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Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs
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Contatcs and contours/ esthetic dentistry programs

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  • 1. CONTACTS ANDCONTACTS AND CONTOURSCONTOURS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS  1)1) IntroductionIntroduction  2) History2) History  3) Definitions3) Definitions  4) Proximal contour, contact4) Proximal contour, contact area and related structuresarea and related structures  5) Contact area and contact5) Contact area and contact pointpoint  6) Examination of proximal6) Examination of proximal contact relationscontact relations  7) Contours7) Contours  8) Inter proximal surfaces8) Inter proximal surfaces  9) Embrasures9) Embrasures  10) Hazards of faulty10) Hazards of faulty reproduction of the physio-reproduction of the physio- anatomical features of theanatomical features of the teeth in restorations.teeth in restorations.  11) Marginal ridges11) Marginal ridges  12) Occlusion.12) Occlusion.  13) Procedures for formulating13) Procedures for formulating proper contacts and contoursproper contacts and contours  14) WEDGES14) WEDGES  15) MATRICES15) MATRICES  16) Extra oral formulation of16) Extra oral formulation of contacts and contours (for castcontacts and contours (for cast restorations)restorations)  17) SLIDE SHOW of tri clip17) SLIDE SHOW of tri clip and v ring applicationand v ring application  18) Conclusion18) Conclusion  19) References19) References www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. • Human teeth … designed so that …Human teeth … designed so that … individual tooth …contributes to theirindividual tooth …contributes to their own support and collectively …the teethown support and collectively …the teeth …..in the arch support the…..in the arch support the stomatognathic system.stomatognathic system. • Periodontal fibers act asPeriodontal fibers act as CUSHIONCUSHION andand this arrangement relieves thethis arrangement relieves the supporting bone .supporting bone . www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. • Failure toFailure to respectrespect andand preservepreserve thesethese relationships will lead to….relationships will lead to…. • 1)1)premature failure of the restorationpremature failure of the restoration • 2)pe2)periodontal problemsriodontal problems • 3)3)initiation of caries around theinitiation of caries around the adjacent tooth structuresadjacent tooth structures.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6.  FROM CARIOGENIC ASPECTFROM CARIOGENIC ASPECT, there, there may be onlymay be only 20 occlusal surfaces20 occlusal surfaces..  There areThere are 6060 contacting proximalcontacting proximal && 6464 facial & lingual surfacesfacial & lingual surfaces  OCCLUSAL SURFACES.. areOCCLUSAL SURFACES.. are predisposed to decay by faultypredisposed to decay by faulty fissures & grooves.fissures & grooves. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7.  Decay on theDecay on the proximal surfaceproximal surface mainly duemainly due to faulty interrelationship betweento faulty interrelationship between 1. Contact areas1. Contact areas 2. Marginal ridges2. Marginal ridges 3. Embrasures3. Embrasures 4. Gingiva4. Gingiva www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8.  FROM PERIODONTAL ASPECT,FROM PERIODONTAL ASPECT, periodontitisperiodontitis also will be enhanced andalso will be enhanced and accelerated both inter-proximally and inaccelerated both inter-proximally and in the facial and lingual periodontium bythe facial and lingual periodontium by these faulty inter relationshipsthese faulty inter relationships www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. HISTORYHISTORY www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. According to operative dentistry..byAccording to operative dentistry..by G.V.BlackG.V.Black….….  As early as 1886 theAs early as 1886 the earliest seperatorsearliest seperators were used bywere used by S.G.PerryS.G.Perry  Was subsequentlyWas subsequently improved byimproved by W.I.FerrierW.I.Ferrier  It was stabilised byIt was stabilised by using gutta-percha orusing gutta-percha or modelling compound.modelling compound. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Ferriers seperatorFerriers seperator  Ferriers seperatorFerriers seperator stabilised withstabilised with impressionimpression compound..usedcompound..used earlier.earlier. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12.  There were six instruments in one set made inThere were six instruments in one set made in shapes and sizes adaptable to the teeth inshapes and sizes adaptable to the teeth in various positions in the mouthvarious positions in the mouth www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13.  Early Blacks MatriceEarly Blacks Matrice was tied with awas tied with a ligature wrappedligature wrapped around the tooth 3 toaround the tooth 3 to 4 times and tied with4 times and tied with a surgeons knot.a surgeons knot. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. Gullford matricesGullford matrices www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. DEFINITIONSDEFINITIONS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. 