various ultrasonics used Cavitron endodontic system. Enac unit. Piezon master 400.• 20 to 25 KHZ – used.• Piezoelectrical design – Decreased heat Increased energy• Magnetostrictive – Increased heat decreased energy.• Endosonic ultrasonic synergistic system – instrumentation + irrigation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. • Cavi-Endo ultrasonic unit – 1st• Use either inert sterile or chemically active irrigant.• Modifications of K-type or R-type.• Endosonic diamond file – cutting of dentin by abrasion. Coronal enlargement.• Ultrasonic tips – used in detection of canal orifices. removal of posts, fractured instruments, coating canals with sealer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. SONIC INSTRUMENTS:• Sonic systems – vibration in audible frequency range• Frequency – 2 to 3 KHZ.• Micro Mega 1500 sonic Air endo system – Airline pressure of 0.4 MPA.• Sonic file – large elliptical motion at the tip.• Loaded – longitudinal motion, up and down.• Oscillatory range – 1500-3000 cycles per second.• Three sonic files used – Rispisonic, shaper sonic, Trio sonic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. • Rispisonic – old rat tail file (8 cutting blades) coronal third• Shaper sonic – husky barbed broach. (16 cutting blades). apical one third• Triosonic – tripled helix H file.• Sizes – 15 to 40.• Length – 17 to 29mm.• Rougher canal surface.• Endosonic 3000- sonic handpiece similar to sonic air driven scalers.• Irrigation – filtered water.• Dis advantange –perforations, transportation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. ISO GROUP IV:• Not strictly endodontic instrument but have been considered part of armamentarium under developing international standards.ABSORBENT POINTS:• Slender cones made of paper or other absorbent material.• Uses – drying the canal Conveying medicaments Obtaining canal cultures• Available in standardized sizes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. ROOT CANAL FILLING POINTS• Smaller, slender cones of solid material.• Used for canal obturation. Ex: silver points, gutta-percha points.• Available in standardized sizes and taper www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. NON-ISO INSTRUMENTS• Advent of NiTi _ newer instrument system• Instruments with greater taper• Tapers _ 4% ,6% ,8% ,10% ,12%• Better shaping• Faster treatment• TERMINOLOGIES:• RADIAL LAND – “The surface that projects axially from the central axis between the flutes”• PITCH – “Number of flutes per unit length” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. ProFile• Design – U grooves and radial lands• Lands – prevent uncontrolled cutting Prevents premature fractures, perforation and transportation Strength of the instrument• Standard taper – 0.04mm/mm 0.06, 0.08mm/mm taper available• Used in control, slow speed, high torque rotary handpiece• Rotational speed – 275 to 325 RPM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. • Available – ISO sizing series 29 standards 4% taper – small canals and apical regions 6% taper – mid root portions• Orifice shapers – 0.06, 0.07mm/mm taper shaping coronal portion of canal length – 19mm, cutting length 9mm 30, 40, 50 sizes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. GT PROFILES • Made of Ni-Ti. • Both hand and rotary. • Instruments – size 20. • Tapers – 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12mm/mm • Cutting blades – 6-8 mm of shaft. • Standard set – 4 instruments, size 20, taper 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12mm/mm. • Design – radial landed, clockwise cut U blade flutes with non-cutting tip • Maximum flute diameter – 1mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. • 6% taper – moderate to severely curved canals in small roots• 8% taper – straight to moderately curved canals in small roots• 10% taper – straight to moderately curved canals in large roots• Accessory GT files 3 instruments – 0.12mm/mm taper maximum flute diameter of 1.5mm 35, 50, 70 size unusually large root canals to apical diameter greater than 0.3mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. LIGHTSPEED• NiTi instrument.• Resemble a GG drill.• Rotary instrument.• Sizes – 20 to 140• Half sizes – upto. 60• Head size – 0.25mm for size 20 1.75mm for size 100.• Used in slow speed handpiece• Rotational speed – 1,000 to 2,000 RPM• Used in pecking motion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. • Laser etched length control rings – eliminate need for silicone stops• Advantage – finish apical third preparation to a larger size.• Disadvantage – excessive number of instruments – strain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. QUANTEC FILES• Design – similar to ProFile Double helical flute design with extensive peripheral mass• Lands – wider Enhanced strength• Both – hand and rotary– powered instruments.• Quantec series – 10 NiTi files 0.02 to 0.06 taper• Both safe cutting and non-cutting tips. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. • Quantec flare series – 0.08, 0.10, 0.12mm/mm taper 25 size shape coronal third of canal• Built in graduated taper technique• Used in high torque, gear reduction, slow speed handpiece• Speed – 300 to 350 RPM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Hero 642• Design – tri helical Hedstroem with sharp flutes Increased distance between flutes – reduced risk of binding• Large central core• Size – 20 to 45• Taper – all sizes – 0.02mm/mm Size 20, 25, 30 – 0.04, 0.06mm/mm• Crown down technique• Speed _ 500 to 600 rpm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. PROTAPER:• Multiple tapering – fewer files required to create a tapered shape.• Used – curved canals, restricted canals• Both rotary and hand instruments• Increased efficiency, effectiveness.• Length – 19, 21, 25mm.• Protaper SX, S1, S2, F1, F2, F3, www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Shaping filesSX shaper – canals of teeth with shorter roots expand the coronal aspect of preparation increased rate of taper Do – 0.19mm, D9 – 1.1mm,D14_ 1.2mm rate of taper drops from D9 to D14S1 shaper – D0 – 0.17mm,D14 _ 1.2mm prepare coronal third of canalsS2 shaper – D0 – 0.20mm ,D14 _ 1.1mm prepare middle third along with coronal region of apical third www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Finishing filesTo plane away variation in canal diameter in apical one thirdF1 – size 20, taper 0.07mm/mm (D0 to D3)F2 – size 25, taper 0.08mm/mm (D0 to D3)F3 – size 30, taper 0.09mm/mm (D0 to D3)Speed – 200 to 300 RPMUsed in torque and speed control electric motor handpiece www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. K3 ROTARY INSTRUMENTS:• Triple fluted, asymmetric Endo file system.• Taper – 0.02, 0.04, 0.06mm/mm.• 3 modified land area.• 1 blade – radial land.• 2 blade – relieved land area.• Increased peripheral strength – resist torsional stress.• Positive rake angle – active cutting action.• Radial land relief – Reduces friction.• Design – cut efficiently, safely and quickly with unparalleled debri removal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. RaCe ROTARY INSTRUMENTS:• Triangular cross-section.• 2 sets of cutting edge• Alternating helical design• Spade shaped safety tip• No radial land.• Taper – 0.02, 0.04, 0.06mm/mm.• Design – increased flexibility, reduced torque – reduces fracture.• Speed _ 500 rpm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. CANAL MASTER SYSTEM:• Both hand and engine driven instruments.• Instrument similar to GG drill.• Hand instrument – apical preparation.• Engine driven – coronal preparation of root canals.• Non-cutting pilot tip Hand instrument – 0.75mm. Engine driven – 2.0mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. • Major features: a) Replace usual cutting tip with non-cutting pilot. b) Cutting head – 1-2mm. c) Shaft diameter constant and reduced.• Follow original canal curvature and reduce transportation.• Hand instrument – colour coded handles Sizes – 20 to 80 60 degrees reciprocal rotation.• Rotary instrument – colour coded latch type attachments Sizes – 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. RAPID BODY SHAPERS AND POW – R ROTARY FILESRapid body shapers – 4 NiTi rotary engine reamers pattern bullet tip shape body of the canalRBS NO: 1 – 0.61mm at the tipRBS NO: 2 – 0.66mm at the tipRBS NO:3 – 0.76mm at the tipRBS NO:4 – 0.86mm at the tipSpeed – 275 to 300 RPMUsed in gear reduction, slow speed handpiece www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. POW – R rotary files – NiTi with non ledging bullet tip 0.02, 0.04 taper clean and shape middle and apical third ISO size and half sizes available pecking motion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. RECENTADVANCESV – taper system• Variable decreasing rate of taper starting from tip towards shaft• Ex: V10 0 to 4mm – 10% taper 4 to 8mm – 5% taper 8 to 12mm – 2% taperSelf core parabolic cross-section – efficient, safe and flexible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. M2 SYSTEM:• NiTi rotary system• Flutes _ minimum contact maximum space for debri removable Radiographically visible calibration _ increased accuracy no stops required www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. LIBERATOR• Taper _ 2%,4%,6%• Sizes _ 15 to 40• Speed _ 1000 to 2000 rpm• Straight flute design cannot selfthread• Lack of radial lands reduces friction• Safety tip keeps the file centered www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. NEW CONCEPT IN INSTRUMENTDESIGN:• New instruments based on constant percent change• Percent change – difference between D0 diameters divided by D0 diameter of smaller file and multiplied by 100• Series 29 – percent changes is 29.17%• Fewer instruments than current system• More instruments at the beginning and fewer at the end• Ex: profile series 29, golden medium instruments• Golden medium instruments series – reduce large percentage change between smaller sized files• GM – provide half sizes disadvantage – machining tolerance 0.02mm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. CONCLUSION• Successful endodontic treatment requires accurate diagnosis , proper access opening, cleaning and shaping which can be achieved by using proper instruments.• Knowledge of instruments improves the quality of treatment and makes work more easier for both operator and patient. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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