Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Computers in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

1,795

Published on


The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,795
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Applications of Computers in Orthodontics INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY  Leader in continuing dental education  www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. Applications of Computers in Orthodontics Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction History of Computer Technology and Systems Computer – Hardware Computer – Software History of Technology in Orthodontics 6. 7. Classification of Applications Survey 8. Results 9. Summary 10. Bibliography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Contents sem1/sb/09-04
  • 3. Computer A computer is any device used to process information according to a well-defined procedure The word ‘Computer’ was originally used to describe people employed to do arithmetic calculations, with or without mechanical aids, but was transferred to the machines www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Introduction sem1/sb/09-04
  • 4. Reason for computer technology system Principally technology is used to solve Input Processing Output Communication problems www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Introduction sem1/sb/09-04
  • 5. History of Information Technology and Systems Four Basic Periods of Information Technology 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre mechanical Mechanical Electromechanical Electronic www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04
  • 6. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. The First Calculators: The Abacus The First Information Processor www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04
  • 7. Charles Babbage - Eccentric English Mathematician 1792-1871 The Difference Engine The Analytical Engine www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04
  • 8. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940. •The discovery of ways to harness electricity by Benjamin Franklin was the key advance made during this period. •Information could now be converted into electrical impulses. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04
  • 9. Alan Mathison Turing Father of Modern Computer Science Concept of algorithm and computation: the Turing machine British mathematician and cryptographer Designed one of the FIRST electronic programmable digital computers THE COLOSSUS "Can machines think?" 1954 1912 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04
  • 10. The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present The Four Generations of Digital Computing • • • • The First Generation (1951-1958) Punch Cards The Second Generation (1959-1963) Transistors The Third Generation (1964-1979) Integrated Circuits The Fourth Generation (1979-Present) VLSIC www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Recent past sem1/sb/09-04
  • 11. The Fourth Generation (1979-present) 1. 2. 3. 4. CPU = Central Processing Unit Personal computers or PCs IBM - 1981 Apple Mac - 1984 MS-DOS Graphical User Interfaces www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Present sem1/sb/09-04
  • 12. Know Your Computer Hardware Input Devices Central Processing Unit Memory Output Devices Peripherals www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 13. Know Your Computer Hardware Let us see how does our computer ‘Boot Up’ Switch > Power > Power Good Signal > Mother board Ready > www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 14. Know Your Computer Hardware B I O S (Basic input output device) Involuntary function E E PROM – Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 15. Know Your Computer Hardware CMOS Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Stores the configuration of the hardware www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 16. Know Your Computer Hardware Hard Disk first handshake protocol Request for HD to Read Track 0 (System files of operating system) Triggers startup of Operating System OS is ready and Displayed on the screen OS is ready to run any software www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 17. Know Your Computer Software • All the Operating Systems are stored in the Hard Disk • All Data is stored in a Hexadecimal Code • Program Files are stored in Alphanumeric formats: - Executable file .exe - Movies .dat - AutoCAD .dwg - Corel Draw .cdr - System Files .sys www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04
  • 18. Know Your Computer Software • Earlier with OS like DOS most applications were Text based • Graphics were available but difficult to work and No Real Time images • WYSIWYG www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04
  • 19. Know Your Computer Software •Today Graphics have developed to such a extent that real time images are created on the screen •Advent of Digital peripherals and Data Acquisition Systems has opened the use age of computers in the field of Orthodontics www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04
  • 20. Classification of Applications 1. Academic 2. Clinical 3. Graphic 4. Research 5. Manufacturer 6. Miscellaneous www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Classification sem1/sb/09-04
  • 21. Academic Applications Administration •THE "PAPERLESS PRACTICE" Charles A. Lewis 1991- To optimize efficiency 1994 - Hardware technology progressed to required levels for the first orthodontic Paperless Practice to begin operation in Florida www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Academic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 22. Academic Applications Administration Appeared unanimous that paperless operation is cost effective, improves efficiency, and reduces stress for patients, doctor, and staff. Still then, only we can ultimately decide whether operating in paperless mode is right for our practice www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Academic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 23. Computer Applications • What is Graphic application? www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving sem1/sb/09-04
  • 24. Clinical /Graphic Application Graphics Software applications that convey information Pictorially are called Graphic applications Visualized on the screen or VDU - CRT / LCD / Plasma Screen etc.. Important Terminology – Pixel, Bitmap, Gray Scale, Resolution, Contrast, Density, Display, Enhancement, Quality… www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving sem1/sb/09-04
  • 25. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application What is a DIGITAL IMAGE? DIGITAL IMAGES are electronic snapshots taken of a scene or scanned from documents, such as photographs, manuscripts, printed texts, and artwork www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 26. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Digital Image • Matrix of square pieces www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 27. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Pixel Values bitonality of image - each pixel is assigned a tonal value, in this example 0 for black and 1 for white. Each ‘0 and 1’ is called as – BIT www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 28. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application In a 2-bit image, there are four possible combinations: 00, 01, 10, and 11 "00“ represents black "11" represents white "01" equals dark gray "10" equals light gray www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 29. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Two Compression Technique’s i. Lossy compression JPEG JBIG/JBIG2 Wavelet ImagePac ii. Lossless compression ITU-T.6** JBIG/JBIG2 Wavelet LZW Deflate TIFF 6.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 30. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 31. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Image Quality a) Spatial resolution b) Optical density c) Image display www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 32. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Image Quality / Spatial summation • Spatial Summation – It’s the ability to record and differentiate separate images of small objects closely placed www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 33. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Optical Density • Blackness or Whiteness • Algorithm of the ratio of light incident to the light transmitted by the film www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 34. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Image Display • • • • Controlled by Display monitor No of Raster Images v/s Vector Images 625 lines used usually 2048 lines improves image quality tremendously www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 35. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Dynamic Range www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 36. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Prerequisite for a digital camera • CCD Silicon sensor preferred over a CMOS sensor • 4MP and above for a professional user • Compression Ratio, Noise, Jaggies, Optical zoom… issues to be seen www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 37. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Flash, Red eye reduction, Macro mode, Video clip recording with audio, Voice recording, MP3 playback and Web cam are important features • Optical view finder v/s LCD display • Expandable memory supports cards like CF, SD/MMC, xD or Memory stick www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
  • 38. Applications of Computers in Clinics • • • • • Conventional v/s Computerised Clinics CT Scan MRI Digital Radiography - DENOPTIX Cephalometric Analysis – RMO’s Jiffy Orthodontic Evaluation PorDios DIGICEPH DIGIGRAPH • Computer aided Space Analysis • Computer aided Tooth Width Analysis • VTO/VTP www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 39. Clinical / Graphic Application Conventional • • • • • • • • Computerised Case Paper Impression & Diagnostic Casts Radiographs Manual Tracing Cephalometric Analysis Diagnostic Set-up Treatment-Preformed System Mid Term Evaluation • • • • • • • • Data Sheet 3D Photography RVG, Digital Radiography Digitised Tracing Advanced software's VTO / VTP Treatment-Customised Continuous Monitoring www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 40. Clinical / Graphic Application •Orthodontic correction and orthognathic surgery - a routine procedure for the correction of facial and dental deformity •Pre-operative surgical planning is still a major undertaking, requiring the collaboration www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 41. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application •Inadequate planning, at this early stage can lead to an increase incidence failure and lessens the likelihood of the patients expectations being meet •The most commonly used method of planning is to cut up profile photographs - magnified to the same size as the standardized lateral skull radiographs •These are then superimposed over the cephalographs. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 42. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Radiographic and photographic registration and superimposition are approximate because of the inherent distortion • The image geometry of the camera that took the photograph and the X-ray machine that took the radiograph are different • The radiographic photographic superimposition is carried out manually using the soft tissue profile and is subject to human error www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 43. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application •Computer packages - have partially replaced the manual method of simulating orthognathic and maxillofacial operations •A digital camera is used to capture the facial profile •Skeletal and dental landmarks are digitized from the lateral cephalograph and superimposed on the facial image www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 44. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application •Bone-face registration - the surgeon can analyze the face and plan the operation •Main drawback - analysis and prediction of pre and post operative appearance were limited to two dimensions www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 45. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application •To address these problems a truly 3D modality of planning is required • Obtaining a 3D image of the underlying skeletal hard tissue is routinely carried out using • Computerized tomography (CT) • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 46. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Many techniques for 3D soft tissue capture are available including Biostereometrics Moiré scanning Morph analysis Sterolithography Laser scanning Ultrasonography and Direct digitization Stereo photogrammetry www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 47. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Disadvantages •Laser scanning takes along time to complete and eyes need to be closed, •Morphanalysis - extremely elaborate, expensive, complicated and time consuming technique •Ultrasonography is in its experimental stage and there are major problems with data acquisition, reduction and storage www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 48. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application •The most promising method of soft tissue capture is stereo photogrammetry www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 49. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Computerised Tomography • 1972 - Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Lab England • 1979 – First image of human body • Sliced images are referred to as tomograms and a computer is necessary to generate the pictures - Computed Tomography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 50. Computerised Tomography • Principle An image of a layer within the body is produced while the images of the structures above and below that layer are made invisible by blurring www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 51. Computerised Tomography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 52. Computerised Tomography • CT for the evaluation of the TMJ was introduced by Wegener and colleagues for demonstrating bone abnormalities within the TMJ. • Determining changes in bone density • Internal derangement - arthrosis is suspected – • Planning treatment or operations on jaws and TMJ diseases and deformities www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 53. Micro Computed Tomography • Principally the same as CT - The reconstructed cross sections are confined to a much smaller area • Significantly reduces radiation dosage • Clinically used to evaluate alveolar remodeling (osteoblastic/osteoclastic activity) as well as bone dehiscence and root resorption www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 54. Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Emission imaging • Essentially imaging of water in the tissue • When images are displayed; intense signals show as white and weak ones as black. Cortical bone and teeth with low presence of hydrogen are poorly imaged and appear black www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 55. Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Assessing diseases of the TMJ • Cleft lip and palate • Tonsillitis and adenoiditis • Cysts and infections • Tumors • MRI can clearly differentiate the soft tissue components • Preferred imaging technique when information regarding the articular disc or the presence of adhesions,or joint effusion is desired www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 56. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Denoptix • Digital radiographic technique • Better than CCD sensor attached to computer • Phosphor imaging plates to capture and store images • Advantages - Alternative to conventional film - Same machine and settings - No dark room required - Environment friendly- no heavy metal wastage - Can be reused thousands of times - Transmission of images - Saving staff time www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 57. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Phosphor plate PROTECTIVE LAYER PHOSPHOR LAYER SUPPORT BACKING LAYER BAR CODE LABEL www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 58. • Imaging cycle 1.Load intraoral or panoramic imaging plate 5. Erase imaging plates for reuse 2. Take X ray Image on computer www.indiandentalacademy.com 3. Mount imaging plates in carousel 4. Place in scanner & Scan images
  • 59. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Digital images can be manipulated using software filters www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 60. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Digital Cephalometry • Digitization is a process by which analog information is converted into digital form - Indirect computer digitization of the ceph - Direct computer digitization of the ceph www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 61. Digital Cephalometry Indirect digitization Digitizing tablet Electronic pen Mouse Cross hair cursor www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 62. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • Digitizing tablet with cross hair cursor – Fine electronic grid- 0.009mm – Two wires arranged in a cross hair pattern embedded in a glass window (Bulls Eye) www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 63. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Modes of Digitisation Point Mode • Connecting discretely digitised landmarks with lines and curves • Time consuming but accurate • Preferred for predictive treatment planning • Precise positioning – adv in research applications www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 64. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Modes of Digitisation • • • • • Stream Mode Stream of coordinate points are recorded as we trace radiographic contour Operator uses a cursor Technique sensitive Needs skill to operate Landmark identification is less accurate www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 65. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Cephalometric Analysis • Static Cephalometric functions • Dynamic Cephalometric functions www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 66. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application • RMO’s Jiffy Orthodontic Evaluation • PorDios – Purpose On Request Digitiser Input Output System • 1960 – First to provide computer aided Cephalometric analysis • • • • IBM Compatible machines Multilingual Cephalometrc analysis Produce a data base file www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 67. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application DIGICEPH • Developed by IIT and AIIMS – New Delhi • Computerised ceph digitisation • Automatic analysis • Plot superimposition • 13 Ceph analysis • Ceph placed on digitizer • Point mode used to move cursor • Stream mode to finish and come out of system • X – Y co-ordinates are recorded and analysed www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 68. Digigraph • Introduced by Dolphin imaging systems • Non radiographic system • Video imaging is also possible • VTO www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 69. Digigraph Cum Frequency Percent Valid Percent Per Yes 53 100.0 100.0 Yes www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 70. Digigraph www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 71. Digigraph www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 72. Computer Aided Space Analysis • Chen Hsing Yen • Bolton ratio • Tooth size relation of U & L arches • Overjet and Overbite • Posterior intercuspation • Arch length • Advantage • Time saving • Disadvantages • Direct measurement of 3D object – potential error! www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 73. Computerised Tooth Width Analysis • Christopher T.C.Ho & Terrence.J.Freer • Ho Freer Graphical analysis • Digital calipers or manual input through VB 3.0 for Windows • Five Screens Patient details Mesiodistal tooth width Tooth width ratio Tooth width excess Graphic display Advantages Convenient, Consistent and Easy to operate www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 74. Clinical / Graphic / Research Application Most widely used • G A C’s – VISTADENT • Dolphin imaging systems and 3M’s – DOLPHIN • ORAMETRIX’s www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04
  • 75. CAD / CAM • CAD Computer Aided Designing • CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing • • • • • Occlusal Splints Planning Surgeries Bone Implants Restorations Designing structures for FEAnalysis • Appliances and equipment www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 76. CAD / CAM • Engineers and draftsmen used the drawing board drawings on paper with ink or pencil • Instruments (trisquare, protractor, etc.) are used on it to draw parallel, perpendicular or oblique lines www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 77. CAD / CAM • Also known as a drafting table, or draughting table • Sketchpad was a revolutionary program written by Ivan Sutherland in 1963 • Novel method of Human-computer interaction www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 78. CAD / CAM A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card Monitors generally conform to one or more display standards •Cathode ray tube (CRT) •Liquid crystal display (LCD) •Plasma display •Video projector • A light pen www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 79. CAD / CAM •A graphical user interface (or GUI, pronounced "gooey") •The graphical user interface was invented by researchers at the Stanford Research institute •First commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in automotive and aerospace industry, as well as in electronics www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 80. CAD / CAM Advantages •Reuse of design components •Ease of design modification and versioning •Automatic generation •Validation/verification against specifications and rules •Simulation without building a physical prototype •Output of design directly to manufacturing facilities www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 81. CAD / CAM •A wire frame model is an electronic representation of a 3-dimensional or physical object. •Solid modeling studies unambiguous representations, models, of solid objects suitable for computer processing. It is also known as volume modeling www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 82. CAD / CAM •Primary uses of solid modeling are for CAD, computer graphics and animation, •Rapid prototyping •Medical testing and •Visualization of scientific research. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 83. CAD / CAM Application of CAD / CAM •CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled •Lathes •Milling machines •Grinding wheels •Drills www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 84. CAD / CAM Application of CAD / CAM •Finite element analysis (FEA) is the application of the finite element method to the analysis of static or dynamic physical objects and systems www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 85. CAD / CAM The GRAAL Techinique www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 86. CAD / CAM www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 87. CAD / CAM Computer Aided Designing • In Dentistry www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 88. CAD / CAM Procedure for designing a splint or a restoration • Surface geometry of casts scanned by 3D laser surface scanner • Facial morphology – 3D triangular facets – connecting spatial coordinates –landmarks from frontal & lateral Cephalograms • 3D virtual image for surgical simulation www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research/Clinical / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 89. CAD / CAM Procedure for designing a splint or a restoration • 3D virtual image used to plan the amount and direction of bone displacement – post surgically • Surgical splint designed on this image • 3D graphic image of surgical splint is transferred to a laser lithography unit for polymerization www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Clinical / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 90. CAD / CAM • INCOGNITO Bracket System Rapid Prototyping technology is used for the actual manufacturing of the lingual brackets • Elan And Orthos by Craig Andreiko • Invisalign by Zia Chisthi www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 91. CAD / CAM Incognito a. The bracket body is designed independently of the bracket base b. Filler spaces such as those occurring in the individualized positioning of prefabricated brackets is avoided c. Arch wire runs parallel to the tooth surface hence gives it, its characteristic platform shape in the anterior segment www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 92. CAD / CAM c. d. The actual bracket body can consequently be much more delicately shaped The resulting arch wire morphology differs substantially from the previously customary design Such arch wires can be precision-manufactured using the bending robot describe under production www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 93. CAD / CAM Invisalign Braces • Invisalign braces invented by Zia Chishti, are transparent, removable, and moldable. Unlike regular braces, Invisalign braces can be removed for teeth cleaning. A series of braces are worn in succession each created by a computer . Zia Chishti along with business partner Kelsey Wirth, founded Align Technology in 1997 to develop and manufacture the braces, first made available to the public in May, 2000. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 94. CAD / CAM The Wave Spring Vogt W J Clin Orthod. 2004 May ; 38(5): 28891 The Butterfly System Bowman SJ, Carano A J Clin Orthod. 2004 May ; 38(5): 27487 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04
  • 95. The Butterfly System • The Butterfly System improves upon the straightwire concept with seven unique features • • • • • • • PROGRESSIVE POSTERIOR TORQUE REVERSIBLE SECOND PREMOLAR ROOT ANGULATION PREVENTATIVE MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR TORQUE MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR PROGRESSIVE ANGULATION CONVERTIBLE TUBES WITH -6° ANGULATION VERTICAL SLOT FOR CONVENIENCE AND VERSATILITY A VERSATILE SYSTEM www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04
  • 96. The Butterfly System www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04
  • 97. The Wave Spring Super-Elastic Nitanium Coil Spring www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04
  • 98. The Wave Spring Super-Elastic Nitanium Coil Spring www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04
  • 99. Bending Art System (B A S) www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 100. Bending Art System (B A S) • Fischer-Brandies. H. and Orthuber Wolfgang invented BAS in 1983 • 1st prototype of BAS manufactured in 1993 • Components of BAS 1. Stereoscopic camera 2. Personal computer and its software 3. Arch wire bending device www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 101. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • A camera with its flat film has been described as a perfect perspective machine, which has proved artists were wrong for centuries • The keystone effect, which is such a nuisance in stereoscopy, is part of the perspective laws • Converging verticals, which are such a nuisance in architectural photography, are only a problem because of the ‘laws of perspective’ www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 102. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Our two eyes look at the world around us and our brain is able to combine the two slightly different views from each eye to produce three dimensional (3-D) perception • Machine vision algorithms work on 2-D cases • Three dimensional information is obtained using special purpose sensors like acoustics, radar, or laser range finders www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 103. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Technique called stereo vision, similar in concept to human binocular vision, is to use two cameras to obtain two images from which distance information can be obtained • Compared to the alternatives mentioned above, stereo vision has the advantage that it achieves the 3-D acquisition without energy emission or moving parts www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 104. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Stereoendoscopy, Stereo radiographs • scanning electron microscope • surveillance www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 105. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Digital photogrammetry, remote sensing • Stereo lithography, stereo sculpting www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 106. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Stereoscopic camera consists of CCD which can be directly used in the patients mouth • Procedure - SS measuring plates placed on the bracket slots & molar tubes - Mirror of camera moves two times forward and backward - Scans using White light www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 107. Bending Art System Stereoscopic camera • Accuracy of camera – mean measuring error btw 2 close marks - . 0178 + .0188 and .0228 + .0245 • Arch form selected with superimposition of occlusal view • MD, BL, extrusive, intrusive, torque, rotational dimensions are specified www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 108. Bending Art System Arch Wire Bending Component • Three components > Holding cone > Inner cone > Partial cone www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 109. Bending Art System Arch Wire Bending Component - Round wire and Rectangular wire used - SS, TMA or Ni-Ti wires -Bending begins only after all bends are manipulated - Approximately takes 5 – 7 min www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 110. Bending Art System Arch Wire Bending Component Accuracy of bends - 0.016 x 0.016 and 0.016 x 0.022 inch Ribbon wise and Edge wise - 6 - 54 degree angulations repeated 15 times - Ribbon wise – 0.016” x 0.022” showed error of 0.43 + 0.11 degrees - Edge wise – 0.16” x0.022” showed error of 0.87 + 0.42 degrees www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 111. Bending Art System Advantages Disadvantages • Precision arch wires • Rapid fabrication • Fabricate full size passive arch wires for surgical cases • T loop L loop construction • Utility arches made • Patient data base • Time required for the insertion of measuring plates and their identification • Clinical judgment still vital • Steel wire easily deformed www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 112. Bending Art System (B A S) • The system SureSmile (from Orametrix) • Developed on the basis of the Bending Art System (BAS) introduced in 1994 • Combination of three-dimensional image processing, computerassisted diagnosis, planning and realization of the treatment, • Permits high quality orthodontia www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 113. Structured Light Vision • Shape from structured light is based on active triangulation • A very simple technique to achieve depth information with the help of structured light is to scan a scene with a laser plane and to detect the location of the reflected stripe www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 114. Structured Light Vision • The depth information can be computed out of the distortion along the detected profile • In order to get dense range information the laser plane has to be moved in the scene • Structured light vision techniques greatly simplify the process of triangulating the position of a point in space www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 115. Structured Light Vision • Using structured light techniques, one can do realtime navigation • This is because one is able to project a beam with known coordinates • This provides information about at least one aspect of the geometry in front of the camera, so the triangulation equations are much easier www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 116. Structured Light Vision • Structured light vision is to project a light beam of known geometry onto a scene and then use a video camera to observe how it is distorted by objects • Using simple geometric formulas, we can reconstruct the shape of those objects www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 117. Structured Light Vision • CCD cameras will detect infrared laser beams quite well (some cameras are more sensitive to infrared light). • A diode laser projects light down onto a spinning mirror which is 45 degrees from the vertical axis • This projects a plane of light 360 degrees around the scanner as the motor turns www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 118. Structured Light Vision • Self-scanning laser diode projecting a beam onto the region in front of it; above is the camera. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 119. Structured Light Vision www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 120. Structured Light Vision • The first image is what the camera sees with the laser on • The second image is what the camera sees with the laser off • The third image is the mathematical difference of the two www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 121. Structured Light Vision • By subtracting the first two images, only the difference between them is left: the laser projection • This will aid in map building www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 122. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 123. Coded Light Approach www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 124. Structured Light - Projection of a structure of lines or grids onto the face - As the projected pattern is distorted by the contours of face, this distorted pattern is recorded by a digital camera www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 125. 3D Photography / Scanning • Visual3D™ is a hardware independent 3D Motion Analysis software package for visualizing and analyzing motion capture data • It has advanced biomechanics capabilities for sophisticated needs of clinical researchers and clinics www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 126. 