1) PROXIMAL CONTACT AREAS The area of proximal height of contour of the mesial or distal surface of the tooth that touches its adjacent tooth in the same arch. 2) CONTOURS The convexity on the facial and lingual surfaces of the tooth that affords protection and stimulation of the supporting tissues during mastication. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. 3) INTERPROXIMAL SPACES They are v-shaped spaces found between the tooth formed by the proximal surfaces and the contact areas. 4) INTERDENTAL PAPILLAE/ PAPILLARY GINGIVA Inter proximal spaces normally filled with gingival tissues. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. 5)EMBRASURES V-shaped spaces that originate at the proximal contact areas between adjacent teeth and are named for the direction they radiate .(eg: facial/buccal embrasure ,lingual embrasure, occlusal/incisal embrasure and gingival embrasure). 6) CERVICAL EMBRASURES When gingival recession occurs between the teeth ,theWhen gingival recession occurs between the teeth ,the interdental papilla and bone no longer fill the entire interproximalinterdental papilla and bone no longer fill the entire interproximal space. These voids exist cervically to the contact areas and arespace. These voids exist cervically to the contact areas and are called“CERVICAL EMBRASURES”.called“CERVICAL EMBRASURES”. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. 7)7) RIDGERIDGE Linear elevation on the surface of a tooth and is namedLinear elevation on the surface of a tooth and is named according to its location (eg:buccal ridge,incisal ridge,marginalaccording to its location (eg:buccal ridge,incisal ridge,marginal ridge).ridge). 8)8) MARGINAL RIDGEMARGINAL RIDGE are those rounded borders of enamel that forms the mesialare those rounded borders of enamel that forms the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of molars and preand distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of molars and pre molars ,and the mesial and distal margins of the lingualmolars ,and the mesial and distal margins of the lingual surfaces of incisors and canines.surfaces of incisors and canines. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. PROXIMALPROXIMAL CONTOUR,CONTACT AREACONTOUR,CONTACT AREA AND RELATED STRUCTURESAND RELATED STRUCTURES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21.  According to their general shape, teethAccording to their general shape, teeth can be divided into 3 types.can be divided into 3 types. 1.1. Tapering teethTapering teeth 2.2. Square typeSquare type 3.3. Ovoid typeOvoid type www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. 1.1. TAPERING TEETHTAPERING TEETH  Wide crowns.Wide crowns.  Narrow cervices.Narrow cervices. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. 2.2. SQUARE TYPESQUARE TYPE  Tooth is bulkyTooth is bulky and angular,and angular, with slightlywith slightly roundedrounded contour.contour. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. 3.3. OVOID TYPEOVOID TYPE  It is a transitionIt is a transition between the taperingbetween the tapering and the squareand the square types.types.  Surfaces are convexSurfaces are convex but infrequently theybut infrequently they may be concave.may be concave. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 25. IncisorsIncisors  TaperingTapering Contacts starts at theContacts starts at the incisal ridge incisally,incisal ridge incisally, little towards labial,little towards labial, labio-lingually.labio-lingually. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. SquareSquare Starts at incisal ridgeStarts at incisal ridge incisally & in lineincisally & in line with it labio-lingually.with it labio-lingually. IncisorsIncisors www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 27. OvoidOvoid Slightly lingual to the incisal ridge,Slightly lingual to the incisal ridge, labio-lingually.labio-lingually. Mesial contacts starts at the 1/4 ofMesial contacts starts at the 1/4 of the crown inciso-gingivally.the crown inciso-gingivally. Distal contacts start 1/3 to ½Distal contacts start 1/3 to ½ of the crown inciso-gingivally.of the crown inciso-gingivally. IncisorsIncisors www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 28. CANINECANINE  TAPERINGTAPERING Mesial contact at theMesial contact at the incisal ridgeincisal ridge Distal contact nearDistal contact near the middle.the middle. Very angularVery angular www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 29.  SQUARESQUARE Close to incisalClose to incisal ridges incisally.ridges incisally. In line with themIn line with them labio-lingually.labio-lingually. CANINECANINE www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 30. CANINECANINE  OVOID(same as the square type)OVOID(same as the square type) Close to incisal ridgesClose to incisal ridges incisally.incisally. In line with themIn line with them labio-linguallylabio-lingually www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 31. Pre molarsPre molars  TAPERINGTAPERING Buccal periphery at theBuccal periphery at the buccal axial angle of thebuccal axial angle of the tooth.tooth. Occlusal periphery at theOcclusal periphery at the junction of occlusal &junction of occlusal & middle third of the tooth.middle third of the tooth. Cusps form 1/4 -1/3 ofCusps form 1/4 -1/3 of crowncrown www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 32.  