GROWTH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE
AND SALIVARY GLANDS

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INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY


Leader in continuing dental education



www.indiandentalacademy.com

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CONTENTS










INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE
ANOMALIES OF TONGUE
DE...
Introduction







Tongue is a muscular organ in the floor of the
mouth associated with a function of taste,
speech, ...
Definition of growth:
 Krogman : Increase in size, change in proportion
and progressive complexity.
 Todd: An increase i...
DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE

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




During the early 4th week of I.U.L. the lateral part
of mesoderm of ventral foregut region becomes
segmented to fo...
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DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE




Tongue arises from the ventromedial wall of the
primitive oropharynx from the inner lining of ...
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www.indiandentalacademy.com
Anterior 2/3 of the tongue
rd



During the 4th week of IUL, paired lateral swellings
appear on the internal aspect of th...
Posterior 1/3 of the tongue
rd







The base of the tongue is initially indicated by two
midline elevations that dev...
Musculature and connective tissue


Branchial arch mesenchyme forms the
connective tissue and the lymphatic and
the blood...
Tongue musculature`


During the 5th to 7th
week of the IUL, 3-4
occipital myotomes,
migrate anteriorly to
form the muscu...
Papillae of the tongue


Papillae are projections of mucous membrane
on the dorsum of the tongue
Circumvalate papillae
Fu...
Taste buds


Taste buds are located on the dorsum of
the tongue and are associated with the
papillae
Taste buds appear ar...
Nerve supply of the tongue


Development of tongue from the branchial arch explains
its nerve supply
Sensory supply
Ant 2...
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Arterial supply:
It is chiefly derived from the lingual artery a branch of
external carotid artery. The root of the tongue...
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Structure of the tongue





The bulk of the
tongue is made of
muscles
Intrinsic muscles
Extrinsic muscles

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



The oral part of the
dorsum of the tongue has
numerous papillae
associated with the taste
buds.
The pharyngeal part ...


The inferior surface of the
tongue shows the
frenulum linguae,deep
lingual veins and the plica
fimbriata

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

The entire tongue is in the mouth at birth .Its
post 1/3rd desends into the pharynx by the age of
4yrs. The tongue norm...
ANOMILIES OF THE TONGUE









Aglossia
Microglossia
Macroglossia
Bifid tongue
Ankyloglossia
Lingual thyroid
Fis...
ANKYLOGLOSSIA

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LINGUAL THYROID

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FISSURED TONGUE

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MEDIAN RHOMBOID GLOSSITIS

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Development of
salivary glands
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DEVELOPMENT OF SALIVARY GLAND


All salivary glands show a similar pattern of development
They originate from oral epithe...
GLAND

ORIGIN

I.U.LIFE

PAROTID GLAND

CORNERS OF THE
STOMODEUM

6TH WEEK

SUBMANDIBULAR
GLAND

FLOOR OF THE
MOUTH

END O...
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

STAGES OF DEVELPOMENT



STAGE I:
Bud formation :Induction of
oral epithelium by underlying
mesenchyme

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

STAGE -II
Formation and
growth of epithelial
cord.

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

STAGE III: Initiation
of branching in
terminal parts of
epithelial cord and
continuation of
glandular
differentiation

...


STAGEIV:
Dichotomous
branching of
epithelial cord and
lobule formation

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STAGE V:Canalization
of presumptive
ducts.

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STAGE VI:
Cytodifferentiation

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Serous acini

Mucous acini

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





Terminal tubules – intercalated ducts
Striated ducts
Intracalated ducts
Myoepithelial cells
Full differentiatio...
Types:


MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS






Parotid gland
Submandibular gland
Sublingual gland

MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS



...
GLAND

LOCATION

DUCT

SECRETION

Parotid

Ant to the
Stensons duct
external acoustic
meatus

Purely serous

Submandibular...
Nerve supply

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Developmental anomalies




Aplasia
Hyperplasia
Atresia

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Prosthodontic considerations


Tongue plays an important role in the stability of lower
denture.
Macroglossia – Stability...


