Cysts of the jaws symptoms

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Cysts of the jaws symptoms

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Cysts of The Jaws Symptoms Pathological fracture Mistaken for abscess Displacement of denture Displacement of teeth Discoloration of tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  5. 5. Cysts of the Jaws Marsupialisation – Rationale By making a small cystic Contents are evacuated thereby Causing decompression of the Cyst. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  12. 12. How often are teeth Impacted Only 17% of people over 20 years Have an impacted tooth Maxillary third molars Mandibular third molars Maxillary canine Ref:- Dachi S.F,Hovell over surg 14:1165.1961 www.indiandentalacademy.com 22% 18% 0.9%
  13. 13. • What is so special about third molars ?! • last tooth to erupt • More likely to be impacted • More likely to cause complication www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  17. 17. ETIOLOGICAL THEORIES PHYLOGENIC MENDELIAN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS SKELETAL GROWTH DISTURBANCES SYSTEMIC CONDITIONS LOCAL FACTORS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. INDICATION FOR REMOVAL Recurrent Pericoronitis Periodontal Orthodontic Reasons Dental Caries Resorbtion Of Second Molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. INDICATIONS FOR REMOVAL 1.Reffered pain 2. Cyst Formation 3. Prophylactic Reasons 4. Edentulous Mandible 5. In the line of fractures www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  24. 24. IMPACTED LOWER THIRD MOLAR Classification : George Winter’s Pell and Gregory’s Kay’s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. GERGE WINTER’S CLASSIFICATION Based on the relationship of the long Axis of impacted 3rd molar with the Long axis of 2nd molar:Vertical Mesioangular Distoangular Horizontal Buccoangular Aberrant Positons www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  31. 31. Pell & Gregory(1942) Classification Based on Three Aspects Position & Angulation Space between second molar and ramus Depth of the third molar in the bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Pell & Gregory Position & Angulation George Winter’s Classification is adopted www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  34. 34. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Kay’s Classification ( Based on three aspects) 1.Position & Angulation - Winter’s Classification States of Eruption -a) Erupted b) Partly erupted c) Unerupted 3. Number & Pattern - Fused of Roots Two Multiple Favourable Unfavourable www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Difficulty index Pederson) Minimal 3-4 Moderate 5-7 Very difficult 7-10 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. Difficulty index values(Pederson) Mesioangular 1 horizontal 2 vertical 3 distoangular 4 level A level B level C 1 2 3 Class I 1 Class II 2 Class III 3 www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  44. 44. WINTER’S IMAGINARY LINES White Line - Indicates position of 3rd molar Amber Line - Indicates margin of alveolar bone Red Line - Indicates dept of 3rd molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  46. 46. Clinical Assissment General Factors - Age - Medical Condition - Temperament www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Assessment of Impacted Third Molar Purpose of Assessment Possible Difficulties & Complications Facilities Available Necessary Surgical Skill Decision to remove or to refer to A specialist www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Radiological Assessment - Radiograptus Required - Periapical Film - Lateral oblique view of mandible - Orthopantomogram www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Clinical Assessment Local factors Small Factors Small mouth Mandibula retrusion Relationship of external Oblique eidue to the 3rd molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Radiological Assessment Points to be noticed in radiograph:Augulation and depth Number and shape of rooths Relationship with mandibular canal Condition of crown & rooth of 2nd molar Density of the bone Bone loss around the tooth Presence of first molar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Relationship with mandibular canal Normal relationship Variations - Groove - Deep Groove - Perforation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. Considerations in perdicting difficulty Age Anatomy Facial from www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Age:- Does it affect surgery ? Young age Easy surgery less morbidity old age Difficult surgery Greater morbidity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Accessibility based on facial from Tapering Easy surgery Square & Compact Difficult www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Asymptomatic third molar - let sleeping dogs lie - don’t bother it, if it does not bother you - don’t touch if asymptomatic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. Should a general practitioner remove an impached third molar ? Answer is yes and no www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. Operative Plan - Incision - Removal of bone] - Removal of tooth - To let of the wound - Closure of the wound www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Removel of Third Molar Careful Assessment Instruments selection Choice of anaesthesia Operative plan Post operative care www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Choice of Anaesthesia Local Intravenous sedation And local - General www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Scientific foundations of Minor oral surgery Muco Periosteal Flaps Visibility Vascularity Healing www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. Scientific Foundtions of minor oral surgery Access Mucoperiosteal flaps Bone Removel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. Complication During Surgical Removal Incision - Haemorrhage Lingul Nerve damage Bone removal - Injury to soft tissues Damage to 2nd molar Splitting of ramus Damage to bone Elevation of - Fracture of tooth Damage to 2nd molar Damage to I.D Bundle Fracture of mandible Toilet of the - Damage to I.D Nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com Wond And Vessels
