COMPONENTS OF REMOVABLE
PARTIAL DENTURES

INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacad...
CLASSIFICATION

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REMOVABLE PROSTHODONTICS is devoted to
replacement of missing teeth and contiguous
tissues with prostheses designed to be ...








CLASSIFICATION OF PARTIALLY
EDENTULOUS ARCHES
For a classification to be acceptable it should
be able to deal ...




One simple system classifies the prostheses
according to the type of support they receive
from the dental arch:
Sof...
Kennedy’s original classification
contains the following four
classes with certain
modifications.

www.indiandentalacademy...
CLASS 1
Bilateral
edentulous
areas located
posterior to
the remaining
natural teeth
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CLASS 2
Unilateral
edentulous area
located posterior
to the remaining
natural teeth
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CLASS 3
Unilateral
edentulous area
with natural teeth
both anterior and
posterior to it
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CLASS 4
Single, bilateral
edentulous area
located anterior
to the remaining
natural teeth

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

Each of the classes, except class 1, refers to a
single edentulous area in each arch. Since
these types of edentulous a...






CLASS 5 is described as an edentulous area
bounded anteriorly and posteriorly by natural
teeth in which the anter...
Applegate also provided the following eight rules
to govern the application of the Kennedy
system.
 RULE 1
Classification...
RULE 2
If the third molar is missing
and not to be replaced it is
not
considered
in
the
classification
.

RULE 3
If a thir...
RULE 4
If a second molar is
missing and is not to be
replaced (that is, the
opposing second molar is
also missing and is n...
RULE5
The most posterior edentulous
area or areas always
determine the classification.

CLASS III, MODIFICATION 2

RULE 6
...
RULE 7
The extent of the
modification
is
not
considered, only the
number of additional
edentulous areas

RULE 8
There can ...
MAJOR CONNECTORS

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The major
connectors connect
the parts of the
prosthesis located
on one side of the
arch with those on
the opposite side. ...
All major connectors must:
Be rigid


Provide vertical support and protect the soft
tissues
Provide a means of obtaining ...
In the maxillary arch-the border
of the major connector should be
at least 6mm from the gingival
crevice of the teeth.
In ...
TYPES OF MAXILLARY MAJOR
CONNECTORS


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



Single posterior palatal bar
Palatal strap
Anteroposterior, or double, p...
SINGLE POSTERIOR PALATAL BAR
Is narrow, half oval with its thickest
point at the centre. The bar is gently
curved and shou...
PALATAL STRAP
ADVANTAGES
Because the palatal strap is located in
three planes, the horizontal or vault of the
palate: the ...
ANTEROPOSTERIOR, OR DOUBLE, PALATAL
BAR
The greatest asset of this bar is
excellent
rigidity.
Thus
this
connector should n...
HORSESHOE, OR U-SHAPED, CONNECTOR

It consists of a thin band of metal
running along the lingual surface of the
posterior ...
CLOSED HORSESHOE, OR
ANTEROPOSTERIOR PALATAL STRAP

Structurally strong and rigid major
connector that may be used in most...
COMPLETE PALATE

Complete palate provides the ultimate
rigidity and support. It also provides the
most tissue coverage, so...
TYPES OF MANDIBULAR MAJOR
CONNECTORS





Lingual bar
Lingual plate
Double lingual bar or Kennedy bar
Labial bar

www....
LINGUAL BAR
This is by far the most
ADVANTAGES
Because of its simplicity in design and frequently used mandibular
construc...
LINGUAL PLATE
ADVANTAGES
It is indicated when most posterior
teeth have been lost and there is a
need for additional indir...
DOUBLE LINGUAL BAR OR KENNEDY BAR

This differs from the lingual plate in
ADVANTAGES
that it has no sheet of metal
The dou...
LABIAL BAR
ADVANTAGES
When the lower anterior teeth and
the premolars are so severely
lingually
inclined
that
a
convention...
MINOR CONNECTORS

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The primary function of a minor
connector is to join other units of
the prosthesis such as clasps,
rests, indirect retaine...
The minor connector also distributes forces on the
edentulous ridge to the ridge and the remaining teeth.
Occlusal force o...
TYPES OF MINOR CONNECTORS







There are four types of minor connectors: those
that,
Join the clasp assembly to the ...


JOIN THE CLASP ASSEMBLY TO THE
MAJOR CONNECTOR

These must be rigid because
they
support
the
active
component of the pa...


JOIN INDIRECT RETAINERS OR AUXILLARY
RESTS TO THE MAJOR CONNECTOR
These generally rise from the
major connector. They s...