3D Photography / Scanning • How does the OraScanner work? The OraScanner captures 3-D images by taking pictures of teeth The OraScanner uses a flashing white light (non-laser) much like a video camera so the scanner can see the teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 127. 3D Photography / Scanning • Why take pictures of the teeth? The OraScan provides a record of our teeth To see what teeth look like at the beginning of treatment or at any stage of treatment This enables determine optimum orthodontic treatment, monitor results, and provide very accurate custom appliances to move teeth quickly www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 128. 3D Photography / Scanning How long does it take to make an OraScan? The OraScan takes between 20 and 40 minutes. Several factors such as size of the mouth, tooth crowding, and amount of space around the teeth affect the length of time that a scan takes www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 129. 3D Photography / Scanning • A revolutionary new technology for orthodontics: • SureSmile is shown to reduce orthodontic treatment times through diagnostic imaging and appliance customization • SureSmile is a unique new solution for orthodontics that enables 3-D scanning of teeth rather than use of conventional 2-D images. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 130. 3D Photography / Scanning • SureSmile is a unique, state-ofthe-art imaging, treatment planning, and appliance design system which gives precise customized orthodontic care www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 131. 3D Photography / Scanning • There are three components to SureSmile: 1. OraScanner a white light (non-laser) scanner that creates an accurate 3-D image of our teeth 2. Diagnostic and treatment planning software 3. Precision Appliance ServiceSM creates custom arch wires www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 132. 3D Photography / Scanning Rather than using a standard bracket prescription that requires multiple wire adjustments, The orthodontist uses a customized wire that requires very few adjustments, which will decrease treatment time As a custom wire is used, teeth move to the desired positions more directly, resulting in reduced treatment time. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 133. 3D Photography / Scanning • How does SureSmile decrease the amount of time to wear braces? • • • • Successful tooth movement depends on three major factors: Physiology Orthodontic mechanics Patient compliance. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 134. Cone beam Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 135. Cone beam Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 136. Cone beam Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 137. Cone beam Technique www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04
  • 138. Pulsed- Laser Holography • LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation • Dennis Graber – 1965 with the advent of LASER realized his idea of Holography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 139. Pulsed- Laser Holography • HOLOGRAPHY Means of creating a unique photographic image without the use of a lens The photographic recording of the image is called a hologram, which appears to be an unrecognizable pattern of stripes www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 140. Pulsed- Laser Holography • A moving object can be made to appear to be at rest when a hologram is produced with the extremely rapid and high-intensity flash of a pulsed ruby laser • The duration of such a pulse can be less than 1/10,000,000 of a second; and, as long as the object does not move more than 1/10 of a wavelength of light • This short time interval, a usable hologram can be obtained www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 141. Pulsed- Laser Holography • Laser Holography is used to forecast the longitudinal tooth displacement by evaluating the initial displacement on the dry skull. • Initial tooth displacement has been measured by means of laser measuring techniques - www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 142. Pulsed- Laser Holography • Holography • Speckle interferometry • Laser reflection technique • These techniques are non-invasive (nondestructive testing) and permit the measurement of small tooth and bone displacements varying between 0.5 and 15 microns www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 143. Pulsed- Laser Holography • Holography Stand Table Prevents any Vibration • Laser pointer www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 144. Pulsed- Laser Holography • Split Beam Reflection Technique • Laser Gas or Semiconductor Laser former www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 145. Pulsed- Laser Holography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 146. Pulsed- Laser Holography • Beam splitter is a piece of GLASS fitted to a plastic holder • The beam which passes through the splitter is called the OBJECT beam • REFERENCE beam is the one which is reflected from the splitter www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 147. Pulsed- Laser Holography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 148. Pulsed- Laser Holography www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 149. Pulsed- Laser Holography Pulsed laser holography in studies of bone motions and deformations Unification of finite element methods High precision hologrammetry Holographic determination of rigidbody motions and application of the method to orthodontics Determination of arbitrary tooth displacements R. J. Pryputniewicz, C. J. Burstone, and W. W. Bowley www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 150. Finite Element Method • Finite Element term coined by Argyris • First introduced to the Dental arena in the 1970’s and was documented by Moss • Advantages Accuracy Reproducibility No usage of materials Generation of intra material results www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 151. Finite Element Method Basic Steps involved 1. Preprocessing 2. Processing 3. Post processing www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 152. Finite Element Method Pre-processing • Modelling of the structure being studied • Most crucial step in the FEA • The structure being studied is discretised into smaller units termed ELEMENTS • Each Element is free to be displaced in all three planes of space www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 153. Finite Element Method • The element co-ordinates (x,y,z) can be either: a. Global Co-ordinate system b. Local Co-ordinate system • Categories of Elements: Shell Element Beam Element Truss Element www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 154. Finite Element Method • Elements are connected at certain points termed NODES • This joining of Elements into Nodes and eliminating duplicate Nodes is termed as MESHING • The Mesh size is a crucial determinant of the accuracy of the result • Mesh size is inversely related to the time involved in the analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 155. Finite Element Method Possibilities of modelling of complex structures a. 3-D CT scanning b. 3-D Laser scanner c. Voxel modelling www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 156. Finite Element Method Processing a. Solving of differential equations b. Assemblage into matrices c. Summation of matrix equations The equation of simplest linear static analysis is represented as [F] = {K} {u} The non-linear analysis is solved usually by what is termed as the Newton-Raphson Method www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 157. Finite Element Method • Post-processing: a. Graphical Output b. Numerical Output c. Animated Output www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 158. Finite Element Method • Software's for Finite Element Analysis Studies • ANSYS • NASTRAN / PARTRAN • ALGOR www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 159. Finite Element Method •Originally developed for aerospace structural analysis •FEA has grown to provide a convenient and speedy tool for approximation of the solution to a wide variety of complicated engineering problems •In the hands of a competent user, the method of FEA can produce accurate, reliable approximate solutions, at a small fraction of the cost of more rigorous, closed-form analyses www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 160. Finite Element Method Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical method which provides solutions to problems that would otherwise be difficult to obtain •In terms of fracture, FEA most often involves the determination of stress intensity factors •FEA, however, has applications in a much broader range of areas; for example, fluid flow and heat transfer •While this range is growing, one thing will remain the same: the theory of how the method works www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 161. Finite Element Method •OtherAlternative Methods oBoundary Element Method oComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) oDiscrete Element Method oFinite Difference Method oFinite Strip Method oFinite Volume Method www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04
  • 162. Finite Element Method Finite element analysis for Static structural analysis Steady-state thermal analysis Free vibrational analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 163. Applications of Computers in Orthodontics Dr Sangamesh B 1 st Yr PG www.indiandentalacademy.com Dept of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, SDMCDS, Dharwad sem1b / sb / 24/09/04
  • 164. Nano Technology • Definition of "nanotechnology" • “Molecular nanotechnology" • “Molecular manufacturing." www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 165. Nano Technology • Manufactured products are made from atoms • The properties of those products depend on how those atoms are arranged • If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond • If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer chips • If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 166. Nano Technology • Today's manufacturing methods are very crude at the molecular level • Casting, grinding, milling and even lithography move atoms in great thundering statistical herds www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 167. Nano Technology • This technology gets essentially every atom in the right place • And also make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in molecular detail www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 168. Nano Technology "The principles of physics, as far as we can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom." • We need to apply at the molecular scale the concept that has demonstrated its effectiveness at the macroscopic scale: making parts go where we want by putting them where we want! www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 169. Nano Technology • There are two more concepts commonly associated with nanotechnology: • Positional assembly • Massive parallelism www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 170. Nano Technology • Positional assembly implies an interest in molecular robotics, e.g., robotic devices that are molecular both in their size and precision. • These molecular scale positional devices are likely to resemble very small versions of their everyday macroscopic counterparts. • Positional assembly is frequently used in normal macroscopic manufacturing today, and provides tremendous advantages. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 171. Nano Technology • One robotic arm assembling molecular parts is going to take a long time to assemble anything large — so we need lots of robotic arms: this is what we mean by Massive parallelism • While earlier proposals achieved Massive parallelism through self replication, today's "best guess" is that future molecular manufacturing systems will use some form of convergent assembly www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 172. Nano Technology • Imagine trying to build a Tooth, Periodontal Ligament and Bone with both hands tied behind your back! • The idea of manipulating and positioning individual atoms and molecules is still new and definitely difficult to comprehend www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 173. Nano Technology • In this process vast numbers of small parts are assembled by vast numbers of small robotic arms into larger parts, those larger parts are assembled by larger robotic arms into still larger parts, and so forth • If the size of the parts doubles at each iteration, we can go from one nanometer parts (a few atoms in size) to one meter parts (almost as big as a person) in only 30 steps www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 174. Nano Technology • Within minutes to hours.Orthodontic Nanorobots could directly manipulate periodontal tissues allowing rapid and painless tooth movements www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 175. Nano Technology • Nano Materials • Nano Electronics • Nano Biotechnology www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 176. Nano Technology • Nano Biotechnology: following areas: research is being carried out in the • Novel Surfactants or nano particles for respiratory diseases • Nano particles as catalysts- the Bhasma concept- their enhanced activity due to nano particles • Nano composites for dental and orthodontics use www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 177. Nano Technology • Nano-technology was first used in dentistry with Prime&Bond®NT by DENTSPLY in 1997 • In 2003, Ceram.X combined nano-technology with methacrylatemodified polysiloxane, a component of technical ceramics • The result was nano-ceramic technology and led to higher fracture toughness and reduced monomer leakage in comparison to other filling materials • The Future : Nano-Ceramic Restorative Materials www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
  • 178. Classification of Applications Miscellaneous Storage of Data Web Designing Communication Education - COAST /CAL / CASMAS www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Classification sem1/sb/09-04
  • 179. Classification of Applications Storage of Data ORTHOCAST ORTHOCAD GEODIGM CORP www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics –Classification sem1/sb/09-04
  • 180. Miscellaneous Storage of data www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 181. Miscellaneous Storage of data www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 182. Miscellaneous Storage of data www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 183. Miscellaneous Storage of data www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 184. Miscellaneous Storage of data www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 185. Miscellaneous Storage of data • • • • • Storage Retrieval Diagnostics Communication Convenience • • • • • Multiple sites Automatic Backup Integration Pricing www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 186. Miscellaneous Storage of data • GEODIGM CORP - emodels™ • Ease of Use • Increased Efficiency • Interdisciplinary Treatment Planning • Precision • Savings • Secure Online Storage • Enhanced Revenues • Improved Access • Cost Effective Solution • Speed www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 187. Hosting a web page The History of HTML Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1990 •Web hosting language HTTP (hyper text transfer protocol) HTML(hyper text markup language) URL (universal resource locators) www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 188. Communication Patient Perspective • • • • • • • Searching Websites for specialists Net Appointments Net Consultation Net Counselling Inter Speciality Referencing VTP demo to patient Evidence Based Dentistry www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 189. Communication Orthodontist’s Perspective • • • • • Searching Websites for Information Medline, Pub med, NML… Net Discussion Net Conferencing Multispeciality Tele Surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 190. Computer Program Zerobase Dr Sarver’s Edu Prog CAL CASMAS COAST www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 191. Computer Program • • • • • • • • The ZeroBase computer program : Diagnosis Digital imaging Visual treatment planning Morphing (including long-range growth forecasting) Visual treatment charts Communication Patient education www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 192. Computer Education • Dr. Sarver : Step-by-step procedures necessary to create a PowerPoint program designed to assist in patient presentations • Technical aspects of creating a powerful presentation and well as the marketing philosophy behind the techniques • Virtual private networks (VPN) which will provide real-time access to patient diagnostic and treatment data Dr. Sarver www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 193. Computer-aided Learning (CAL) • Package for teaching the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) dental students. • CAL is effective in our setting it could be a valuable aid in orthodontic teaching www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 194. CASMAS Evaluation of skeletal maturation is important information for treatment planning A new system developed named “CASMAS” (Computer Aided Skeletal Maturity Assessment System) Automatically evaluate skeletal maturation The mandibular growth prediction using bone age obtained by CASMAS www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 195. COAST • Dr Sunil Kapila • Conduct Keynote Lectures • Paper presentations • Only on Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04
  • 196. Usage of Computers by PG’s and Staff at SDMCDS A Pilot Survey www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 197. STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION • • • • • • • • Objective Method Sample Data Questionnaire Findings Classifying Hardware & Software Limitations Results and Implications www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 198. OBJECTIVE • To assess the usage of computers among Dentists (Staff & Students) at SDMCDS www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 199. Sub Objectives • The usage of computers is currently more for information seeking and communication (emails) • Knowledge of hardware • Knowledge of software • Extent of usage • Importance of usage • Perception of how user friendly the computer www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 200. Method • Target Audience – Each respondent is an individual who is either a Faculty or PG Student at SDMCDS • Sample Size – 53 Respondents from Orthodontics, Periodontics, Implantology and Pedodontic departments were analyzed • Methodology – Structured Questionnaires were administered amongst the respondents www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 201. SAMPLE DATA • Age 24 - 30 31- 39 Missing Total : : : : 34 9 10 53 • Occupation PG Students - BDS : 39 Faculty - MDS : 14 Total : 53 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 202. SAMPLE DATA • All 53 respondents were using computers and were literate on usage of computers. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 203. Department-wise Respondents Department Frequency • Implantology • • Orthodontics Ortho • Pedodontics 8 Periodontics 14 • Perio 1 • Implant Total 53 30 Pedo www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 204. FINDINGS computer literate Missing Yes www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 205. FINDINGS research Missing No Yes research Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 29 23 52 1 53 Percent 54.7 43.4 98.1 1.9 100.0 Valid Percent 55.8 44.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 55.8 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 206. FINDINGS seminar - prez Missing No Yes seminar - prez Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 3 49 52 1 53 Percent 5.7 92.5 98.1 1.9 100.0 Valid Percent 5.8 94.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 5.8 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 207. FINDINGS email Missing No Yes email Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 2 50 52 1 53 Percent 3.8 94.3 98.1 1.9 100.0 Valid Percent 3.8 96.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 3.8 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 208. FINDINGS information Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 7 45 52 1 53 Percent 13.2 84.9 98.1 1.9 100.0 Valid Percent 13.5 86.5 100.0 Cumulative Percent 13.5 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 209. FINDINGS own computer Missing No Yes own computer Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 9 43 52 1 53 Percent 17.0 81.1 98.1 1.9 100.0 Valid Percent 17.3 82.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 17.3 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 210. FINDINGS configuration 50 40 30 Frequency 20 10 Std. Dev = .42 Mean = .78 N = 50.00 0 0.00 .50 1.00 configuration configuration Valid Missing Total No Yes Total System Frequency 11 39 50 3 53 Percent 20.8 73.6 94.3 5.7 100.0 Valid Percent 22.0 78.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 22.0 100.0 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 211. Use of Computers for… Descriptive Statistics N email seminar - prez information data storage chat research graphic net conferencing hosting web page CAD CAM Valid N (listwise) 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maximum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Mean .96 .94 .87 .79 .60 .44 .27 .19 .15 7.69E-02 .00 Std. Deviation .19 .24 .34 .41 .50 .50 .45 .40 .36 .27 .00 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 212. Use of Computers for… Report NEWDEPT Ortho Pedo Perio Implant Total Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum research .43 30 .50 13 No Yes 56.5% .88 8 .35 7 No Yes 30.4% .15 13 .38 2 No Yes 8.7% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 4.3% .44 52 .50 23 No Yes 100.0% graphic .33 30 .48 10 No Yes 71.4% .25 8 .46 2 No Yes 14.3% 7.69E-02 13 .28 1 No Yes 7.1% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 7.1% .27 52 .45 14 No Yes 100.0% Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey seminar prez 1.00 30 .00 30 Yes Yes 61.2% .75 8 .46 6 No Yes 12.2% .92 13 .28 12 No Yes 24.5% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.0% .94 52 .24 49 No Yes 100.0% email .97 30 .18 29 No Yes 58.0% 1.00 8 .00 8 Yes Yes 16.0% .92 13 .28 12 No Yes 24.0% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.0% .96 52 .19 50 No Yes 100.0% chat .77 30 .43 23 No Yes 74.2% .38 8 .52 3 No Yes 9.7% .38 13 .51 5 No Yes 16.1% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .60 52 .50 31 No Yes 100.0% net conferencing .13 30 .35 4 No Yes 40.0% .38 8 .52 3 No Yes 30.0% .23 13 .44 3 No Yes 30.0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .19 52 .40 10 No Yes 100.0% information .90 30 .31 27 No Yes 60.0% .88 8 .35 7 No Yes 15.6% .85 13 .38 11 No Yes 24.4% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .87 52 .34 45 No Yes 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com hosting web page .10 30 .31 3 No Yes 37.5% .13 8 .35 1 No Yes 12.5% .31 13 .48 4 No Yes 50.0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .15 52 .36 8 No Yes 100.0% data storage .83 30 .38 25 No Yes 61.0% .88 8 .35 7 No Yes 17.1% .62 13 .51 8 No Yes 19.5% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.4% .79 52 .41 41 No Yes 100.0% CAD .13 30 .35 4 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 13 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 7.69E-02 52 .27 4 No Yes 100.0% CAM .00 30 .00 0 No No . .00 8 .00 0 No No . .00 13 .00 0 No No . .00 1 . 0 No No . .00 52 .00 0 No No . sem1/sb/09-04