  65. 65. Complications (Postoperative) - Haemorrhage - Haematoma - Oedema - Pain - Trismus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. Exodontia Complications :- Dry socket Synonyms:Alveolitis, Alveolar osteitis, Etc Defn:“ A post extraction socket which lacks a physiological blood clot.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. Exodontia Dry Socket Etiology Exact etiology unknown Trauma Infection Vasoconstrictor effect Mechanical dislodgement Fibrinolytic theory www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. Exodontia Dry Socket :- Clinical Features Symptoms:Pain, Swelling, Trismus, Halitosis Signs:Lack of clot in the socket Exposed bone tender to touch Inflammed gingival margin Enlarged lymph nodes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Exodontia Dry Socket:- Treatment Aimed at Control of pain Sedative dressing Analgesics Control of infection Antibiotics www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. Exodontia Post Extraction Bleeding Investigation Bleeding time Plastelet count Prothrombia time Partial thrombopiastin time www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. Exodontia Post Extraction Bleeding Causes Local Trauma Infection Systemic Defect in vessel wall Defect in plastelets Defect in coagulation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Exodontia Post Extraction Bleeding Management - local measures Soft Tissue Pressure packs, vasoconstrictors Suturing, chemicals,cautery Bone Burnishing,bone wax Haemostatic agents Socket plugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Exodontia Indications Impacted, Malposed, Supernumerary Attrition, abrasion, erosion Involved in cysts & tumours Fractured teeth In line of fracture www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Exodontia Objectives To remove the tooth completely With minimum trauma Elimination of pathology in the socket Prepare the socket for proper Healing & repair www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. Exodontia Techniques Intra alveolar - forceps method Transalveolar - open method Elevators metod www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Exodontia Intra Aloveolar- Principles Parallelism Beaks placed on cementum Maximum contact between Beaks & the root surface Amount & types of force Expansion of the bony socket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Exodontia Intra Alveolar Movements Primary rotation Buccolingual or palatal Buccolingual & secondary rotation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Exodontia Trans Alveolar - Indications Gross destruction of crown Fallure to extract with forceps Abnormallties of root Non vital teeth Ankylosis of root Brittle teeth Increased dentsity of bone www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Exodontia Trans Alveolar Advantages Good visibility Prevent laceration of gingival Minimal trauma to bone Root fracture prevented Less post operative discomfort www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Exodontia Trans Alveolar Surgical Step Anaesthesia Incision & raising flap Remove of bone Removal of tooth or root Debridement of the socket Closure of the wound Post operative care www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. Exodontia Complication During Extraction Fracture of root Fracture of alveolues Damage to soft tissues Damage to adjacent teeth Haemorrhage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Exodontia Complication Root Fracture Fallure to follow principles Structural weakness of tooth Bone investing the tooth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. Exodontia Complacations Maxillary posterior teeth Oro antral communication Rooth displacesment in to sinus Fracture of maxillary tuberoslty Mandibular posterior teeth Dislocation of TM joint Fracture of mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. Exodontia Complications- TMJ Dislocation DEF : Condyle comes out of glenold fossa Unllateral or bllateral CAUSES Fallure to support mandlble Excessive mount opening Use of mount gag under G.A Use of certain drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. Exodontia Complication-post Extraction Plain Swelling Trismus Dry Socket Haemorrhage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. Scientific Foundations of Minor Oral Surgery Dental Bacteremla In Children A study conducted involving patiients who Underwent variety of dental procedures Including rubberdam application matrix band With wedge and tooth brushing revealed Significant bacteremia. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. Post Operative Pain Influenced By Pathophysiologic Impact Site of Surgery Preoperative Preparation Physical & Emotional Status Intra operative management Post operative team www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. Scientific Foundation of Minor Oral Surgery Suture Material And Bacterial Adherence A study conducted in vitro to see the Bacterial adherence to silk and cotton Sutures revealed significantly higher Adherence to silk than cotton.cotton should Be the preferred suture material for skin and Mucosal closure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. Most feared modality Pain Anaesthetic Injection Swelling Numbness Other 43% 18% 17% 10% 06% 06% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. Pain Mechanisms Peripheral Tissue Injury Transmission Through The Nerves Perception Withhin The Brain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. Dental Elevators In Common Use Coupland Chisel Cryers Warwick james Hospital Pattern Apexo Winter’s crossbar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. Dental Elevators Classification Use: Removal of teeth Root broken at C.E junction Root broken below C.E junction Form: Straight Curved Crossbar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. Dental Elevators Principles Lever Wedge Wheel & axle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. Scientific Foundations of Oral Surgery Surgical Gloves How often They Puncture The incidence may be as high as 50 to 70% when the operations last more Than 2 hours. The left index finger is The most common site of perforation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. Scientific Foundation of Minor Oral Surgery Face Mask is it Essential ? A prospective randomised study, From sweden found no difference in Wound infection rates when masks Were climinated www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Components History taking Clinical examination Investigations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Diagnosis:- Definition “ Careful investigation of the facts To determine the nature of a think” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery History Taking General information Chief complaint History of present illness Personal, medical & Dental histories Family & Social histories www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Singn:- Definition “ Any change I the body or its Function which is perceptible to a Trained observer and may indicate Disease.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Singn:- Definition “ Any change I the body or its Function which is perceptible to a Trained observer and may indicate Disease.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Singn:- Definition •General examination •Local examination • Extra oral • Intra oral www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Examination:- Extra Oral •T.M. Joints •Maxillary sinuses •Lymph nodes •Lips •Lesion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Examination:- Extra Oral Soft tissues Hard tissues Occlusion Special pathology (lession of interest) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Investigation:- General Temperature Pulse & B.P Urine analysis Haemogram Tests for haemorrhage Blood chemistry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. Diagnosis In Oral Surgery Investigation:-Dental X-Rays Percussion Vitality tests Aspiration Bacteriology Biopsy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. Antibiotics Principles of Treatment Diagnosis Choice of drug Dosage and route Accompanying treatment Combination of drugs Hypersensitivity www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. Antibiotics Site of Action Cell Wall Cell Membrane Protein Synthesis Nucleic acid synthesis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. Antibiotics Site of Action:-Cell Wall Prevention of cross linkage of peptide strands e.g. Penicillins Cephalosporins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. Antibiotics Site of Action Selective permeability of the Membrance is affected e.g. Polymyxins Nystatin Amphotericin-B www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. Antibiotics Site of Action:-Protein Synthesis Block of amino acid transfer Tetracyclins Block of transpeptidation Chloremphenicol Interference with MRNA function Aminoglycosides Block of traslocation Macrolids www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. Antibiotics Site of Action:- Nucleic Acid Metabolism Interference in the production of DNA Or RNA e.g. Sulphonamides Trimethoprim www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. Antibotics Uses Therapeutic Prophylactic General Specific www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. Impacted Maxillary Canine classification Labial Position Palatal Position Intermediate Position Unusual Position www.indiandentalacademy.com
  116. 116. Impacted Maxillary Canine Localization-Clinical Evidence of eruption Bulge on labial aspect Bulge on palatal aspect www.indiandentalacademy.com
  117. 117. Impacted Maxillary Canine Localization-Radiological Vertex occlusal view Lateral skull radiograph Parallox method of clark www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. Impacted Maxillary Canine Management No surgical intervention Surgical exposure & othodontic alignment Surgical removal & auto transplantation Surgical removal www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. Strategies for Pain Control Use of A Long Acting L.A, Agent e.g. Bupivicaine Etidocaine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. Supression At Higher Sites In CNS Use of Oploids Morphine Pethidine Codeine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. Strategies For Pain Control Pre operative Administration Of Nsaids There is sufficient scientific evidence Suggesting delay and low pain levels after Preoperative administration of nsaids www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  124. 