SQUARESQUARE Buccal peripheryBuccal periphery more towardsmore towards buccal axial angle.buccal axial angle. Occlusal peripheryOcclusal periphery is at occlusal third.is at occlusal third. PremolarsPremolars www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 33.  OVOIDOVOID Convexity of MarginalConvexity of Marginal Ridge carries occlusalRidge carries occlusal periphery towardsperiphery towards middle third.middle third. Buccal periphery atBuccal periphery at junction of buccal &junction of buccal & middle third.middle third. PremolarsPremolars www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 34. MOLARSMOLARS  TaperingTapering (Mesial contact)(Mesial contact) Buccal periphery at buccal axial angle.Buccal periphery at buccal axial angle. Occlusal-periphery at the junction ofOcclusal-periphery at the junction of occlusal & middle third of the crown.occlusal & middle third of the crown. Large cusps.Large cusps. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 35.  SquareSquare (Mesial contact)(Mesial contact) Buccal periphery more towards buccalBuccal periphery more towards buccal axial angle.axial angle. Occlusal periphery is at occlusal third.Occlusal periphery is at occlusal third. Extension lingualy stops in the middleExtension lingualy stops in the middle third.third. MOLARSMOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 36.  OvoidOvoid (Mesial contact)(Mesial contact) Convexity of MR carries occlusal periphery towards middle third. Buccal periphery at junction of buccal & middle third. MOLARSMOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 37.  TaperingTapering (Distal contact)(Distal contact) Buccal periphery at the middle third.Buccal periphery at the middle third. Occlusal-periphery at the middle third.Occlusal-periphery at the middle third. MOLARSMOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 38.  SquareSquare ((DistalDistal contact)contact)  More lingualy deviated than the mesial butMore lingualy deviated than the mesial but not to the extent of the tapering .not to the extent of the tapering . MOLARSMOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 39.  OvoidOvoid ((Distal contact)Distal contact) Buccal periphery in line with the centralBuccal periphery in line with the central groove in the occlusal surface.groove in the occlusal surface. MOLARSMOLARS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 40. Embrasures varies for tapering ,square and ovoid tooth Tapering Square Ovoid Wide variations Incisal and labial …. negligable. Buccal embrasures.. small Gingival and lingual embrasures between anterior teeth… widest and longest Lingual embrasures.. long with medium width Gingival embrasures between posteriors .. broad and long. 1)Incisal,lingual, occlusal, and buccal embrasures … nil. 2)Lingual embrasures … very narrow and long . 3)Gingival embrasures almost not noticable 1)Incisal,buccal,labial and occlusal embrasures … wider and deeper than the others. 2)Gingival and lingual … short and broad. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 41. Contact areas and contactContact areas and contact pointpoint www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 42. ContactsContacts Places on thePlaces on the proximal surfaces ofproximal surfaces of tooth crowns where atooth crowns where a tooth touches thetooth touches the tooth adjacent to it intooth adjacent to it in the same arch whenthe same arch when the teeth are in properthe teeth are in proper alignment.(Byalignment.(By Lewis.J.Clamann)Lewis.J.Clamann)  Two types of contactsTwo types of contacts  Contact PointContact Point  Contact AreaContact Area www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 43.  According to Ziesz and Nuckulls, the contact area is not just a point, but rather a flattened positioned of the tooth.  Contact point refers to the occlusal cusp of a tooth that touches the occlusal portion of another tooth in the opposing arch. Thus a contact area and contact point are not the same. Contact pointContact area www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 44. Contact areas andContact areas and incisal andincisal and occlusal embrasuresocclusal embrasures ofof maxillarymaxillary teethteeth from the labial and buccal aspect.from the labial and buccal aspect. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 45. Central incisorsCentral incisors  Mesially..incisal 3Mesially..incisal 3rdrd of theof the crowncrown  Distally….contact pointDistally….contact point ….slightly higher.….slightly higher.  Since the mesio incisalSince the mesio incisal angle approaches at aangle approaches at a right angle…the incisalright angle…the incisal embrasures are veryembrasures are very slight.slight. Central Incisor Lateral incisor Central incisor www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 46. Central and lateral incisorCentral and lateral incisor  Distal outline of centralDistal outline of central incisor crown…rounded.incisor crown…rounded.  Lateral incisor has aLateral incisor has a shorter crown and a moreshorter crown and a more rounded mesioincisalrounded mesioincisal angle than central incisor.angle than central incisor.  