JOIN THE DENTURE BASE TO THE MAJOR
CONNECTOR

These may be of latticework
construction, mesh construction
or bead/wire/...
SERVE AS AN APPROACH ARM FOR A
VERTICAL PROJECTION OR BAR-TYPE
CLASP
The only minor connector that
does not require to be ...
RESTS AND REST SEATS

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The components of a removable partial denture
that serve primarily to transfer forces occurring
against the prosthesis dow...
In the case of the tooth-supported denture, all the stresses
are transferred-to the abutment teeth. In the combination
par...
The rest must also maintain the
retentive clasp in its proper position.
The rest that is a component part of a
direct reta...
Primary rests prevent vertical movement of the prosthesis toward the tissue
and also help transmit lateral or horizontal f...
There are three forms of rests:






The occlusal rest, so named because it is
seated on the occlusal surface of a pos...
OCCLUSAL RESTS AND REST SEATS
It is essential that a rest seat be
prepared in the occlusal surface of
a tooth for each occ...
LINGUAL OR CINGULUM RESTS

The lingual or cingulum
rest is used primarily on
maxillary canines. The
main indication for th...
INCISAL REST AND REST SEATS
Incisal rests are less desirable
for anterior teeth than lingual
rests. They may be used
succe...
DIRECT RETAINERS

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The component that engages an abutment
tooth and in so doing resists dislodging forces
applied to a removable partial dent...
Intracoronal Retainers

The intracoronal retainer, or internal
attachment, was developed by Dr.
Herman E. S. Chayes in 190...
Devan (1955) used some clarifying terms to describe
retention. He referred to the surface of a tooth that is
occlusal to t...
Circumferential, or Akers, clasps
A circumferential clasp has two clasp arms that
partially encircle the abutment tooth. T...
The combination clasp is
a type of circumferential
clasp. Its retentive arm is of
wrought metal, which makes
it more flexi...
Vertical projection, or bar or Roach,
clasps
The vertical projection, or
bar, clasp is an extension
of the metal framework...
COMPONENTS OF A CLASP
ASSEMBLY

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Requirements of Clasp Design
All clasps must be designed so that they satisfy
the following six basic requirements:



...
The function of the retentive clasp
arm is to provide retention for the
prosthesis against dislodging forces.
The retentiv...
SUPPORT

Support is the property of a clasp that resists displacement of the
clasp in a gingival direction. The prime supp...
RECIPROCATION
Each retentive clasp terminal must be opposed by a reciprocal clasp arm or
another element of the partial de...
ENCIRCLEMENT
Each clasp must be designed to encircle more, than 180
degrees (more than half the circumference) of the abut...
CAST CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASPS
The
cast
circumferential clasp is
the easiest clasp to
design and construct.
It is the most lo...
SIMPLE CIRCLET CLASP
The simple circlet is the most
versatile and widely used
clasp. It is most the clasp of
choice on too...
REVERSE, OR REVERSE APPROACH,
CIRCLET CLASP
The reverse circlet
clasp is used when
the
retentive
undercut is located
on th...
MULTIPLE CIRCLET CLASP
The multiple circlet clasp is
essentially
two
opposing
simple circlet clasps joined at
the terminal...
EMBRASURE CLASP, OR MODIFIED
CRIB CLASP
The embrasure
clasp is essentially
two simple circlet
clasps joined at
the body. I...
RING CLASP

The ring clasp is
most often
indicated on
tipped molars.

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C, FISHHOOK, OR HAIRPIN CLASP
The C clasp is
essentially a simple
circlet clasp in
which the retentive
arm, after crossing...
ONLAY CLASP
The onlay clasp is an
extended oc­clusal rest
with buccal and lingual
clasp arms. The clasp
may originate from...
COMBINATION CLASP
The combination clasp
consists of a wrought
round wire retentive
clasp arm and a cast
reciprocal clasp a...
The combination clasp is most often indicated on an
abutment tooth adjacent to a distal extension space
when the usable un...
BAR, OR VERTICAL PROJECTION,
CLASPS

The bar clasps approach
the undercut or retentive
area on the tooth from a
gingival
d...
TYPES OF BAR CLASPS
T CLASP
The T clasp is used most often
in combination with a cast
circumferential reciprocal arm.
The ...
MODIFIED T CLASP
This is basically a T clasp
with no non-retentive
finger. It is indicated for
premolars and canines for
e...
I CLASP AND I BAR
The I-clasp may occasionally be
used on the distobuccal surface of
maxillary canines for esthetic
reason...
INDIRECT RETAINERS
A removable partial denture, which is supported entirely by remaining
natural teeth usually, does not r...
Movement
toward
the
supporting ridge will be
limited by the supporting
ridge and will be equal to
the amount of compressib...
Vertical movement also occurs in
the direction away from the
supporting ridge. Sticky foods or
other substances may exert ...
When the bilateral or unilateral
distal extension partial denture is
under occlusal loading, the fulcrum
line runs between...
The indirect retainer has several
additional functions. It contributes to
the support and stability of the partial
denture...
DENTURE BASES