Tongue position is important to the prognosis of
mandibular denture:



Wright classification of tongue position:



...
SUMMARY




The tongue develops from the first 4
branchial arches.
Salivary gland originate from the oral
epithelial bud...
REFERENCES


Chaurasia B.D. – Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition, 1996



James K.Avery, ‘Oral Development and Histology’, ed.1,...
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Development of tongue and its salivary glands /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE AND SALIVARY GLANDS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY  Leader in continuing dental education  www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. CONTENTS          INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE ANOMALIES OF TONGUE DEVELOPMENT OF SALIVARY GLANDS ANOMALIES OF SALIVARY GLANDS PROSTHODONTIC CONSIDERATATIONS SUMMARY REFERENCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Introduction     Tongue is a muscular organ in the floor of the mouth associated with a function of taste, speech, mastication and deglutition. The tongue also influence the path of eruption of teeth. The salivary glands are important organs of oral cavity which produces saliva, essential fluid required for normal mastication, swallowing and digestion. Hence it is essential to study the growth and development of tongue and salivary gland. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Definition of growth:  Krogman : Increase in size, change in proportion and progressive complexity.  Todd: An increase in size.  Moyers: Quantitative aspect of biological development per unit time. Definitions of development:  Todd: Development is progress towards maturity.  Moyers: Development refers to all the naturally occurring unidirectional changes in the life of an individual from its existence as a single cell to its eloboration as a multifactorial unit terminating in death. Thus, it encompasses the normal sequential events between fertilization and death. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7.    During the early 4th week of I.U.L. the lateral part of mesoderm of ventral foregut region becomes segmented to form a series of 5 distinct bilateral mesenchymal swellings called as pharyngeal arches. Pharyngeal clefts: Arches are seperated by deep grooves called pharyngeal clefts. Pharyngeal pouch: are outpocketings appearing along the most cranial part of foregut. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT OF TONGUE   Tongue arises from the ventromedial wall of the primitive oropharynx from the inner lining of the first four branchial arches. Development of tongue can be studied under the following headings      Anterior 2/3rd (or the body of tongue) Posterior 1/3rd(base of the tongue) Musculature and connective tissue Papillae and taste buds. The nerve supply www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Anterior 2/3 of the tongue rd  During the 4th week of IUL, paired lateral swellings appear on the internal aspect of the 1st brachial arches Tuberculum impar is a median eminence whose caudal end has a pit called the foremen caecum  These lateral swellings rapidly enlarge, merge with each other and overgrow the tuberculum impar to form the body of the tongue  A U shaped sulcus, the linguogingival groove develops in front of the oral part, which allows it to be free and highly mobile except at the region of the lingual frenum where www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Posterior 1/3 of the tongue rd     The base of the tongue is initially indicated by two midline elevations that develop caudal to the foremen caecum The copula The hypobrachial eminence As the tongue develops, the hypobranchial eminence,overgrows the second branchial arch to become continous with the body of the tongue. The site of union b/w the the body and base of the tongue is delineated by a V shaped groove, called the sulcus terminalis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Musculature and connective tissue  Branchial arch mesenchyme forms the connective tissue and the lymphatic and the blood vessels of the tongue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Tongue musculature`  During the 5th to 7th week of the IUL, 3-4 occipital myotomes, migrate anteriorly to form the musculature of the tongue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Papillae of the tongue  Papillae are projections of mucous membrane on the dorsum of the tongue Circumvalate papillae Fungiform papillae Filliform papillae Foliate papillae www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Taste buds  Taste buds are located on the dorsum of the tongue and are associated with the papillae Taste buds appear around 8th week of IUL Taste buds arise by inductive interaction b/w the epithelial cells and the invading gustatory nerve cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Nerve supply of the tongue  Development of tongue from the branchial arch explains its nerve supply Sensory supply Ant 2/3rd-Lingual nerve for general sensation.chorda tympani for the special sensation Post 1/3r Glossopharyngeal nerve Posterior most part -vagus nerve Motor supply All the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles except the palatoglossus are supplied by the hypoglossal nerve. Palatoglossus –pharyngeal plexus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Arterial supply: It is chiefly derived from the lingual artery a branch of external carotid artery. The root of the tongue is also supplied by tonsillar and ascending pharyngeal artery. Venous drainage: The deep lingual vein is the principal vein of the tongue. Lymphatic drainage: The tip of the tongue drains into submental nodes. The remaining part of the anterior 2/3rd drains into the submandibular nodes. The posterior 1/3rd of the tongue drains into jugulo-omohyoid nodes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Structure of the tongue    The bulk of the tongue is made of muscles Intrinsic muscles Extrinsic muscles www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.   