Embrasure..distal to theEmbrasure..distal to the central larger than thecentral larger than the one mesial to the central.one mesial to the central. Lateral canine central www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 47. Lateral incisor and canineLateral incisor and canine  Mesial contact area onMesial contact area on … lateral … on a point… lateral … on a point slightly above the incisalslightly above the incisal third of the tooth.third of the tooth.  Mesial contact area onMesial contact area on canine…..at the junctioncanine…..at the junction of incisal and middleof incisal and middle third.third.  Embrasure more openEmbrasure more open than the previous 2.than the previous 2. lateral canine www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 48. Canine and 1Canine and 1stst per molarper molar  Canine has a long distalCanine has a long distal slope .. contact area is atslope .. contact area is at the centre of the middlethe centre of the middle 33rdrd of the crown.of the crown.  In pre molar the mesialIn pre molar the mesial contact area … justcontact area … just cervical to the junction ofcervical to the junction of the incisal and middlethe incisal and middle third.third.  Embrasure between theEmbrasure between the teeth has a wide angle.teeth has a wide angle. canine pre molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 49. First and second premolarsFirst and second premolars  Contact area here is aContact area here is a little cervical to thelittle cervical to the junction of the incisaljunction of the incisal and middle thirds ofand middle thirds of the crown.the crown.  Form of these teethForm of these teeth creates a widecreates a wide occlusal embrasureocclusal embrasure.. 1st per molar 2nd per molar molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 50. 22ndnd pre molar and 1pre molar and 1stst molarmolar  Contact hereContact here ..again….little cervical..again….little cervical to the junction of theto the junction of the occlusal and middleocclusal and middle thirds of the crown.thirds of the crown. 2nd pre molar 1st molar 1st molar 2nd molar 2nd Pre molar 1st Pre molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 51. 11stst ,2,2ndnd and 3and 3rdrd molarsmolars  In all three….contact areaIn all three….contact area …..in the centre of the…..in the centre of the anatomical crown.anatomical crown.  Mesial contact area of theMesial contact area of the 22ndnd molar approaches themolar approaches the middle third of themiddle third of the crown…occlusalcrown…occlusal embrasure is more as aembrasure is more as a consequence.consequence. Pre molar 1st molar 2nd molar 1st molar 2nd molar 3rd molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 52. Contact areas andContact areas and incisal andincisal and occlusal embrasuresocclusal embrasures on theon the mandibularmandibular tooth from the labialtooth from the labial and buccal aspectand buccal aspect www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 53. Central incisorsCentral incisors  Mesial contact areas onMesial contact areas on the mandibular centralthe mandibular central incisors .. located at theincisors .. located at the incisal third of the crown.incisal third of the crown.  Contact area extends toContact area extends to the mesio incisalthe mesio incisal angle..so a small incisalangle..so a small incisal embrasure occursembrasure occurs mesially between themesially between the mandibular centalmandibular cental incisors.incisors. central lateral central www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 54. Central and lateral incisorsCentral and lateral incisors  Mesial and distalMesial and distal contact areas ….contact areas …. located on the incisallocated on the incisal 3rds of the crown.3rds of the crown.  As the the central andAs the the central and lateral here arelateral here are small..so are theirsmall..so are their embrasure forms.embrasure forms. central lateral canine lateral www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 55. Lateral incisors and canineLateral incisors and canine  Contact area distally onContact area distally on the lateral and mesiallythe lateral and mesially on the canine …. at theon the canine …. at the incisal 3incisal 3rdrd close to theclose to the incisal ridgeincisal ridge  Mesio incisal angle isMesio incisal angle is small here..hence there issmall here..hence there is a small incisal embrasurea small incisal embrasure at this pointat this point.. lateral canine canine Pre molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 56. Canine and 1Canine and 1stst pre molarpre molar  In mandibular canine , distalIn mandibular canine , distal slope is pronounced andslope is pronounced and long .. distal contact area islong .. distal contact area is cervical to the junction of thecervical to the junction of the incisal and middle third.incisal and middle third.  First premolar….has a longFirst premolar….has a long buccal cusp…although itsbuccal cusp…although its crown is shorter than thecrown is shorter than the canine,…. mesial contact areacanine,…. mesial contact area is just cervical to the junctionis just cervical to the junction of the occlusal and middle thirdof the occlusal and middle third  Occlusal embrasure is quiteOcclusal embrasure is quite wide and pronounced becausewide and pronounced because of the cusp forms of theseof the cusp forms of these tooth.tooth. canine 1st Pre molar 1st Pre molar canine www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 57. 