CRANIOLOGY
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
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Lecture outline
1. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives
2. Kinematics and dynamics
3. Biomechanics: forces, def...
Functional Craniology
• Definition: The study of the craniofacial complex in relation to the fields of
functional anatomy,...
Kinematics
The measurement and description of the
changes in size, shape, and location of the
craniofacial complex.

Dynam...
Kinematics
The description of measurement.
The description of the changes in size, shape, and location based on
observatio...
Dynamics
What is the true meaning of a measurement?
How to see beyond the numbers? And what are we looking for?
What makes...
Terminology used in Biomechanics
Force: compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion
Deformation: Change of form due ...
Force
Compression, Tension, Shear, Bending, Torsion
1) Two basic forces: Compression & Tension
2) A combination of compres...
Tension

Original status
Compression

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Shear

Original status

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Bending
Original status

Torsion

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Facial Deformation

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Facial Deformation

Skeletal Class III, concave profile
Source: Dr. Wisanu Charoenkul

Skeletal Class II, convex profile

...
Cephalic Form, Facial Form,
and Arch Form

Dolichocephalic (long and narrow head)
Leptoprosopic (long and narrow face)
Dol...
*

FM
Female
13y 6m
Source: Dr. Christel Hummert

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Mouth breather; Enlarged pharyngeal tonsil ...
Form (Structure) and Function
Form (structure) follows Function.
Function determines form (structure).
Function controls f...
Cranial Sutures
1. Edge-to-edge suture
⇒ No force loading
2. Beveled suture
⇒ Shear force [Squamosal suture]
3. Serrated s...
Synovial Joints (I)
1. Plane (gliding) joint
⇒ Sliding motion of all directions
[ Intermetatarsal joint]

2. Hinge joint
⇒...
Synovial Joints (II)
3. Pivot joint
⇒ Rotation

[Radioulnar joint]

4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint
⇒ flexion/extension,
...
Synovial Joints (III)
5. Saddle joint
⇒ Similar to ellipsoidal joint,
but freer

6. Ball and socket joint
⇒ flexion/extens...
Functional Structure of Skull
(From a mechanical point of view)
In the force loading areas, pillarlike struts serve as mec...
Functional Structure of Skull
(From a mechanical point of view)

• In the non- or less force loading
areas, adipose tissue...
Sagittal crests and temporal muscle orientations
Hominids compared to pongids

Hominid: Australopithecine

Pongid: male go...
Bone remodeling
Deposition: the biological process of laying down the bone
Resorption: the biological process of removing ...
The Growth of the Coronoid Process

Deposition (+); Resorption (-); Direction of growth (arrow)
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The Growth of Mandible

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Deposition (blue arrow); resorption (white arrow)
The Remodeling (Growth) Direction:
The “V” Principle

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Drift vs Displacement

Drift: the growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling.
Displacement: The g...
Head (craniofacial complex) is a region, where a series of
functions are carried out.
These functions include vision, hear...
Functional Matrix Hypothesis
(Moss’ Hypothesis)
“The functional matrix is primary and the
presence, size, shape, spatial p...
Functional Matrix Hypothesis
(Moss’ Hypothesis)
“The origin, development and maintenance of
all skeletal units are seconda...
THE FUNCTIONAL MATRIX HYPOTHESIS
One Function

Functional Cranial Component

Functional Matrix

Skeletal Unit

1. Perioste...
Types of Functional Matrix
1. Periosteal matrix
(e.g., muscles)
Active growth
Deposition and resorption
Affect size and/or...
Craniofacial Growth

Growth

Active growth process
Active growth (Periosteal)
+
Passive growth (Capsular)
=
Total growth

...
Use of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy of
orthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics, and
orthognathic and craniofacial ...
Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives
Kinematics and dynamics
Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strai...
References
Enlow, D.H. (1990). Handbook of Facial Growth (3rd edition). Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company....
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Leader in continuing dental education

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  • New Imaging device for soft tissue and surface structures
  • Craniology /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