  • 213. HARDWARE Descriptive Statistics N windows key board monitor hard disk processor RAM mouse CD drive floppy drive memory stick DOS combo drive others linux Valid N (listwise) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 49 50 49 50 48 Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maximum 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Mean .82 .82 .82 .80 .80 .78 .78 .78 .74 .26 .18 .18 .12 .00 Std. Deviation .39 .39 .39 .40 .40 .42 .42 .42 .44 .44 .39 .39 .33 .00 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 214. Hardware Report NEWDEPT Ortho Pedo Perio Implant Total Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum RAM .86 29 .35 25 No Yes 64.1% .57 7 .53 4 No Yes 10.3% .69 13 .48 9 No Yes 23.1% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.6% .78 50 .42 39 No Yes 100.0% processor .86 29 .35 25 No Yes 62.5% .43 7 .53 3 No Yes 7.5% .85 13 .38 11 No Yes 27.5% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.5% .80 50 .40 40 No Yes 100.0% hard disk .83 29 .38 24 No Yes 60.0% .57 7 .53 4 No Yes 10.0% .85 13 .38 11 No Yes 27.5% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.5% .80 50 .40 40 No Yes 100.0% floppy drive .66 29 .48 19 No Yes 51.4% .71 7 .49 5 No Yes 13.5% .92 13 .28 12 No Yes 32.4% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.7% .74 50 .44 37 No Yes 100.0% CD drive .76 29 .44 22 No Yes 56.4% .71 7 .49 5 No Yes 12.8% .85 13 .38 11 No Yes 28.2% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.6% .78 50 .42 39 No Yes 100.0% memory stick .31 29 .47 9 No Yes 69.2% .29 7 .49 2 No Yes 15.4% .15 13 .38 2 No Yes 15.4% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .26 50 .44 13 No Yes 100.0% monitor .79 29 .41 23 No Yes 56.1% .57 7 .53 4 No Yes 9.8% 1.00 13 .00 13 Yes Yes 31.7% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.4% .82 50 .39 41 No Yes 100.0% mouse .76 29 .44 22 No Yes 56.4% .71 7 .49 5 No Yes 12.8% .85 13 .38 11 No Yes 28.2% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.6% .78 50 .42 39 No Yes 100.0% key board .79 29 .41 23 No Yes 56.1% .71 7 .49 5 No Yes 12.2% .92 13 .28 12 No Yes 29.3% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.4% .82 50 .39 41 No Yes 100.0% combo drive .28 29 .45 8 No Yes 88.9% .14 7 .38 1 No Yes 11.1% .00 13 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .18 50 .39 9 No Yes 100.0% windows .76 29 .44 22 No Yes 53.7% .71 7 .49 5 No Yes 12.2% 1.00 13 .00 13 Yes Yes 31.7% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.4% .82 50 .39 41 No Yes 100.0% linux .00 29 .00 0 No No . .00 7 .00 0 No No . .00 13 .00 0 No No . .00 1 . 0 No No . .00 50 .00 0 No No . DOS .14 28 .36 4 No Yes 44.4% .14 7 .38 1 No Yes 11.1% .31 13 .48 4 No Yes 44.4% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .18 49 .39 9 No Yes 100.0% others .14 29 .35 4 No Yes 66.7% .17 6 .41 1 No Yes 16.7% 7.69E-02 13 .28 1 No Yes 16.7% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .12 49 .33 6 No Yes 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 215. Software - Purpose www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 216. Software - Purpose Report NEWDEPT Ortho Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Pedo Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Perio Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Implant Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum Total Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum word .93 30 .25 28 No Yes 62.2% 1.00 8 .00 8 Yes Yes 17.8% .80 10 .42 8 No Yes 17.8% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.2% .92 49 .28 45 No Yes 100.0% ppt 1.00 30 .00 30 Yes Yes 62.5% 1.00 8 .00 8 Yes Yes 16.7% .82 11 .40 9 No Yes 18.8% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.1% .96 50 .20 48 No Yes 100.0% access .10 30 .31 3 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 6.00E-02 50 .24 3 No Yes 100.0% excel .53 30 .51 16 No Yes 66.7% .63 8 .52 5 No Yes 20.8% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 8.3% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 4.2% .48 50 .50 24 No Yes 100.0% dos .13 30 .35 4 No Yes 80.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% 9.09E-02 11 .30 1 No Yes 20.0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .10 50 .30 5 No Yes 100.0% outlook .30 30 .47 9 No Yes 52.9% .38 8 .52 3 No Yes 17.6% .36 11 .50 4 No Yes 23.5% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 5.9% .34 50 .48 17 No Yes 100.0% Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey frontpage .27 30 .45 8 No Yes 80.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 20.0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .20 50 .40 10 No Yes 100.0% netmeetng .13 30 .35 4 No Yes 66.7% .25 8 .46 2 No Yes 33.3% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .12 50 .33 6 No Yes 100.0% spss 6.67E-02 30 .25 2 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 4.00E-02 50 .20 2 No Yes 100.0% statistica .10 30 .31 3 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 6.00E-02 50 .24 3 No Yes 100.0% lisrel 6.67E-02 30 .25 2 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 4.00E-02 50 .20 2 No Yes 100.0% anthropac 3.33E-02 30 .18 1 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 2.00E-02 50 .14 1 No Yes 100.0% acrobat .50 30 .51 15 No Yes 71.4% .13 8 .35 1 No Yes 4.8% .36 11 .50 4 No Yes 19.0% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 4.8% .42 50 .50 21 No Yes 100.0% photoshop .90 30 .40 27 No 2 79.4% .25 8 .46 2 No Yes 5.9% .36 11 .50 4 No Yes 11.8% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.9% .68 50 .51 34 No 2 100.0% flash .60 30 .50 18 No Yes 78.3% .25 8 .46 2 No Yes 8.7% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 8.7% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 4.3% .46 50 .50 23 No Yes 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com win amp .70 30 .47 21 No Yes 61.8% .75 8 .46 6 No Yes 17.6% .55 11 .52 6 No Yes 17.6% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 2.9% .68 50 .47 34 No Yes 100.0% publisher .17 30 .38 5 No Yes 83.3% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% 9.09E-02 11 .30 1 No Yes 16.7% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .12 50 .33 6 No Yes 100.0% real player .50 30 .51 15 No Yes 68.2% .38 8 .52 3 No Yes 13.6% .27 11 .47 3 No Yes 13.6% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 4.5% .44 50 .50 22 No Yes 100.0% 3d smax .13 30 .35 4 No Yes 66.7% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 33.3% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .12 50 .33 6 No Yes 100.0% maya 6.67E-02 30 .25 2 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% 4.00E-02 50 .20 2 No Yes 100.0% autocad .27 30 .45 8 No Yes 100.0% .00 8 .00 0 No No .0% .00 11 .00 0 No No .0% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .16 50 .37 8 No Yes 100.0% corel draw .73 30 .45 22 No Yes 84.6% .13 8 .35 1 No Yes 3.8% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 7.7% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 3.8% .52 50 .50 26 No Yes 100.0% photo editor .34 29 .48 10 No Yes 71.4% .13 8 .35 1 No Yes 7.1% .18 11 .40 2 No Yes 14.3% 1.00 1 . 1 Yes Yes 7.1% .29 49 .46 14 No Yes 100.0% digicam .50 30 .51 15 No Yes 78.9% .13 8 .35 1 No Yes 5.3% .27 11 .47 3 No Yes 15.8% .00 1 . 0 No No .0% .38 50 .49 19 No Yes 100.0% games .5 3 .5 1 No Yes 70.8% .5 .5 No Yes 16.7% .1 1 .4 No Yes 8.3% 1.0 Yes Yes 4.2% .4 5 .5 2 No Yes 100.0% sem1/sb/09-04
  • 217. Software – Extent of Usage De scriptive Sta tistics N ppt word win amp others photoshop games real player corel draw acrobat digicam photo editor excel flash outlook netmeetng publisher 3d smax dos autocad access frontpage anthropac spss maya lisrel statistica Valid N (listwise) Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey 52 52 51 11 48 49 49 47 48 46 47 49 47 50 49 46 46 47 46 47 46 46 46 46 46 46 9 Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -2 0 0 -2 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -2 -2 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Maximum 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 Mean 2.63 2.44 1.61 1.45 1.44 1.41 .98 .96 .94 .85 .70 .67 .53 .42 .33 .17 .11 8.51E-02 6.52E-02 6.38E-02 4.35E-02 -2.17E-02 -2.17E-02 -4.35E-02 -4.35E-02 -4.35E-02 Std. Dev iation .77 .87 1.28 1.13 1.05 1.15 1.27 1.32 1.10 1.23 1.14 .88 .83 .81 .83 .49 .43 .41 .57 .48 .29 .33 .33 .29 .29 .29 www.indiandentalacademy.com sem1/sb/09-04
  • 218. Software – Extent of Usage Report NEWDEPT Ortho Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Pedo Perio word 2.63 30 .56 79 limited use Maximum extensive use % of Total Sum 62.2% Mean 2.63 N 8 Std. Deviation .52 Sum 21 Minimum moderate use Maximum extensive use % of Total Sum 16.5% Mean 1.85 N 13 Std. Deviation 1.34 Sum 24 Minimum dont uuse Maximum Implant Total extensive use % of Total Sum 18.9% Mean 3.00 N 1 Std. Deviation . Sum 3 Minimum extensive use Maximum extensive use % of Total Sum 2.4% Mean 2.44 N 52 Std. Deviation .87 Sum 127 Minimum dont uuse ppt 2.73 30 .64 82 access 6.67E-02 30 .25 2 excel .83 30 .83 25 dos .13 30 .43 4 outlook frontpage netmeetng spss .37 6.67E-02 .23 3.33E-02 30 30 30 30 .72 .25 .68 .18 11 2 7 1 dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse extensive use 59.9% 2.63 8 .52 21 moderate use extensive use 15.3% 2.38 13 1.12 31 dont uuse lisrel anthropac .00 3.33E-02 30 30 .00 .18 0 1 acrobat photoshop 1.07 1.57 30 30 1.01 .94 32 47 dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse flash .60 30 .86 18 win amp publisher real player 3d smax 1.47 .20 .97 3.33E-02 30 30 30 30 1.38 .48 1.22 .18 44 6 29 1 -2 -2 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 extensive limited moderate dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse use use use 19.0% .0% 18.8% . . . . 2.00 1 . 2 moderate use moderate use 9.5% .42 4.35E-02 .33 -2.17E-02 -4.35E-02 -4.35E-02 -2.17E-02 50 46 49 46 46 46 46 .81 .29 .83 .33 .29 .29 .33 21 2 16 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 dont uuse extensive use 15.6% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate use moderate use 4.4% .94 48 1.10 45 maya .00 30 .00 0 autocad corel draw photo editor .17 1.37 .77 30 30 30 .59 1.30 1.19 5 41 23 dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse limited extensive moderate moderate limited extensive limited limited extensive extensive extensive extensive dont uuse dont uuse use use use use use use use use use use use use 66.7% 75.8% 100.0% 52.4% 100.0% 43.8% . . . . 