The oral part of the dorsum of the tongue has numerous papillae associated with the taste buds. The pharyngeal part of the dorsum of the tongue is rich in lymphoid follicles that is collectively called the lingual tonsil. Mucous glands are also present. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.  The inferior surface of the tongue shows the frenulum linguae,deep lingual veins and the plica fimbriata www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25.  The entire tongue is in the mouth at birth .Its post 1/3rd desends into the pharynx by the age of 4yrs. The tongue normally doubles in length,breadth and thickness from birth to adolesence reaching maximal size at about 8yrs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. ANOMILIES OF THE TONGUE         Aglossia Microglossia Macroglossia Bifid tongue Ankyloglossia Lingual thyroid Fissured tongue Median rhomboid glossitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. ANKYLOGLOSSIA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. LINGUAL THYROID www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. FISSURED TONGUE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. MEDIAN RHOMBOID GLOSSITIS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Development of salivary glands www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. DEVELOPMENT OF SALIVARY GLAND  All salivary glands show a similar pattern of development They originate from oral epithelial buds invading the underlying mesenchyme.  The origin of epithelial bud is belived to be ectodermal in parotid and minor saliavary gland and endodermal in submandibular and sublingual glands.  The connective tissue stroma and blood vessels form from the mesenchyme www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. GLAND ORIGIN I.U.LIFE PAROTID GLAND CORNERS OF THE STOMODEUM 6TH WEEK SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND FLOOR OF THE MOUTH END OF 6TH WEEK SUB LINGUAL GLAND LATERAL TO SUBMANDIBULAR PRIMORDIUM 8TH WEEK MINOR SALIVARY GLAND BUCCAL EPITHELIUM 12TH WEEK www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35.  STAGES OF DEVELPOMENT  STAGE I: Bud formation :Induction of oral epithelium by underlying mesenchyme www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36.  STAGE -II Formation and growth of epithelial cord. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37.  STAGE III: Initiation of branching in terminal parts of epithelial cord and continuation of glandular differentiation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  STAGEIV: Dichotomous branching of epithelial cord and lobule formation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. STAGE V:Canalization of presumptive ducts. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. STAGE VI: Cytodifferentiation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. Serous acini Mucous acini www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.      Terminal tubules – intercalated ducts Striated ducts Intracalated ducts Myoepithelial cells Full differentiation of functional secretory components is apparent at birth but its not complete until the onset of solid diet and the presence of masticatory stimuli www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. Types:  MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS     Parotid gland Submandibular gland Sublingual gland MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS      Buccal Labial Lingual Palatine Glossopalatine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. GLAND LOCATION DUCT SECRETION Parotid Ant to the Stensons duct external acoustic meatus Purely serous Submandibular Submandibular triangle Whartons duct Predominantly serous Sublingual Floor of the mouth Bartholins duct Predominantly mucous Minor salivary glands Beneath the epithelium Directly into the mouth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Nerve supply www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Developmental anomalies    Aplasia Hyperplasia Atresia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Prosthodontic considerations  Tongue plays an important role in the stability of lower denture. Macroglossia – Stability of the denture is reduced,hence Surgical trimming is indicated Microglossia – Inadequate lingual seal. Bifid tongue - Surgical reconstruction is required. Ankyloglossia – Poor registration of the lingual seal. Frenectomy is indicated. Aplasia Denture produces soreness and irritation Lack www.indiandentalacademy.com of retention of the denture
  49. 49.  Tongue position is important to the prognosis of mandibular denture:  Wright classification of tongue position:  Class I : The tongue lies in the floor of the mouth with the tip forward and slightly below the incisal edges of the mandibular anterior teeth. Class I position is ideal for construction of mandibular denture.  Class II: The tongue is flattened and broadened but the tip is in a normal position.  Class III: The tongue is retracted and depressed into the floor of the mouth with the tip curled upward, downward or assimilated into the body of the tongue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. SUMMARY   The tongue develops from the first 4 branchial arches. Salivary gland originate from the oral epithelial buds invading the underlying mesenchyme. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. REFERENCES  Chaurasia B.D. – Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition, 1996  James K.Avery, ‘Oral Development and Histology’, ed.1,Balteimor, 1990, B.C.Decker. Keith L. Moore – Clinically oriented anatomy. 3rd edition. Moore & Persaud – The Developing Human, Clinically Oriented Embryology, 5th Edition, 1993. Murray Brooker – Clinical embryology: A color atlas and text. Shafer W.G. – Text Book of Oral Pathology, 4th Edition, 1983        Sperber G.H. – Craniofacial Embryology, 4th Edition, 1989. Tencate A.R. – Oral Histology, 3rd Edition, 1989 Sheldon Winkler – Essentials of complete denture prosthodontics. 2nd edition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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