124. Scientific Foundations of Minor Oral Surgery Influence of socket closure on post operative pain and swelling Complete closure of third molar socket lead to increased post Operative pain and swelling experience compared with maintaining The socket partially open with a dressing www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  126. 126. Strategies For Pain Control Use of Oplods Codeine 60 mgs. Oxycodone 5 to 10 mgs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. Seientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Anxiety Measures To Overcome Information Procedural Sensation Modeling Distraction Relaxation Hypnosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Preoperative Visits To Reduce Patient Anxiety A Study to evaluate the effect of Preoperative visits by health Professionals showed a significant Decrease in anxiety during the post Operative period A Positive relationship Between preoperative anxiety levels and The level of pain was found. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  129. 129. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Post Operative Pain Management In Childern A study conducted to assess the efficacy Of pre-operative administration of Acetaminophen indicated a high prevalence Of post operative pain irrespective of the Procedure used and there was a trend Toward reduced pain in acetaminophen pre Treatment group. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  130. 130. Reduction of Post Operative Pain “ irrigation of third molar socket With Bupivacaine 0.75% produced Significant reduction in pain on the First post operative day” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  131. 131. Reduction of alveolar osteitis incidence “ a prospective double blind placebo Controlled study to determine the effect Preoperative 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate Rinse showed 60% reduction in the Incidence of alveolar osteitis” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  132. 132. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Post Operative Pain In Oral Surgery Aspirin, Mefenamic Acid and Their Combination A double-bind randomized single Dose study of the effects of 650 mgs Aspirin, 250 mgs mefenamic acid, the Combination of the both in same dosage Indicated relief from pain in each group Compared to the placebo and the combination Appeared more effective than both drugs alone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  133. 133. Do All Intraoral Incission require Suturing With proper understanding of surgical Principal and appropriate modification The indication for suturing and post Operative inconvenience to the patient Can be reduced www.indiandentalacademy.com
  134. 134. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery The value of bupivavaine and Presurgical treatment with Nsaids and steroids in the Management of postoperative Complication Dr. Neelima Prof.C.B.Roa www.indiandentalacademy.com
  135. 135. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Post Operative Pain The study indicated that the group which had Third molars removed with bupivacaine as the L.A. agent and pretreatment administration Of lbuprofen 400 mg and 8 mgs of dexamethasone Have experienced less and delayed pain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  136. 136. Post Operative Management - Pain - Swlling Infection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  137. 137. Post Operative Management Pain Swlling Infection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  138. 138. Is antibiotic Prophylaxis Necessary “ A clinical double blind placebo study to Test the value of prophylactic use of Phenoxy methyl penicillin and tinidazole Indicated that neither of them have more Effect on post op complications than placebo” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  139. 139. Antibiotic Prophylaxis Who needs it ? -In minor oral surgery – unnecessary -In evidence that it is necessary in Surgical removal of third molars Rood (1970) reported that the use of prophylaxis confers no advantages even when surgically removing Third molar in the presence of acute pericoronitis or Acute ulcerative gingivitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  140. 140. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Antibiotics-Prophylactic Use “ A Clinical trail with prophylactic use of Phenoxymethy1 Penicillin and tinidazole In mandibular third molar surgery had no Effect on the reduction of post operative Complications” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  141. 141. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Who Needs It ? 1. Patients with impaired host defense 2. Patients undergoing surgical procedure where The risk of infection is small but Consequences are very serious e.g.. Infective Endocarditis. 3. Patients undergoing surgical procedures which Have a high rate of infections (normal host defense mechanisms), But the nature of surgery vulnerable to infection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  142. 142. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Antibiotic Prophylaxis Has Timing Any Influence Administration of antibiotic immediately Prior to surgical incision incision should be Effective prophylaxis for surgical wound Infections. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  143. 143. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery Antibiotic Prophylaxis What should Be The Duration of Administration ? A study conducted using three different Antibiotic regimens suggested that a Single done of preoperative antibiotic is Sufficent for prophylaxis when surgery Is completed with in 3 hours. Antibiotic Converage should extend for operation Of longer duration no value of antibiotic www.indiandentalacademy.com After the operation.