11stst and 2nd pre molarsand 2nd pre molars  Buccal cusp of 2Buccal cusp of 2ndnd prepre molar … not as long asmolar … not as long as that of the first pre molarthat of the first pre molar  The contact of theseThe contact of these teeth.. nearly in line withteeth.. nearly in line with that of the canine and firstthat of the canine and first pre molar.pre molar.  Slope of the cuspsSlope of the cusps creates a large occlusalcreates a large occlusal embrasure here.embrasure here. 1st Pre molar 2nd pre molar 1st molar 2nd Pre molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 58. 22ndnd pre molar and 1pre molar and 1stst molarmolar  In 2In 2ndnd pre molars the mesialpre molars the mesial and distal contact point are inand distal contact point are in the same linethe same line  The mesio buccal cusp of 1The mesio buccal cusp of 1stst molar,is shorter and moremolar,is shorter and more rounded than the cusp of therounded than the cusp of the 22ndnd pre molarpre molar  Mesiobuccal cusp of the 1Mesiobuccal cusp of the 1stst molar is shorter and moremolar is shorter and more rounded than the cusp of therounded than the cusp of the second molar..hence occlusalsecond molar..hence occlusal embrasure varies hereembrasure varies here.. 1st molar 2nd Pre molar 1st molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 59. 11stst ,2,2ndnd and 3and 3rdrd molarsmolars  Proximal surfaces … quiteProximal surfaces … quite round.round.  Because the molars becomeBecause the molars become progressively shorter from theprogressively shorter from the first to the last molar, thefirst to the last molar, the centres of the contact areacentres of the contact area also drop cervicallyalso drop cervically  A line bisecting the contactA line bisecting the contact area of the 2area of the 2ndnd and 3and 3rdrd molar ismolar is located approximally at thelocated approximally at the centre of the middle thirds ofcentre of the middle thirds of the crown.the crown.  Though cusps are short theThough cusps are short the occlusal embrasures areocclusal embrasures are generous here.generous here. 1st molar 2nd molar 3rd molar 2nd molar 1st molar 2nd Pre molar www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 60. Sloping of the contact points followSloping of the contact points follow a curve…a curve… www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 61. Examination of proximalExamination of proximal contact relationshipscontact relationships www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 62. Examination of proximal contact relationship Visual inspection Digital test Radiographic -> paralleling technique www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 63. Visual inspection 1. Viewing the contact from the occlusal and incisal areas allows an evaluation of the contact and adjacent tooth contour. 2. Viewing the contact from the buccal or lingual aspect in either aspect with the aid of a mirror to reflect light into the area is extremely helpful. Digital test 1. A fine unwaxed dental floss is a valuable aid in the assessment of the breadth of contact and its lightness. 2. This test is made by first passing the floss obliquely through the buccal embrasure and judging the cervical and lingual extent of the contact as the floss is removed. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 64. ContoursContours www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 65. ContoursContours  Generally located at the cervical third of theGenerally located at the cervical third of the crown on the facial surface of all teeth andcrown on the facial surface of all teeth and the lingual surface of the incisors andthe lingual surface of the incisors and canines.canines.  Lingual surface of posterior teeth were theLingual surface of posterior teeth were the height of contour is located in the middleheight of contour is located in the middle third of the crownthird of the crown www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 66. ContoursContours  The facial and lingual surface posses someThe facial and lingual surface posses some degree of convexity that affords protectiondegree of convexity that affords protection and stimulation of the supporting tissuesand stimulation of the supporting tissues during masticationduring mastication..  Normal tooth contours act as in deflectingNormal tooth contours act as in deflecting food only to the extent that the passing foodfood only to the extent that the passing food stimulates (by gentle massage) rather thanstimulates (by gentle massage) rather than irritates the investing tissuesirritates the investing tissues.