Development of primary dentition /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • 1. DEVELOPMEN T OF DENTITION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. 1.PRE-DENTAL PERIOD (Birth- 6 months) a. Gum pads b. Precociously erupted primary teeth 2. DECIDUOUS DENTITION PERIOD (6 months- 6 years) 3. MIXED DENTITION PERIOD (6 years- 12 years) 4. PERMANENT DENTITION PERIOD (12 years onwards) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. 1. PRE-DENTAL PERIOD- Birth- 6 months a.GUM PADSThe alveolar processes at the time of birth are known as gum pads www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. The gum pads are pink, firm and resilient and are covered by a dense layer of fibrous periosteum. Upper gum pad : Horse shoe shaped Lower gum pad : ‘U’ shaped Develop in 2 parts: a. Labio-buccal portion b. Lingual portion The 2 portions are separated by a groove called DENTAL GROOVE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. a. LABIO-BUCCAL PORTIONDifferentiates first and grows more rapidly. Divided into 10 segments by grooves called TRANSVERSE GROOVES. Each segment consist of one developing tooth sac. The transverse groove between canine and 1st deciduous molar is called the LATERAL SULCUS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. b. LINGUAL PORTION  Differentiates later.  Remains relatively smooth. The upper and lower gum pads are separated from the palate and the floor of the mouth respectively by a groove called GINGIVAL GROOVE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. RELATIONSHIP OF GUM PADS. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. Upper gum pad is wider and longer than the lower gum pad . Thus when approximated, complete overjet present all around. Anterior open bite present at rest with contact only in the deciduous 1st molar region.  Tongue protrudes anteriorly through this space- helps in suckling  Permits eruption of lower incisors without impingement on upper gum pad. Lateral sulcus of mandibular arch is normally distal to that of maxillary arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. b. PRECOCIOUSLY ERUPTED PRIMARY TEETH1.NATAL TEETH Teeth that are present at the time of birth are called natal teeth.  Usually mandibular incisors.  Show familial tendency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. 2.NEO-NATAL TEETHTeeth that erupt during 1st month of age are called neonatal teeth. Mostly seen in mandibular incisor region and show familial tendency. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. DEVELOPMENT OF PRIMARY DENTITION Initiation of primary tooth buds occurs during 6 weeks of intrauterine life.  Primary teeth begin to erupt at about 6 months of age.  Eruption of all primary teeth is completed by 24- 30 months of age www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. ERUPTION AGE AND SEQUENCE OF DECIDUOUS DENTITION SEQUENCE: A- B- D- C- E The mandibular central incisors are the 1st to erupt at around 6-7 months of age. - Timing of tooth eruption is highly variable. - A variation of 3 months from the mean age has been acceptable as normal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. ERUPTION AGES OF PRIMARY TEETH ARCH TOOTH MONTHS MAXILLARY A 10 (08-12) B 11 (09-13) C 19 (16-22) D 16 (14-18) E 29 (25-33) A O8 (06-10) B 13 (10-16) C 20 (17-23) D 16 (14-18) E 27 (24-30) MANDIBULAR Source –Wheelers 8th edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. NORMAL FEATURES OF PRIMARY DENTITION1. PHYSIOLOGICAL SPACES/ DEVELOPMENTAL SPACES:  Usually seen in deciduous dentition to accommodate the larger permanent teeth in the jaws.  Absence of spacing in deciduous dentition is an indication that crowding of teeth may occur in permanent dentition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. 2. PRIMATE / SIMIAN / ANTHROPOID SPACES Present mesial to deciduous maxillary canine and distal to mandibular canine.  Commonly seen in primates.  Help in interdigitation of opposing canines.  Used for EARLY MOLAR SHIFT. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. 3.ALMOST VERTICAL INCLINATION OF INCISORS 4.SHALLOW OVERJET AND OVERBITE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. TERMINAL PLANE RELATIONSHIPThe mesio- distal relation between the distal surfaces of the upper and lower 2nd deciduous molars is called the TERMINAL PLANE BAUME’S CLASSIFICATION a. FLUSH TERMINAL PLANE – (76%) - Distal surfaces of the upper and lower 2nd deciduous molars are in the same vertical plane. - This is regarded as normal relation in deciduous dentition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. b. MESIAL STEP- (14%) Distal surface of mandibular deciduous 2nd molar is mesial to the distal surface of maxillary deciduous 2nd molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. c. DISTAL STEP- (10%) Distal surface of mandibular deciduous 2nd molar is more distal than the distal surface of maxillary 2nd molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. The primary dentition is usually established by 3 years of age. Between 3-6 years , the dental arch is relatively stable and very few changes occur in the dentition in this period. The deciduous dentition period lasts for 6 years of age till the eruption of permanent 1st molars which marks the beginning of the mixed dentition period. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. Maturation of oral functions New born infants are obligatory nasal breathers, at a later period breathing through mouth becomes a physiologically possible. Once airway is established, next physiologic priority is to obtain milk. It is accomplished by 2 maneuvers1. Suckling. (not sucking)  2. Swallowing.  Maturation of oral function has a gradient from front to back. Suckling reflex normally disappears during 1 st year of life. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. www.indiandentalacademy.com