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  147. 147. T.M.Joint MPDS Treatment •Reassurance •Occlusal Correction •Anterior bite splint •Full occlusal splints •Soft splints •Drug therapy •Intermaxillary fixation •Inter articular injection •Phychiatric consultation •Surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  148. 148. T.M.Joint MPDS Locking Joint •Increased muscle load •Alteration in the articular surface •Interference with free sliding of Upper joint comoartment •Disc fails to slide forwaed, remains stuck •Locking of the jaw www.indiandentalacademy.com
  149. 149. T.M. Joint MPDS Clicking Joint •Muscular overloading of joint •Frictional hesitation of movements of disc •Disc sticks in early opening •On further opening suddenly Recommences its forward movement Resulting in click www.indiandentalacademy.com
  150. 150. T.M.Joint MPDS Signs •Joint tenderness •Muscle tenderness •Abnormalities of mandibular movement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  151. 151. T.M.Joint MPDS Symptoms Pain Limitation of mandibular movement Clicking www.indiandentalacademy.com
  152. 152. T.M.Joint MPDS Evidence In Support Of Theory Higher level of steroids & Catecholamines Reaction to stress by somatization & repression Electromyography www.indiandentalacademy.com
  153. 153. T.M.Joint MPDS Psychophysiologic Theory Stress Clenching & grinding Muscle – fatigue spasm Pain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  154. 154. T.M.Joint MPDS Etiological Concepts Over closure hypothesis Defects in dental occlusion Abnormalities in muscle & muscle activities www.indiandentalacademy.com
  155. 155. T.M.Joint MPDS Synonyms Costen syndrome (1934) T.M.J pain dysfunction syndrome Schwartz (1956) Myo facial oain dysfunction Syndrome Laskin (1969) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  156. 156. T.M.Joint MPDS Surgical Procedures Condylotomy – Ward (1960) Myotomy – Laskin & Cooper (1972) High condylectomy – Henny & Bald ridge (1967) Reduction of articular eminence – lrby (1980) Menisectomy – Lanz (1909) Capsular rearrangement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  159. 159. Haemorrhage Classification :- Depending on vessel Arterial Bright red, spurting as a jet Venous Dark red, steady flow Capillary Bright red ooze www.indiandentalacademy.com
  160. 160. Haemorrhage Classification External Visible or revealed Internal Invisible or concealed www.indiandentalacademy.com
  161. 161. Haemorrhage Classification :- Time of occurence Primary At the time of injury Reactionary Within 24 hours Secondary After 7 to 14 days www.indiandentalacademy.com
  162. 162. Haemorrhage Acute Blood Loss :- Clinical Features •Increasing Pallor •Increasing Pulse rate •Restlessness •Deep inspiration •Cold clammy skin •Empty veins, thirst www.indiandentalacademy.com
  163. 163. Shock Definition “ Inadequate blood flow to vital Organs or failure of the cells of vital Organs to utilise oxygen” Shift from aerobic to anaerobic Metabolism by the cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
  164. 164. Shock Recognition :- compensatory Changes Desreased cardiac output Cool clammy extremities Tachycardia & Tachypnea Arterial blood pressure Postural hypotension is early Sensitive sign www.indiandentalacademy.com
  165. 165. Shock Recognition :- Compensatory Changes Central venous pressure Decreased because of poor venous Return & reduced volume Arterial blood gases Renal function Haematocrit www.indiandentalacademy.com
  166. 166. Shock Treatment:- Monitoring Vital singns Renal flow Arterial blood gases Central venous pressure Haematocrit Drugs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  167. 167. Shock Treatment :- Principles Oxygen exchange Ensure and maintain homeostasis Position Relief of symptoms Monitoring www.indiandentalacademy.com
  168. 168. Cardiovascular Disease Antibiotic Prophylaxis Amoxycillin 3gm, oral, 1 hour before Erythromycin 1gm, 0.5gm 6 hours later Vancomycin 1gm I.V Penicillin v 2gm, oral, 1gm 6 hours later Amplcillin 1gm I.V or I.M Gentamycin 80gm www.indiandentalacademy.com
  169. 169. Cardiovascular Disease Conditions requiring Prophylaxis Congenital heart disease Rheumatic fever Valvular heart disease Prosthetic replacements www.indiandentalacademy.com
  170. 170. Medical Emergencies Epileptic Seizure:- Recognition Generalized convulsions Loss of consciousness Urinary & fecal incontinence Injuries Jerky www.indiandentalacademy.com respiration