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 67. Contours on anterior and posteriorsContours on anterior and posteriors www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 68. Hazards of improper proximal contour relationship. Over contour under contour correct contour Deflects food from gingiva * Irritation of soft tissue * Adequate stimulation supporting tissues Under stimulation of supporting tissues Restoration overhangs Circulation and growth of Cariogenic & plaque HEALTHY CONDITION www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 69. Managements Over contoured proximal contour Recontour if possible Files – Rhein trimmer Wedelstaedt chisel or bard parker No. 12 blade. Rotary instruments * Sand disks * Flame shaped finishing burs Subgingival contours Low speed reciprocating action hand piece system – Eva system using wedge shaped files. Undercontoured Proximal contour Replace the restoration www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 70. Functions of contours… • 1) Acts in deflecting food only to the extent that passing food stimulates by gentle massaging rather than irritates the investing tissues. • 2) Maintanance of periodontal tissues. • 3) Proximal height of contour helps to provide contacts with proximal surfaces of the adjacent teeth which prevents food impaction. • 4) Provide adequate embrasure space gingivally of the contacts for gingival tissues, supporting tissues, blood vessels and nerves that serve the supporting structures. • 5) For upper anterior teeth -> essential determinant for mandibular movement. • 6) Serves to decrease the tooth bulk from its gingival third to incisal third. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 71. IMPPROPER RESTORATIONS CAN LEAD TO ORGINGIVITIS PERIODONTITIS www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 72. Interproximal spacesInterproximal spaces www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 73. Interproximal spacesInterproximal spaces  Are V-shaped spaces between the teeth formed by theAre V-shaped spaces between the teeth formed by the proximal surface and their contact areas. theseproximal surface and their contact areas. these spaces are normally filled with gingival tissues calledspaces are normally filled with gingival tissues called papillary gingiva or interdental papillapapillary gingiva or interdental papilla.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 74.  When gingival recession occurs between theWhen gingival recession occurs between the teeth ,the interdental papilla and bone noteeth ,the interdental papilla and bone no longer fill the entire interproximal space. thislonger fill the entire interproximal space. this void exists cervically to the contact .thesevoid exists cervically to the contact .these voids are calledvoids are called “CERVICAL“CERVICAL EMBRASURES”EMBRASURES” www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 75. EMBRASURESEMBRASURES www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 76. EmbrasuresEmbrasures  Embrasures (spillways) are the spacesEmbrasures (spillways) are the spaces between the teeth that are occlusal tobetween the teeth that are occlusal to the contact areas they allow for thethe contact areas they allow for the passage of food around the teeth sopassage of food around the teeth so that food is not forced into the contactthat food is not forced into the contact area between the teetharea between the teeth..  These embrasures or spillways areThese embrasures or spillways are named for their locations in relation tonamed for their locations in relation to the contact areathe contact area.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 77. EMBRASURES FACIAL Or Buccal LINGUAL OCCLUSAL or INCISAL GINGIVAL TYPES OF EMBRASURESTYPES OF EMBRASURES CERVICAL www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 78. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 79. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 80. Facial embrasure Gingival embrasurewww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 81.  In posterior region the papilla may be shapedIn posterior region the papilla may be shaped like a mountain range with facial and linguallike a mountain range with facial and lingual peaks and the col lying beneath the contactpeaks and the col lying beneath the contact area, thisarea, this colcol ,(a central faciolingual concave,(a central faciolingual concave area beneath thearea beneath the contact)contact)  It is more vulnerable to periodontalIt is more vulnerable to periodontal diseases .diseases .  It is covered by nonkeretinized epithelium.It is covered by nonkeretinized epithelium. What is col…?What is col…? www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 82. Relation between interdentalRelation between interdental papillae and colpapillae and col www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 83. EMBRASURE FORMEMBRASURE FORM  IMPROPERIMPROPER EMBRASURE FORM…EMBRASURE FORM… results in unhealthyresults in unhealthy gingiva due to lack ofgingiva due to lack of stimulation.stimulation.  GOODGOOD embrasure form…embrasure form… healthy gingiva…due tohealthy gingiva…due to adequte stimulation.adequte stimulation. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 84. Functions of embrasuresFunctions of embrasures  1) Allow food to be shunted away from1) Allow food to be shunted away from contact areas … thus keep food from beingcontact areas … thus keep food from being packed between them.packed between them.  2) Reduce forces of occlusal trauma .. on the2) Reduce forces of occlusal trauma .. on the teeth-they dissipate and reduce occlusalteeth-they dissipate and reduce occlusal forces.forces.  3) Permit slight amount of stimulation to the3) Permit slight amount of stimulation to the gingiva by frictional massage of food while atgingiva by frictional massage of food while at the same time protecting the gingiva fromthe same time protecting the gingiva from undue traumaundue trauma.. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 85. Hazards of faulty reproductionHazards of faulty reproduction of the physio- anatomicalof the physio- anatomical featuresfeatures of the teeth in restotrartionsof the teeth in restotrartions www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 86. 1)1)Creating a contact too broad buco- linguallyCreating a contact too broad buco- lingually or occluso- gingivallyor occluso- gingivally  Change the anatomy ofChange the anatomy of the tooththe tooth  And broaden theAnd broaden the interdental colinterdental col Broad contact area..patient not able to clean Microbial plaque accumalation Papilla…..inflamed and edematouswww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 87. 2)2) Creating a contact too narrow buccoCreating a contact too narrow bucco -lingually-lingually  Changes the normalChanges the normal anatomyanatomy  Will allow verticalWill allow vertical /horizontal impaction of/horizontal impaction of food ….on delicatefood ….on delicate nonkeratinised epithelialnonkeratinised epithelial col areacol area More plaque accumulation Caries and periodontal diseaseswww.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 88. 3)3) Contact area placed too occlusallyContact area placed too occlusally Results in a flattened marginal ridge At the expense of the occlusal emberasure www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 89. 4)4) Contact area placed too bucally orContact area placed too bucally or linguallylingually  Flattened restorationFlattened restoration At the expense of the buccal or lingual embrasures www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 90. 5)5) Contact area placed too gingivallyContact area placed too gingivally Increases depth of the occlusal embrasure Broadening or impingement of the interdental col www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 91. 6)6) Loose or open contactsLoose or open contacts Creates continuity of the occlusal and gingival embrasure with eachother and with the interdental col Allows impaction of food Accumulation of bacterial plaque Periodontal problems www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 92. •Food impaction / retention •Gingival recession •Gingival inflammation •Fractured restoration •Faculty occlusion -> distal migration of untreated tooth •Gingival irritation •Periodontal complication -> acute abscess or bone loss. •Shifting of teeth (mesial drift). Open contacts..clinical findingsOpen contacts..clinical findings www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 93. Open contacts lead to bone loss..Open contacts lead to bone loss..  These defects in theThese defects in the contact area will allowcontact area will allow for the impaction offor the impaction of food and thefood and the accumulation ofaccumulation of bacterial plaques, withbacterial plaques, with accompanyingaccompanying periodontal andperiodontal and caries problems.caries problems. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 94. Marginal ridgesMarginal ridges www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 95. Marginal ridgeMarginal ridge MARGINAL RIDGEMARGINAL RIDGE are those rounded borders of enamel thatare those rounded borders of enamel that forms the mesial and distal margins offorms the mesial and distal margins of the occlusal surfaces of molars and prethe occlusal surfaces of molars and pre molars ,and the mesial and distal marginsmolars ,and the mesial and distal margins of the lingual surfaces of incisors andof the lingual surfaces of incisors and canines.canines. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 96. MARGINAL RIDGES.MARGINAL RIDGES.  Marginal ridge formed in two planesMarginal ridge formed in two planes bucco-lingually, meeting at a very obtusebucco-lingually, meeting at a very obtuse angle.angle.  Essential when an opposing functionalEssential when an opposing functional cusp occludes with the marginal ridge.cusp occludes with the marginal ridge. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 97. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 98.  Forces 1 and 2, acting on twoForces 1 and 2, acting on two adjacent marginal ridges, ...adjacent marginal ridges, ... have their horizontalhave their horizontal components, 1H and 2H drivecomponents, 1H and 2H drive thethe twotwo teeth towards eachteeth towards each other, thus preventing anyother, thus preventing any impaction proximally, THUS…impaction proximally, THUS…  maintaining the mesio-distalmaintaining the mesio-distal dimension of dentaldimension of dental arch andarch and  anchoring teeth against eachanchoring teeth against each other.other. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 99. Marginal ridgesMarginal ridges  Absence of a marginal ridge,Absence of a marginal ridge, force 1 will be directed towardforce 1 will be directed toward the proximal surface of thethe proximal surface of the adjacent toothadjacent tooth  1H and 2H, the horizontal1H and 2H, the horizontal components of forces 1 and 2,components of forces 1 and 2, will tend to drive the two teethwill tend to drive the two teeth away from each other.away from each other. 1) Absenceof amarginal ridgein restoration www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 100.  Meanwhile, the verticalMeanwhile, the vertical components, 1V and 2V, cancomponents, 1V and 2V, can impact food and other intra-impact food and other intra- oral materials interproximally.oral materials interproximally. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 101.  Exaggerating theExaggerating the occlusal embrasure willocclusal embrasure will direct forces 1 and 2direct forces 1 and 2 toward the adjacenttoward the adjacent proximal surfaces, withproximal surfaces, with the horizontalthe horizontal components, 1H andcomponents, 1H and 2H, separating the teeth2H, separating the teeth 2)2) Marginal ridge with an exaggerated occlusalMarginal ridge with an exaggerated occlusal embrasureembrasure www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 102.  The vertical components,The vertical components, 1V and 2V, driving debris1V and 2V, driving debris interproximally.interproximally. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 103.  Constructing a restoration withConstructing a restoration with marginal ridge higher than themarginal ridge higher than the adjacent one, will allow forceadjacent one, will allow force A to work on the proximalA to work on the proximal surface of the restoration.surface of the restoration. 3) Adjacent marginal ridgesnot compatiblein height www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 104.  Horizontal component, AH,Horizontal component, AH, will drive restored toothwill drive restored tooth away from the contactingaway from the contacting toothtooth  Vertical component willVertical component will drive debris interproximallydrive debris interproximally www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 105.  Even in the presence ofEven in the presence of force B, with itsforce B, with its horizontal componenthorizontal component acting on the adjacentacting on the adjacent marginal ridge, there willmarginal ridge, there will be some separation ofbe some separation of teeth as the surfaceteeth as the surface hold for force B is toohold for force B is too small to counteract thatsmall to counteract that of force A.of force A. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 106.  By constructing aBy constructing a restoration withrestoration with marginal ridge lowermarginal ridge lower than the adjacent onethan the adjacent one the same thing willthe same thing will occur, but the majoroccur, but the major movement will be inmovement will be in the non-restoredthe non-restored tooth.tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 107. 4)4) A marginal ridgewith no adjacent triangularA marginal ridgewith no adjacent triangular fossafossa •Here there are no occlusal planes in the marginal ridge for occlusal forces to act. •So no horizotal components to drive the tooth towards eachother. •Vertical force will tend to impact food interproximally www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 108. 5) A marginal ridgewith no occlusal embrasure.5) A marginal ridgewith no occlusal embrasure. •Here two adjacent marginal ridges will act like a tweezer, grasping food substance passing over it. •Though debris will not be forced proximally here. •It will be very difficult to remove once its trapped, www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 109. 6) One-planed marginal ridge in the bucco-6) One-planed marginal ridge in the bucco- lingual directionlingual direction •Normally marginal ridges have facial and lingual inclines •Therfore making them one plane will create permature contacts during static and functional occlusion •Here..1)it increases depth of the adjacent triangular fossa magnifying stress in that area. 2)it will also increase ht of marginal ridge in the centre making it susceptible to the horizontal forces. 3)it will also deflect food away from the normal embrasure.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 110. 7)7) A thin marginal ridge in its mesio distal bulkA thin marginal ridge in its mesio distal bulk  Susceptible toSusceptible to fracture orfracture or deformation leadingdeformation leading to faulty marginalto faulty marginal ridge.ridge. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 111. 8)8) Marginal ridge not compatible in dimension orMarginal ridge not compatible in dimension or locationlocation  AS the marginal ridge is aAS the marginal ridge is a very important part of thevery important part of the occludingoccluding anatomy..marginal ridgeanatomy..marginal ridge should have the sameshould have the same occlusal pattern thatocclusal pattern that dictates thedictates the shape,locations andshape,locations and interrealtionships of theinterrealtionships of the rest of the occludingrest of the occluding components.components. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 112. Marginal ridge with these specification isMarginal ridge with these specification is essential for the balance of the teeth inessential for the balance of the teeth in the arch, ……the arch, ……  1) Preventing the food impaction1) Preventing the food impaction proximally,proximally,  2) The protection of the periodontium,2) The protection of the periodontium,  3) The prevention of recurrent and3) The prevention of recurrent and contact decay,contact decay,  4) Helping in efficient mastication4) Helping in efficient mastication.. Thus …….. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 113. THANK- YOUTHANK- YOU www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 114. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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