71.1% 68.1% 72.0% 53.7% .25 1.00 .00 .67 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .75 .25 2.43 4 5 4 6 3 6 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 7 .50 .71 .00 .82 .00 1.26 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.15 1.50 .50 .53 1 5 0 4 0 6 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 17 moderate dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse use limited moderate moderate extensive moderate extensive limited extensive dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse use use use use use use use use 33.3% 15.2% .0% 19.0% .0% 37.5% . . . . 8.9% 4.3% 4.0% 20.7% .00 .15 -1.28E-17 .31 -1.17E-17 .23 -.15 -.15 -.15 -.15 .54 1.31 .46 1.38 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 .82 .90 .41 .95 .41 .83 .55 .55 .55 .55 1.27 1.18 .88 1.19 0 2 0 4 0 3 -2 -2 -2 -2 7 17 6 18 extensive moderate moderate limited use use use use 22.6% .0% 6.1% .0% 3.00 1.00 1 1 . . 3 1 extensive limited use use extensive limited use use 2.2% 3.0% 2.63 6.38E-02 .67 8.51E-02 52 47 49 47 .77 .48 .88 .41 137 3 33 4 dont uuse statistica .00 30 .00 0 games 1.4 2 1.1 4 dont uuse dont uus moderate extensive limited extensive extensive extensive extensive extensive dont uuse use use use use use use use use 75.0% 60.4% 20.0% . 166.7% 91.1% 69.7% 71.8% 62.3% .00 1.80 .00 .00 .00 .67 1.00 1.00 1.8 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 .00 1.30 .00 .00 .00 1.15 1.73 1.73 1.4 0 9 0 0 0 2 3 3 1 dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse .0% .15 13 .55 2 dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse dont uus extensive moderate extensive extensive extensive dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse use use use use use 18.8% .0% . .0% 4.4% 9.1% 7.7% 15.9% .54 .31 -.15 -.15 7.69E-02 .46 .62 .9 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 1 1.20 .75 .55 .55 1.04 .97 1.04 .9 7 4 -2 -2 1 6 8 1 -2 dont uuse -2 -2 extensive moderate extensive moderate extensive moderate dont uuse dont uuse use use use use use use 24.6% 24.0% 22.0% 25.0% 14.6% 80.0% . -66.7% 2.00 3.00 3.00 1 1 1 . . . 2 3 3 moderate extensive extensive use use use moderate extensive extensive use use use 2.9% 3.7% 6.3% 1.44 .53 1.61 .17 .98 .11 -4.35E-02 6.52E-02 48 47 51 46 49 46 46 46 1.05 .83 1.28 .49 1.27 .43 .29 .57 69 25 82 8 48 5 -2 3 -2 dont uuse digicam .93 30 1.28 28 -2 dont uuse -2 -2 -2 dont uuse extensive use 2.2% 1.00 1 . 1 limited use limited use 2.2% .96 47 1.32 45 dont uuse dont uus extensive extensive extensive use use use 18.2% 20.5% 17.4% 1.00 3.0 1 . 1 extensive limited use use extensive limited use use 3.0% 4.3% .70 .85 1.4 47 46 4 1.14 1.23 1.1 33 39 6 -2 dont uuse dont uuse dont uus Maximum extensive extensive moderate extensive moderate extensive limited extensive limited limited extensive extensive extensive extensive moderate extensive moderate extensive extensive extensive extensive extensive dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use % of Total Sum 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . . . . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 219. Software – Importance De scriptive Statistics N ppt word win amp photoshop corel draw games digicam acrobat flash others excel real player photo editor outlook frontpage publisher netmeetng dos access autocad spss anthropac statistica 3d smax maya lisrel Valid N (listwise) 48 48 47 47 47 47 46 47 47 11 46 47 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 11 Minimum 0 0 0 -2 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 0 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Maximum 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 Mean 1.92 1.87 1.23 1.00 .94 .74 .70 .66 .64 .64 .59 .55 .47 .16 .11 .11 .11 8.89E-02 2.22E-02 -2.22E-02 -6.67E-02 -.11 -.11 -.11 -.13 -.13 Std. Deviation .40 .44 .89 .96 .92 .94 1.05 1.03 .85 .81 .91 .97 .89 .82 .61 .80 .86 .63 .66 .78 .62 .57 .57 .49 .50 .55 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 220. Software – Importance Report NEWDEPT Ortho ppt 2.00 30 .00 60 access .11 28 .63 3 excel .76 29 .79 22 dos .14 28 .59 4 very important not important not important not important very important very important very important very important very important % of Total Sum 64.4% Mean 2.00 N 8 Std. Deviation .00 Sum 16 Minimum very important Maximum very important 65.2% 2.00 8 .00 16 very important 300.0% -.25 8 .89 -2 not at all important somewha t important -200.0% 2.43E-17 8 .53 0 not important somewha t important .0% .00 1 . 0 81.5% .13 8 1.36 1 not at all important 100.0% -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important very important 0 3.7% .38 8 .74 3 -75.0% .38 8 .52 3 0 0 Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Pedo Perio % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Implant % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Total % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum word 1.93 30 .25 58 somewha t important very important 17.8% 1.56 9 .88 14 17.4% 1.56 9 .88 14 0 0 very important very important 15.6% 2.00 1 . 2 15.2% 2.00 1 . 2 very important very important 0 very important very important 0 2.2% 1.87 48 .44 90 2.2% 1.92 48 .40 92 0 0 very important 100.0% very important outlook frontpage netmeetng spss .11 .18 .18 -3.57E-02 28 28 28 28 .63 .48 .77 .51 3 5 5 -1 not at all important not important somewha t important 42.9% .13 8 1.25 1 not at all important somewha t important 100.0% -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important very important 0 not at all important very important 100.0% .25 8 1.39 2 not at all important very important acrobat photoshop .80 1.20 30 30 1.03 .81 24 36 not at all important not at all important not at all important not at all important not at all important somewha t important . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important somewha t important . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important somewha t important . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important somewha t important . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important 0 0 0 0 . .13 8 .83 1 . -.25 8 .46 -2 . -.25 8 .46 -2 . -.13 8 .35 -1 not important not important not important 0 flash .77 30 .86 23 win amp 1.30 30 .92 39 not at all important 67.2% 1.13 8 .83 9 140.0% -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important 57.7% .63 8 .74 5 0 0 .0% 1.25 8 1.04 10 76.7% .13 8 .64 1 not important somewha t important 3.3% .63 8 .92 5 not important 0 0 0 0 very important somewhat important very important 14.3% 2.00 1 . 2 60.0% .00 1 . 0 -40.0% .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 19.4% 2.00 1 . 2 21.3% 1.00 1 . 1 0 very important 0 0 0 0 0 0 very important somewhat important 0 very important 0 0 0 0 0 0 very important somewhat important .0% 8.89E-02 45 .63 4 not at all important 28.6% .16 45 .82 7 not at all important .0% .11 45 .61 5 not at all important .0% . .11 -6.67E-02 45 45 .86 .62 5 -3 not at all not at all important important . -.13 45 .55 -6 not at all important somewha t important . . -.11 45 .57 -5 not at all important somewha t important . 6.5% .66 47 1.03 31 not at all important 2.1% 1.00 47 .96 47 not at all important very important . -.11 45 .57 -5 not at all important somewha t important . 16.7% 1.00 1 . 1 somewha t important somewha t important 3.3% .64 47 .85 30 not at all important very important very important very important 100.0% very important very important 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey 100.0% very important . somewha t important . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important 76.6% 4.86E-17 8 .93 0 not at all important 0 very important not at all important 77.4% -.13 8 .83 -1 not at all important somewha t important -3.2% .75 8 .89 6 0 very important not at all important somewha t important . .13 8 .35 1 0 very important not at all important very important very important very important not at all important very important 0 .0% 2.22E-02 45 .66 1 not at all important 0 very important very important 11.1% 1.00 1 . 1 somewha t important somewha t important 3.7% .59 46 .91 27 not at all important maya -.11 28 .50 -3 very important very important somewha t important 75.0% .00 1 . 0 3d smax -.18 28 .55 -5 very important -60.0% .38 8 .74 3 not important publisher real player .25 .50 28 30 .80 1.01 7 15 very important 14.3% .13 8 .83 1 not important 0 40.0% -.25 8 .46 -2 statistica lisrel anthropac 1.04E-17 -3.57E-02 -3.57E-02 28 28 28 .54 .51 .58 0 -1 -1 100.0% very important 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com 0 very important 15.5% 1.00 8 .93 8 0 very important digicam .86 28 .97 24 games .7 3 .9 2 not at all important 0 not at all important 0 not importan very important very important very important very important very importan . -.38 8 .74 -3 not at all important 81.8% .50 8 .76 4 65.7% .8 71.4% .13 8 .83 1 0 not important 75.0% .38 8 1.30 3 not at all important very important very important very importan .8 0 0 very important . .00 8 .00 0 . -.13 8 .35 -1 9.1% .38 8 .92 3 4.8% .50 8 .76 4 9.4% .56 9 1.13 5 20.0% .3 0 not important not important 0 not important not importan very important very importan 15.6% .00 1 . 0 8.6% 2.0 -60.0% .13 8 .83 1 not important not important very important very important very important 0 0 0 very important 13.8% 2.00 1 . 2 20.0% .00 1 . 0 15.4% 2.00 1 . 2 . .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 . .00 1 . 0 6.8% 1.00 1 . 1 very important 0 very important 0 0 0 somewhat important somewhat important 0 very importan very important 0 very important 0 0 0 somewhat important somewhat important 0 very importan .0% .11 45 .80 5 not at all important 7.7% .55 47 .97 26 not at all important very important very important very important 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 3.4% 1.23 47 .89 58 0 19.2% .50 8 1.07 4 somewha t important . -.13 8 .35 -1 not important autocad corel draw photo editor .11 1.20 .54 28 30 28 .88 .89 .96 3 36 15 . -.11 45 .49 -5 not at all important somewha t important . . . -.13 -2.22E-02 45 45 .50 .78 -6 -1 not at all not at all important important somewha very t important important . . 2.3% .94 47 .92 44 very important 19.0% 1.00 1 . 1 1.0 not important 4.8% .47 45 .89 21 not at all important .0% .70 46 1.05 32 not at all important not importan very important very important very important very importan 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 5.7% .7 4 .9 3 sem1/sb/09-04