  171. 171. Scientific Foundations of Minor oral Surgery General Practitioner – Guide lines Steroids could be used in the management Of post operative pain and swelling Antibiotics to be employed only with Specific indications Strict adherence to basic surgical principles is mandatery for successful outcome. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  172. 172. Conclusions General practitioners should undertake minor Surgical procedures based on certain determinants -Minimal & moderately difficult third molars -May be removed after accurate assesment. -Effective post operative pain control with availabl - stratagies. -Exercise caution with the used of sterolds in -Post operative managament of pain and -Swelling. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  174. 174. Post Operative Pain Control Objectives Minimise discomfort Facilitate recovery Avoid Treatment Related Side effects www.indiandentalacademy.com
  175. 175. Who Needs Prophylaxis ? Three groups of patients :i. Patients with impaired host defence mechanisms ii. Patients under going surgical procedures where the risk Of infection is small but cosequences are very serious.Eg. Infective endocarditis Patients with orthopaedic joint prosthesis iii. Patients under going surgical procedures which have a High rate of infectious complications. ( Normal host defence mechanisms. www.indiandentalacademy.com But the nature of surgery vulnerable to infections)
  176. 176. Minor Oral Surgery Basic Surgical Principles - Asepsis - Pain less surgery - Access - Control of Haemorrhage - Wound Closure - Post operative care www.indiandentalacademy.com
  177. 177. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  178. 178. Successful Management sepends on Proper pre surgical planning Careful diagnosis Good surgical execution Well managed post operative care www.indiandentalacademy.com
  179. 179. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Incidence of Infection After Periodontal Surgery A stady conducted to evaluate the incidence of Clinical Infection after periodontal surgery with and without antibiotic cover did not show any difference between the two groups. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  181. 181. Impacted tooth and I. Dent canal Radiological signs On the root Appearance Of canal - darkening - Deflected roots - narrowing - Dark & bifid root - interruption of white lines - Diversion of I.D canal - Narrowing of I.D canal www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  183. 183. Tooth Extraction & Bacteremia Bacterial Isolates Aerobes – 1.6% Anaerobes – 71.1% Facultative Anaerobes – 27,3% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  184. 184. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  185. 185. Prevention: Antibiotic Prophylaxis Defn: Prevention of infection by the administration of Antibiotics. Efficacy: several studies have shown that prophylactic Antibiotics reduce the incidence of postoperative woundinfection after Compound mandibular or maxillary fractures. Timing: animal and clinical surveys have clearly established That anyibiotics should be administered so that peak serum and tissue Concentrations coincide with the operation or Induced bactermia. Therefore: It is anachronistic to startantibiotics postoperatively A delay of three hours after contamination result in infection Rate essentially Prolonged antibiotic administration beyond a day or more is not Beneficial and may actually increase the resistant bacteria. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  186. 186. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Should a General Fractitioner Do Surgery ? If So To What Extent ? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  187. 187. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery - Cystic Lessions - Dento – Alveolar Fractures - Odontogenic Infections - Biopsy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  188. 188. Radiological Signs Of Significance Diversion of the canal Darkening of the root Interruption of white lines www.indiandentalacademy.com
  189. 189. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  190. 190. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Commonly Performed Procedures Removal of Buried Roots Impacted Teeth Preprosthetic surgery Surgical Exposure of teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  191. 191. Acute Dento-Alveolar Abscess-Microbiology Recent Studies Poly Microbial Co2 dependent streptococcl Anarobic gram + coccl Anaerobic gram – bacilli www.indiandentalacademy.com
  192. 192. Tooth Extraction & Bacteremia Favouring Factors - Inflammed dental disease - More number of teeth - Age of the patient - More than 50 ml blood loss - Operating time > 100 Mins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  193. 193. Acute Dento Alveolar Abcess Antibiotic Strategy Amoxycillin And / Or Metronidazole www.indiandentalacademy.com
  194. 194. Pain is a perfect misery, The worse all evils, And excessive, overturns all Patience, www.indiandentalacademy.com