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Plastic (acrylic resin) and metal denture
bases are available. The acrylic resin
denture base may be used when
denture
tee...
If a metal denture base is planned for the partial
denture, extreme care must be used in the impression
making procedure. ...
The use of characterized acrylic resin to duplicate the
soft tissue tones of each individual patient can per­mit
the place...
TOOTH REPLACEMENTS

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The majority of artificial teeth on
a removable partial denture are
positioned on a denture base.
However, there are insta...
ANTERIOR TOOTH REPLACEMENTS
Replacement of anterior teeth, particularly single tooth replacement,
should normally be accom...
METHODS
There are basically four methods of replacing
an­terior teeth with removable partial dentures.
Other re­placement ...
DENTURE TEETH ON
DENTURE BASE
Advantages
Most esthetic form of replacement.
Permits wider distribution of vertical
forces....
FACINGS
Advantages
May be used as a single tooth
replacement when interocclusal
space is limited and strength is
re­quired...
TUBE TEETH
Advantages
Provides good esthetic replacement for a single tooth where
space is available.
Opposing teeth will ...
RAPs
Advantages
Excellent strength and esthetics.
Can be designed so that occlusion is confined to
the plastic.
Can be use...
POSTERIOR TOOTH REPLACEMENTS
PLASTIC TEETH
The vast majority of missing posterior
teeth will be replaced by acrylic resin
...
PORCELAIN TEETH

Porcelain teeth
should be used
only when artifi­cial
teeth are opposed
by artificial teeth.

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METAL PONTICS
The use of the metal tooth, or
pontics, is obviously restricted to
the replacement of posterior teeth.
A ven...
METAL PONTICS WITH ACRYLIC
WINDOWS
In the event that esthetics are of concern and
the edentulous space is restricted, the ...
TUBE TEETH
Tube teeth are the most used
form
of
posterior
tooth
replacement next to denture teeth
on a denture base. They ...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