  • 221. Software – User friendly De scriptive Statistics N word ppt games win amp photoshop acrobat digicam others corel draw real player excel photo editor outlook flash netmeetng frontpage autocad access dos publisher spss 3d smax lisrel maya statistica anthropac Valid N (listwise) 44 44 37 39 37 36 35 7 34 34 35 32 30 34 29 28 28 27 28 29 26 28 26 27 27 26 4 Minimum 2 1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 Maximum 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 Mean 2.86 2.75 2.05 1.92 1.78 1.75 1.46 1.43 1.24 1.21 1.20 1.19 .97 .74 .72 .57 .43 .41 .32 .28 .12 7.14E-02 3.85E-02 3.70E-02 3.70E-02 .00 Std. Deviation .35 .49 1.37 1.46 1.06 1.30 1.52 1.40 1.28 1.43 1.16 1.33 1.33 1.02 1.13 1.10 .84 .89 .77 .88 .52 .38 .34 .34 .34 .28 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 222. Software – User friendly Report NEWDEPT Ortho Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Pedo % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Perio % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Implant % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum Total % of Total Sum Mean N Std. Deviation Sum Minimum Maximum % of Total Sum word 2.86 28 .36 80 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 63.5% 2.88 8 .35 23 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 18.3% 2.86 7 .38 20 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 15.9% 3.00 1 . 3 extremely user friendly extremely user friendly 2.4% 2.86 44 .35 126 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 100.0% ppt 2.82 28 .48 79 limited user friendly extremely user friendly 65.3% 2.50 8 .53 20 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 16.5% 2.71 7 .49 19 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 15.7% 3.00 1 . 3 extremely user friendly extremely user friendly 2.5% 2.75 44 .49 121 limited user friendly extremely user friendly 100.0% access .12 17 .60 2 excel 1.00 22 1.20 22 dos .16 19 .60 3 outlook .65 17 1.27 11 frontpage .47 19 1.12 9 netmeetng .74 19 1.28 14 spss 5.88E-02 17 .56 1 statistica .00 18 .34 0 lisrel anthropac .00 -5.56E-02 18 18 .34 .24 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 moderate user friendly 18.2% 1.33 3 1.53 4 extremely user friendly 52.4% 1.60 5 1.14 8 moderate user friendly 33.3% .50 2 .71 1 extremely user friendly 37.9% 1.80 5 1.30 9 extremely user friendly 56.2% .50 2 .71 1 extremely user friendly 66.7% .67 3 .58 2 moderate user friendly 33.3% .50 2 .71 1 limited user friendly .0% .50 2 .71 1 limited user friendly .0% .50 2 .71 1 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly extremely user friendly 36.4% .71 7 .95 5 extremely user friendly 19.0% 1.57 7 1.13 11 limited user friendly 11.1% .71 7 1.11 5 extremely user friendly 31.0% .86 7 1.21 6 limited user friendly 6.2% .86 7 1.21 6 limited user friendly 9.5% .71 7 .95 5 limited user friendly 33.3% .14 7 .38 1 limited user friendly 100.0% .00 7 .00 0 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly moderate user friendly 45.5% extremely user friendly 55.6% moderate user friendly 23.8% limited user friendly 33.3% .32 28 .77 9 extremely user friendly 20.7% 3.00 1 . 3 extremely user friendly extremely user friendly 10.3% .97 30 1.33 29 extremely user friendly 37.5% .41 27 .89 11 extremely user friendly 26.2% 1.00 1 . 1 limited user friendly limited user friendly 2.4% 1.20 35 1.16 42 .57 28 1.10 16 .72 29 1.13 21 .12 26 .52 3 3.70E-02 27 .34 1 3.85E-02 26 .34 1 .00 26 .28 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% moderate user friendly 100.0% limited user friendly 100.0% limited user friendly 100.0% acrobat 1.76 25 1.27 44 photoshop 1.72 25 .98 43 flash .57 23 .95 13 win amp 1.81 26 1.55 47 publisher real player .20 1.00 20 22 .83 1.48 4 22 -1 -1 -1 3d smax 5.26E-02 19 .40 1 maya .00 18 .34 0 -1 -1 -1 autocad .53 19 .96 10 corel draw photo editor 1.33 1.09 24 22 1.27 1.34 32 24 digicam 1.42 24 1.56 34 games 2.0 2 1.4 4 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly -1 - extremely user friendly 66.7% 2.75 4 .50 11 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 21.6% .86 7 1.46 6 extremel user friendly 60.5% 2.2 not user friendly not user friendly extremely user friendly 69.8% 2.00 3 1.73 6 extremely user friendly 65.2% 1.50 4 1.00 6 extremely user friendly 52.0% 1.00 3 1.00 3 extremely user friendly 62.7% 2.20 5 1.30 11 extremely user friendly 50.0% .50 2 .71 1 extremely user friendly 53.7% 1.75 4 1.26 7 limited user friendly 50.0% .50 2 .71 1 limited user friendly .0% .50 2 .71 1 extremely user friendly 83.3% .50 2 .71 1 extremely user friendly 76.2% 1.00 2 1.41 2 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly limited user friendly 100.0% .00 6 .00 0 limited user friendly extremely user friendly 9.5% 1.57 7 1.51 11 moderate user friendly 9.1% 2.14 7 1.46 15 moderate user friendly 12.0% 1.00 7 1.29 7 extremely user friendly 14.7% 2.00 7 1.41 14 limited user friendly 12.5% .43 7 1.13 3 extremely user friendly 17.1% 1.29 7 1.38 9 limited user friendly 50.0% .00 7 .00 0 limited user friendly 100.0% .00 7 .00 0 limited user friendly 8.3% .14 7 .38 1 moderate user friendly 4.8% .86 7 1.46 6 extremely user friendly 63.2% 2.50 2 .71 5 moderate user friendly extremely user friendly 13.2% 1.00 7 1.41 7 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly extremely user friendly 17.5% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate user friendly moderate user friendly 3.2% 1.75 36 1.30 63 extremely user friendly 22.7% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate user friendly moderate user friendly 3.0% 1.78 37 1.06 66 extremely user friendly 28.0% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate user friendly moderate user friendly 8.0% .74 34 1.02 25 extremely user friendly 18.7% 3.00 1 . 3 extremely user friendly extremely user friendly 4.0% 1.92 39 1.46 75 extremely user friendly 37.5% not user friendly not user friendly limited user friendly 8.3% extremely user friendly 14.3% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate user friendly moderate user friendly 4.8% 1.24 34 1.28 42 extremely user friendly 18.4% 2.00 1 . 2 moderate user friendly moderate user friendly 5.3% 1.19 32 1.33 38 extremely user friendly 11.8% extremel user friendly 14.5% 3.0 .28 29 .88 8 extremely user friendly 22.0% 3.00 1 . 3 extremely user friendly extremely user friendly 7.3% 1.21 34 1.43 41 not user friendly not user friendly -1 -1 -1 not user friendly not user friendly not user friendly extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% extremely user friendly 100.0% .0% -1 not user friendly . .50 2 .71 1 . .00 6 .00 0 .0% . limited user friendly . .0% .0% 7.14E-02 28 .38 2 3.70E-02 27 .34 1 -1 -1 -1 extremely user friendly 100.0% limited user friendly 100.0% limited user friendly 100.0% .43 28 .84 12 1.46 35 1.52 51 1.1 1 not user friendly extremel user friendly 21.1% 1.5 1.5 1 extremel user friendly extremel user friendly 3.9% 2.0 3 1.3 7 -1 extremely user friendly 100.0% - extremel user friendly 100.0% www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 223. Understanding Hardware and Software • Basics of Hardware • Standard Software for regular usage (communication, documents and presentations) • Standard Software for programming better (accuracy, precision and digitized) Orthodontics • Standard Software for advanced data analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 224. Classification of Software •SOFTWARE FOR REGULAR USAGE • • • • Microsoft Word Microsoft Power point Microsoft Access Microsoft Excel • • • • MS DOS Microsoft Outlook Microsoft Frontpage Net Meeting www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 225. Classification of Software ENTERTAINMENT • • • • • Win amp Real player Juke Box Windows Media Player Games www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 226. Classification of Software ADVANCED USAGE • • • • • • • Adobe Acrobat Reader Flash Corel draw MS Photo editor Adobe Photoshop Microsoft publisher Anti Virus Norton, Sophos… • • • • • • • 3d smax Maya AutoCAD WinZip Digicam Software Nero Express MSC Nastran, Patran www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 227. Classification of Software • SOFTWARE FOR ADVANCED DATA ANALYSIS •SPSS •Statistica •LISREL •Anthropac www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 228. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows®) & Statistica • These software are used to analyze quantitative data. They have an advantage over Microsoft excel in performing advanced data analysis www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 229. Analyzing data with SPSS All we have to do is: • Get our data into SPSS. We can open a previously saved SPSS data file; read a spreadsheet, database, or text data file; or enter your data directly in the Data Editor. • Select a procedure from the menus to calculate statistics or to create a chart. • Select the variables for the analysis. The variables in the data file are displayed in a dialog box for the procedure. • Run the procedure and look at the results. Results are displayed in the Viewer. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 230. LISREL • LISREL is used to analyze abstract variables - their path of occurance. • Primarily intended for Structural Equation www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 231. Anthropac • This is a software that is used to analyze bulk qualitative data in word documents www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 232. LIMITATIONS • The questionnaire had some jargons which were not comprehended rightly by the respondents – This has resulted in the output with lower awareness of certain software and program’s though in reality it might not be so. www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 233. Sub Objectives - Results • The usage of computers is currently more for information seeking and communication (emails) – accepted • Knowledge of hardware – Average • Knowledge of software - Low • Extent of usage – Very low • Importance of usage - High • Perception of how user friendly the computer - High www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 234. RESULTS and IMPLICATIONS • From the information available (applications of computers in Orthodontics)– we find that we have immense potential of producing low cost, efficient and accurate work using computers. • This survey indicates that there is a need to create awareness of some of the software and institutionalize the same to be in the forefront in usage of computers in Dentistry www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
  • 235. Bibliography 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. William R. Proffit, Henry W. Fields, Contemporary Orthodontics, Third Edition,2000 - Mosby Leslie. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face, Second Edition,1994 – Raven press New York Gurukeerat Singh, Text Book of Orthodontics, First Edition, 2004 – Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi William R. Proffit, Raymond P. White Jr, David M. Sarver, Contemporary Treatment in Orthodontics, 2003 – Mosby Athanasios E. Athanasiou, Orthodontic Cephalometry,1995 – Mosby-Wolfe www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04
  • 236. Bibliography 6. 7. 8. 9. Alexander Jacobson, Radiographic Cephalometry-From Basics to Video imaging,1995 – Quintessence Publishing Co,Inc CHIP – Sept 2004, Vol 1, Issue 11 Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopaedia Computers in Orthodontics - Seminar presented by Dr Siju M. George, Dept of Orthodontics, SDMCDS www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04
  • 237. Bibliography 10. Karnataka State Dental Journal -Promise of Molecular Nanotechnology, Sahil Narula. Vol 23,No 2, May2004 Pg48-52 11. AJO - Manual and computer-aided space analysis: a comparative study Schirmer UR, Wiltshire WA. , Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1997 Dec;112(6):676-80 -OrthoCAD Bracket Placement Solution W. R. Redmond et al, AJO/DO, May 2004 -Comparison of measurements made on digital and plaster models M. Santoro et al, AJO/DO July 2003 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04
  • 238. Bibliography 12. JCO -The Wave Spring, Vogt W, J Clin Orthod. 2004 May ; 38(5): 288-91 -The Butterfly System, Bowman SJ, Carano A J Clin Orthod. 2004 May ; 38(5): 274-87 -The Cutting Edge - Age Old Questions W. R. Redmond, JCO, Feb. 2004 www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04
  • 239. Bibliography 13. Websites www.google search.com www.msnsearch.com www.orthocad.com www.geodigm.com www.ormco.com www.indiandentalacademy.com Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04
  • 240.  www.indiandentalacademy.com  Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

×