  195. 195. Pain is a perfect misery, The worse all evils, And excessive, overturns all Patience, www.indiandentalacademy.com
  196. 196. Trigeminal Neuralgia Acute paroxysmal facial pain Experienced in the areas supplied by One or more branches of trigeminal Nerve. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  197. 197. Maxillary Sinus Caldwell- Luc:- surgical procedure Anaesthesia Incision Bony window Removal of lining,root,cyst etc Haemostasis Closure Post operative care www.indiandentalacademy.com
  198. 198. Maxillary Sinus Caldwell – Luc Advantages # Easy access # Thin bone # No vital structures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  199. 199. Maxillary Sinus Caldwell – Luc:- Indications Chronic sinusitis Root in the sinus Cysts & tumours Biopsy Orbital floor fractures Foreign bodies www.indiandentalacademy.com
  200. 200. Maxillary Sinus Disease - Sinusitis - Oro antral fistula - Root displacement - Cysts involving sinus - Tumours www.indiandentalacademy.com
  201. 201. Maxillary Sinus Surgical Approaches Through the tooth socket Caldwell – Luc approach Denker’s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  202. 202. Maxillary Sinus Oro Antral Fistula:- Management Buccal advancement Palatal rotation Palatal island flap Buccal pad of fat Palatal flap anterior based Tongue flap www.indiandentalacademy.com
  203. 203. Maxillary Sinus Oro Antral Fistula :- Clinical Features Chronic: Sinusitis Change in voice Nasty smell & taste Mucosal polyps protrude out of Opening. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  204. 204. Maxillary Sinus Oro Antral Fistula :- Cauese -Extraction of maxillary posterior Teeth - Root displaced in to sinus - Chronic osteomyelitis - Malignancy - Trauma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  205. 205. Maxillary Sinus Oro Antral Fistula :- Clinical Features Acute : Unilateral epistaxis Escape of fluids through nose Air escapes through opening While blowing. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  206. 206. Trigeminal Neuralgia Clinical Features More in females Over the age of 45 Unilateral, rarely bilateral More on right side Second & third division involved more www.indiandentalacademy.com
  207. 207. Trigeminal Neuralgia Etiology Exact etiology unknown Pathilogic change in the nerve Angiospasm of gasserian ganglion Allergic concept Loss of myelin sheath Vascular compression www.indiandentalacademy.com
  208. 208. Trigeminal Neuralgia Intra Cranial Surgery Retrogasserian Neurectomy Trigeminal tractotomy Microvascular decompression www.indiandentalacademy.com
  209. 209. Trigeminal Neuralgia Clinical Features Pain Characteristics Intensity – severe, lancinating Duration – Few seconds only Area- Trigeminal didtribution Initiated by – Touching trigger Zones Between attacks – free from pain Does not cross midline www.indiandentalacademy.com
  210. 210. Trigeminal Neuralgia Peripheral Neurectomy Mental nerve Inferior dental nerve Infra orbital nerve www.indiandentalacademy.com
  211. 211. Trigeminal Neuralgia Chemical Neurectomy Hot Water Phenol Alcohol Glycerol www.indiandentalacademy.com
  212. 212. Trigeminal Neuralgia Pharmacotherapy Phenytoin – 300 to 400 mg daily Carbamazepine – 200 to 1200 mg Baclofen – 8mg daily www.indiandentalacademy.com
  213. 213. Trigeminal Neuralgia Management Pharmacotherapy Chemical neurectomy Peripheral neurectomies Intracranial surgery Radiofrequency lesion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  214. 214. Post Operative Management - Pain - Swelling - Infection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  215. 215. Pain Definition “ An unpleasant sensory and emotional Experience associated with actual or Potential tissue damage or described in terms Of such damage” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  216. 216. Relationship Between Postoperative Pain & Operative Trauma No significant relationship was qbserved Between operative trauma & pain from day One to day seven period www.indiandentalacademy.com
  217. 217. Does Pericoronitis Contribute to more Post operative pain ? ‘ Patients with a history of Paricoronitis experienced Significantly higher pain scores Through out seven day period’ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  218. 218. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Influence of suturing on post Operative pain and swelling ‘ A study comparing the influence of Complete closure partial closure and Dressing of lower third molar sockets Showed more pain and swelling when the Socket is closed completely in a significant Number of patients.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  219. 219. Influence of socket Closure on post operative Pain & Swelling “ Complete closure of third Molar sockets leads to Increased post operative pain And swelling experience pain And swelling experience Compared with maintaining the Sockets partlassy open with a Dressing” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  220. 220. Sex And Pain Score Levels Over a seven days investigation period of Overall pain scores females reported Significantly higher levels of pain than Males www.indiandentalacademy.com