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Components of removable partial denture prosthesis /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
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Components of removable partial denture prosthesis /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. COMPONENTS OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. CLASSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. REMOVABLE PROSTHODONTICS is devoted to replacement of missing teeth and contiguous tissues with prostheses designed to be removed by the wearer. It includes two disciplines: Removable complete and removable partial prosthodontics Removable partial denture prosthesis may be extracoronal or intracoronal depending on what type of retention is used to keep it in the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4.     CLASSIFICATION OF PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS ARCHES For a classification to be acceptable it should be able to deal with the following things: Allow visualization of the type of partially edentulous arch being considered Permit differentiation between tooth-supported and tooth-tissue-supported partial dentures Serve as a guide to the type of design to be used Be universally accepted www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5.    One simple system classifies the prostheses according to the type of support they receive from the dental arch: Soft tissue supported prostheses Tooth supported prostheses Tooth tissue supported prostheses However, the most widely used method of classification of the partially edentulous dental arch is the one originally proposed in 1923 by Dr. Edward Kennedy of New York. Although simple, the system can easily be applied to nearly all semi edentulous conditions, and it suggests the main design problems that must be considered. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Kennedy’s original classification contains the following four classes with certain modifications. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. CLASS 1 Bilateral edentulous areas located posterior to the remaining natural teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. CLASS 2 Unilateral edentulous area located posterior to the remaining natural teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. CLASS 3 Unilateral edentulous area with natural teeth both anterior and posterior to it www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. CLASS 4 Single, bilateral edentulous area located anterior to the remaining natural teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11.  Each of the classes, except class 1, refers to a single edentulous area in each arch. Since these types of edentulous arches not in the majority, Kennedy referred to each additional edentulous area, not each additional missing tooth, as a modification area and included them in the classification by the number of such areas. Dr. O.C. Applegate (1960) later attempted to expand the Kennedy system by adding classes 5 and 6, however, acceptance has not been universal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12.    CLASS 5 is described as an edentulous area bounded anteriorly and posteriorly by natural teeth in which the anterior abutment (the lateral incisor) is not suitable for support. CLASS 6 is an edentulous situation in which the teeth adjacent to the space are capable of total support of the required prosthesis. CLASS 5 AND 6 are not truly indicative of special design considerations. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Applegate also provided the following eight rules to govern the application of the Kennedy system.  RULE 1 Classification should follow rather than precede extractions that might alter the original classification. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. RULE 2 If the third molar is missing and not to be replaced it is not considered in the classification . RULE 3 If a third molar is present and is to be used as an abutment, it is considered in the classification. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. RULE 4 If a second molar is missing and is not to be replaced (that is, the opposing second molar is also missing and is not to be replaced), it is not considered in the classification. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. RULE5 The most posterior edentulous area or areas always determine the classification. CLASS III, MODIFICATION 2 RULE 6 Edentulous areas other than those determining the classification are referred to as modification spaces and are www.indiandentalacademy.com designated by CLASS III,MODIFICATION 2 CLASS II, MODIFICATION 3
  17. 17. RULE 7 The extent of the modification is not considered, only the number of additional edentulous areas RULE 8 There can be no modification areas in class 4 arches. Any edentulous area lying posterior to the single bilateral area determines the classification. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. MAJOR CONNECTORS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. The major connectors connect the parts of the prosthesis located on one side of the arch with those on the opposite side. All other parts of the partial denture are attached to it either directly or indirectly. MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTOR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. All major connectors must: Be rigid  Provide vertical support and protect the soft tissues Provide a means of obtaining indirect retention where indicated Provide an opportunity of positioning denture bases where needed Maintain patient comfort www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. In the maxillary arch-the border of the major connector should be at least 6mm from the gingival crevice of the teeth. In the mandibular arch-it should be at least 3 mm from the gingival margin. The border should run parallel to the gingival margin of the teeth. If the margin must be crossed, the crossing must be at right angles to the margin to produce the least possible contact with the soft www.indiandentalacademy.com tissue
  22. 22. TYPES OF MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTORS       Single posterior palatal bar Palatal strap Anteroposterior, or double, palatal bar Horseshoe, or U-shaped connector Closed horseshoe, or anteroposterior palatal strap Complete palate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. SINGLE POSTERIOR PALATAL BAR Is narrow, half oval with its thickest point at the centre. The bar is gently curved and should not form a sharp angle at the juncture with the denture base. ADVANTAGES Only indication for the single posterior bar is an interim partial denture. DISADVANTAGES One of the most difficult maxillary major connectors for a patient to adjust to, because to maintain any degree of rigidity it has to be bulky. It should never be used in a distal extension edentulous situation, nor should it be used when anterior teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com require replacement.