    1. 1. CRANIOLOGY INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 2. Lecture outline 1. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives 2. Kinematics and dynamics 3. Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strains 4. Form and Function 5. Bone remodeling and growth directions 6. Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis 7. Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 3. Functional Craniology • Definition: The study of the craniofacial complex in relation to the fields of functional anatomy, comparative anatomy, embryology, and growth and development. • Scope: anatomy, embryology, histology, physiology, growth and development of the head and neck regions; theories of craniofacial growth; craniometry and cephalometry; and others • Objectives: 1) to relate the function to the morphology of the craniofacial complex. 2) to apply the theories of craniofacial growth and biomechanics to better understand the morphology, ontogeny and phylogeny of the craniofacial complex 3) to provide the scientific basis for the clinical applications in the treatment of craniofacial anomalies. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 4. Kinematics The measurement and description of the changes in size, shape, and location of the craniofacial complex. Dynamics The interpretation and description of the biological processes of the changes in size, shape, and location of the craniofacial complex. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 5. Kinematics The description of measurement. The description of the changes in size, shape, and location based on observations and measurements. The why, who, how, which and where, and what in measurement. 1) The history, scope, definition, and objectives of anthropometry 2) Introduction to craniometry and cephalometry 3) Define anatomical landmarks 4) Define anthropometric, craniometric, cephalometric measurements 5) Measuring devices and technical assessments 6) Data analysis, result descriptions a) qualitative vs quantitative b) absolute vs relative c) statistical analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 6. Dynamics What is the true meaning of a measurement? How to see beyond the numbers? And what are we looking for? What makes the changes in size, shape, and location of an organism or a structure (the transformation)? What are the modern hypotheses, paradigms, and syntheses in understanding these kinematic changes? 1) Introduction to functional craniometry 2) Basic principles in growth and development, especially in osteology and biomechanics. 3) The functional, biological, and mechanical interpretations of the transformation of an organism or a structure. 4) The evolutionary significance: the adaptation and the selection 5) Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 7. Terminology used in Biomechanics Force: compression, tension, bending, shear, and torsion Deformation: Change of form due to the loading of forces Stress: the force per unit area Strain: the dimensional change expressed as a fraction (ratio) of the subject’s original size www.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 8. Force Compression, Tension, Shear, Bending, Torsion 1) Two basic forces: Compression & Tension 2) A combination of compression and tension: Shear & Bending 3) A combination of the above four forces: Torsion Compression: compression is the direct expression of the force, which pushes everything towards the center of an object. Tension: the opposite of compression; the force which pulls everything away from the center; where there is a compressive force, there must be a tensile force. Shear: shear is present, when two forces are thrusting in opposite directions but offset and slide past each other. Bending: is found between the pulling of tension and the pushing of compression. Torsion: a result of all the other four forces. Torsion is twist. Torsion is actually a specialized bending, a circular bending. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 9. Tension Original status Compression www.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 10. Shear Original status www.indiandentalacademy.com Bending
    11. 11. Original status Torsion www.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 13. Facial Deformation www.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 14. Facial Deformation Skeletal Class III, concave profile Source: Dr. Wisanu Charoenkul Skeletal Class II, convex profile www.indiandentalacademy.com Source: Dr. Sonia Abraham
    15. 15. Cephalic Form, Facial Form, and Arch Form Dolichocephalic (long and narrow head) Leptoprosopic (long and narrow face) Dolichuranic (V shape, narrow maxillary arch) Source: Dr. Christel Hummert www.indiandentalacademy.com FM, female,13y 6m
    16. 16. * FM Female 13y 6m Source: Dr. Christel Hummert www.indiandentalacademy.com Mouth breather; Enlarged pharyngeal tonsil (adenoid)
    17. 17. Form (Structure) and Function Form (structure) follows Function. Function determines form (structure). Function controls form (structure). Function regulates form (structure). Form (structure) is the realization of information and the product of the functional attributes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 18. Cranial Sutures 1. Edge-to-edge suture ⇒ No force loading 2. Beveled suture ⇒ Shear force [Squamosal suture] 3. Serrated suture ⇒ Intermittent tension force [Sagittal suture] 4. Beveled and serrated suture ⇒ Intermittent tension and shear force 5. Butt-ended sutures ⇒ Intermittent compressive force “Form Follows Function” www.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 19. Synovial Joints (I) 1. Plane (gliding) joint ⇒ Sliding motion of all directions [ Intermetatarsal joint] 2. Hinge joint ⇒ Flexion/extension [ Humeroulnar joint] “Form Follows Function” www.indiandentalacademy.com Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm
    20. 20. Synovial Joints (II) 3. Pivot joint ⇒ Rotation [Radioulnar joint] 4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint ⇒ flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, but no rotation [Temporomandibular joint] “Form Follows Function” www.indiandentalacademy.com Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm
    21. 21. Synovial Joints (III) 5. Saddle joint ⇒ Similar to ellipsoidal joint, but freer 6. Ball and socket joint ⇒ flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, and rotation [First carpometacarpal joint] carpometacarpaljoint] [Glenohumeral joint] www.indiandentalacademy.com “Form Follows Function” Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm
    22. 22. Functional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view) In the force loading areas, pillarlike struts serve as mechanically efficient reinforcements to resist and dissipate pressure and traction, especially to the masticatory force. 6 2, 3 1) Fronto-nasal pillar 2) Zygomatic arch pillar with vertical branch 3) Zygomatic arch pillar with horizontal branch 4) Basal arch in upper jaw 5) Basal arch in lower jaw 6) Occipital pillar 7) Pterygoid-palate pillars 1 4 5 www.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 23. Functional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view) • In the non- or less force loading areas, adipose tissue and pneumatic cavities fill those mechanically neutral areas. a e c b d 1) Paranasal sinuses a) Frontal sinus b) Ethmoid sinus c) Sphenoid sinus d) Maxillary sinus 2) Accessory tympanic spaces e) Mastoid air cells www.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 24. Sagittal crests and temporal muscle orientations Hominids compared to pongids Hominid: Australopithecine Pongid: male gorilla Temporal muscle fibers oriented towards the Temporal muscle fibers oriented towards the posterior teeth; emphasis on the posterior anterior teeth; emphasis on the anterior teeth teeth in mastication and dietary adaptation in mastication and dietary adaptation www.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 25. Bone remodeling Deposition: the biological process of laying down the bone Resorption: the biological process of removing the bone Remodeling: A basic part of bone growth involves simultaneous deposition and resorption on all inner and outer surfaces of the entire bone. It provides regional changes in shape, dimensions, and proportions. Drift: Growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. The combinations of deposition and resorption result in growth movement toward the depository surface. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. The bone is carried away from its articulation in relation to other bones. Direction of growth: 1) the direction of drift 2) the direction of displacement 3) the net direction of drift and displacement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 26. The Growth of the Coronoid Process Deposition (+); Resorption (-); Direction of growth (arrow) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 27. The Growth of Mandible www.indiandentalacademy.com Deposition (blue arrow); resorption (white arrow)
    28. 28. The Remodeling (Growth) Direction: The “V” Principle www.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 29. Drift vs Displacement Drift: the growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. www.indiandentalacademy.com Direction of growth: the net growth direction of drift plus displacement.
    30. 30. Head (craniofacial complex) is a region, where a series of functions are carried out. These functions include vision, hearing, speech, mastication, swallowing & digestion, respiration, neural integration, and others. The successful execution of a function requires biomechanical protection and support. Moss’ craniofacial growth theory: Function of the craniofacial complex region is performed by the Functional Cranial Components (F.C.C). www.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 31. Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) “The functional matrix is primary and the presence, size, shape, spatial position, and growth of any skeletal unit is secondary, compensatory, and mechanically obligated to changes in the size, shape, spatial position of its related functional matrix” (Moss, 1968) www.indiandentalacademy.com
    32. 32. Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) “The origin, development and maintenance of all skeletal units are secondary, compensatory and mechanically obligatory responses to temporally and operationally prior demands of related functional matrices.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
    33. 33. THE FUNCTIONAL MATRIX HYPOTHESIS One Function Functional Cranial Component Functional Matrix Skeletal Unit 1. Periosteal Matrix -------------------------------> 2. Capsular Matrix --------------------------------> a. Masses b. Functioning spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com 1. Microskeletal 2. Macroskeletal
    34. 34. Types of Functional Matrix 1. Periosteal matrix (e.g., muscles) Active growth Deposition and resorption Affect size and/or shape 2. Capsular matrix (e.g., brain, oral cavity) Passive growth No deposition No resorption Affect location www.indiandentalacademy.com
    35. 35. Craniofacial Growth Growth Active growth process Active growth (Periosteal) + Passive growth (Capsular) = Total growth 1) Sutural growth 2) Bone remodeling 3) Cephalic cartilage growth Passive growth process 1) The growth of neural, orbital, CSF, and other masses and real substances 2) The expansion of oro-nasopharygeal and other functioning spaces www.indiandentalacademy.com
    36. 36. Use of the “Functional Matrix” in the therapy of orthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics, and orthognathic and craniofacial surgery 1. Orthodontics Periosteal Matrix [Teeth] ------------> Skeletal Unit [Alveolar Bone] 2. Dentofacial Orthopedics and Orthognathic Surgery Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Functional Appliances] [Jaw Bones] Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Distraction osteogensis: e.g., hemifacial microsomia] [Jaw Bones] 3. Craniofacial surgery Capsular Matrix -------------> Multiple Skeletal Units [Craniotomy: e.g. Crouzon Syndrome] [cranial bones] [Distraction osteogensis: e.g., Treacher Collin Syndrome] [facial and jaw bones] www.indiandentalacademy.com
    37. 37. Introduction: definition, scope, and objectives Kinematics and dynamics Biomechanics: forces, deformation, stresses, strains Form and Function Bone remodeling and growth directions Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis Clinical applications www.indiandentalacademy.com
    38. 38. References Enlow, D.H. (1990). Handbook of Facial Growth (3rd edition). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company. Moyers, R.E. (1988). Handbook of Orthodontics (4th edition). Chicago, Illinois: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. Proffit, W.R. (2000). Contemporary Orthodontics (3rd edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. Ranly, DM (1980). A Synopsis of Craniofacial Growth. Norwalk, CT: AppletonCentury-Croft. www.indiandentalacademy.com
    39. 39. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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