  221. 221. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Haslaser Any Effection Post Operative Events ? A study to evaluate local effects of soft laser Therapy using a helium – neon laser application For 2 min. following removal of third molars Did not reveal any advantage over the control Group. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  222. 222. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Has Homeopathy Any Effect On Post Operative Pain ? A double blind randomized placebo trial to Estimate whether homeopathy has any effect On post operative events following oral Surgery did not show any significant difference. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  223. 223. Efficiency of methods of removal A comparison of morbidity following Removal of impacted third molars Using lingual split technique and Surgical bur technique showed no Difference in either efficieny or Outcome between the two methods. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  224. 224. Influence of Psychological Factors On post operative pain “ Psychiatric morbidity, neuroticism and Anxiety were related to increased pain Which tended to persist longer than Normal” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  225. 225. Acute post surgical Pain Long Term Memory There is a positive correlation Between experienced and Remembered intensities of Postsurgical pain upto 3 years After surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  226. 226. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Pain Mechanisms Peripheral tissue injury Transmission through the nerves Perception within the brain www.indiandentalacademy.com
  227. 227. Tissue Injury Inflammatory Mediators Synthesis of prostaglandins Release of bradykinin Release of histamine Excite and sensitise Peripheral Nerve Endings www.indiandentalacademy.com
  228. 228. Pain Transmission Chemical Basis Prostaglandins (PGE2) Leukotrienes (LTB4) Neuropeptides (Substance P) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  229. 229. Stimulus Damage of cell membrane Phospholipids Arachidonic Acid Cyclo - Oxygenase Lipoxygenase Prostaglandins PGE2 , PGI2 Leukotrienes LTB4 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  230. 230. Tissue Injury Neuropeptides Release of substance p from Nerve endings (Highly concentrated In Dental Pulp Nerves) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  231. 231. Tissue Injury Neuropeptides Release of Substance p from Nerve endings ( Health concentrated in dental pulp nerves) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  232. 232. Pain Transmission Three Major Nociceptive Afferents Type Diameter Myelination Conduction Polymodal 0.3-3µm Un Myelinated 0,5-2m/s A-delta 2-5µm Thinly Myelinated 5-30m/s A-beta 6-22µm Heavity Myelinated 33-75m/s www.indiandentalacademy.com
  233. 233. Scientific foundation of minor oral surgery Target Areas For pain Control Blockade of Prostaglandin Synthesis Intervening Peripheral Nerve conduction Suppression of higher sites in CNS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  234. 234. Pain Transmission Modulation Gate Control Theory Endogenous Peptides Leucine Enkephalin Beta Endorphin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  235. 235. Classification of Nsaids Weak Paracetamol Mild To Moderate Ibuprofen Mefenamic Acid Strong Aspirin Phenyl Butazone Diclofenac www.indiandentalacademy.com Piroxicam
  236. 236. Blockade of Prostaglandin Synthesis Use of Nsaid Ibuprofen Ketorolac Fluriprofen Diclofenac www.indiandentalacademy.com
  237. 237. Intervention At Peripheral Nerve Level Use of longer acting L.A agents Duration Short Intermediate Agents Procaine Lignocaine, Prilocaine Prolonged- Amethocaine, Bupivacaine, Etidocaine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  238. 238. Steroids In Minor Oral Surgery Use of peri operative corticosteroids Appeared to be safe and rational method Of reductiing postoperative complications Following minor surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  239. 239. Intervention At Peripheral Nerve Level Use of longer acting L.A agents Duration Short Intermediate Agents Procaine Lignocaine, Prilocaine Prolonged- Amethocaine, Bupivacaine, Etidocaine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  240. 240. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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