  24. 24. PALATAL STRAP ADVANTAGES Because the palatal strap is located in three planes, the horizontal or vault of the palate: the vertical or lateral slopes of the palate: and the sagittal or anterior slope of the palate, it offers great resistance to bending and twisting forces. Thus greater rigidity with less bulk of metal is produced. Because the palatal strap is inherently strong, it can be kept thin, thus increasing patient comfort. It offers little interference to Is the most versatile maxillary major connector. tongue action and is thus accepted well. DISADVANTAGES The patient may complain of excessive palatal coverage. The anterior border should be posterior to the rugae area. The posterior border should terminate short of the junction of the hard and the soft palates and must avoid crossing a torus or a prominent median suture. www.indiandentalacademy.com Another possible disadvantage is an adverse soft tissue reaction in the form of papillary hyperplasia.
  25. 25. ANTEROPOSTERIOR, OR DOUBLE, PALATAL BAR The greatest asset of this bar is excellent rigidity. Thus this connector should not be used unless the remaining teeth have good periodontal support. ADVANTAGES Main advantage is its rigidity. In comparison to its amount soft tissue coverage it is by far the most rigid maxillary major connector. this bar DISADVANTAGES may be used when support is not Because of the limited palatal tissue major consideration and when the contact, little support is derived from anterior and posterior abutments are the bony palate. As a general rule widely separated. In patients with a the anteroposterior palatal bar large palatal torus for whom surgery should not be considered as a first has been rules out, the anteroposterior choice for a maxillary major palatal bar may be the major www.indiandentalacademy.com connector. It is also frequently connector of choice. uncomfortable.
  26. 26. HORSESHOE, OR U-SHAPED, CONNECTOR It consists of a thin band of metal running along the lingual surface of the posterior teeth and extending onto the palatal tissue for 6-8mm. anteriorly the metal normally covers the cingula of the present teeth and extends onto the palate to cover the entire rugae area. ADVANTAGES This connector is used primarily when several anterior teeth are being replaced. It is a reasonably strong connector that can derive some vertical support and some indirect retention from the palate. DISADVANTAGES When vertical force is applied to either or both ends of the horseshoe major connector, there is a tendency for the connector to spread or straighten. Therefore it is a poor choice for a distal extension partial denture. For the same reason it is not a good connector when cross-arch stabilization is required. It has less resistance towww.indiandentalacademy.com flexing and movement can occur at the open end.
  27. 27. CLOSED HORSESHOE, OR ANTEROPOSTERIOR PALATAL STRAP Structurally strong and rigid major connector that may be used in most maxillary partial denture designs and is particularly indicated when numerous teeth are to be replaced and when a torus palatinus is present. ADVANTAGES The closed horseshoe is a rigid connector that derives good support from the palate even though an opening is provided in the palate. DISADVANTAGES Even though the metal over the rugae area may be thinner than in some other major connectors, interference with phonetics may occur in some patients. In addition, the extensive length of borders for the tongue to contact may cause www.indiandentalacademy.com annoyance or discomfort.
  28. 28. COMPLETE PALATE Complete palate provides the ultimate rigidity and support. It also provides the most tissue coverage, so the need for maximum support and rigidity should be determined before this connector is selected. The connector can be made in the following three forms: All acrylic resin Combination metal and acrylic resin All cast metal ADVANTAGES Complete palatal coverage is indicated when posterior teeth are to be replaced bilaterally. It is also indicated when anterior teeth require replacement along with bilateral distal extension replacements. DISADVANTAGES Because of the extensive tissue coverage, adverse soft tissue reaction in the form of inflammation or hyperplasia may occur if adequate oral hygiene is not www.indiandentalacademy.com practiced. Problems with phonetics may occasionally be encountered.
  29. 29. TYPES OF MANDIBULAR MAJOR CONNECTORS     Lingual bar Lingual plate Double lingual bar or Kennedy bar Labial bar www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. LINGUAL BAR This is by far the most ADVANTAGES Because of its simplicity in design and frequently used mandibular construction, the lingual bar should always major connector. be used unless one of the other connectors offers a definite advantage. It is indicated for al tooth-supported removable partial denture unless there is insufficient space lingual to the remaining teeth. The lingual bar has minimum contact with the oral tissues. It does not contact the teeth, so decalcification of tooth surfaces because of food or plaque collecting around the major connector does not occur. DISADVANTAGES The greatest disadvantage is a potential one. If care is not taken by the laboratory or if proper instructions are not given to the technician, the lingual bar may not be rigid. This usually occurs when one attempts to use the lingual bar as a major connector when there is not enough space to place it www.indiandentalacademy.com correctly. The resulting bar is almost inevitably too thin and therefore flexible.
  31. 31. LINGUAL PLATE ADVANTAGES It is indicated when most posterior teeth have been lost and there is a need for additional indirect retention. The double lingual bar is indicated primarily when some degree of indirect retention is required and when periodontal disease and its treatment have resulted in large interproximal embrasures. The upper bar should be positioned at the contact points of the teeth: therefore it is well hidden from view. Structure is basically that of a pearshaped lingual bar with a thin solid piece of metal extending upward from the superior border of the bar onto the lingual surfaces of the teeth. DISADVANTAGES Patients frequently feel more tongue annoyance with the double lingual bar than is usually encountered with the lingual plate. The major disadvantage is www.indiandentalacademy.com the entrapment of gross portions of food debris, arises from the marked crowding that mandibular anterior teeth frequently exists
  32. 32. DOUBLE LINGUAL BAR OR KENNEDY BAR This differs from the lingual plate in ADVANTAGES that it has no sheet of metal The double lingual bar effectively extends extending from below the superior indirect retention in an anterior direction border of the plate to the pear provided it is supported by adequate shaped lingual bar. rests at each end. It also contributes to horizontal stabilization of the prostheses because stress on the partial denture is distributed to all the teeth it contacts. Thus the total stress on each tooth is reduced. Therefore it is indicated primarily when some degree of indirect retention is required and when periodontal disease and its treatment have resulted in large interproximal embrasures. DISADVANTAGES Patients frequently feel more tongue annoyance with the double lingual bar than is usually encountered with the lingual plate. Also there is entrapment of gross portions of food debris duewww.indiandentalacademy.com crowding that mandibular to the marked anterior teeth frequently exhibit.
  33. 33. LABIAL BAR ADVANTAGES When the lower anterior teeth and the premolars are so severely lingually inclined that a conventional lingual major connector cannot be used, the labial bar can be considered. This runs across the mucosa labial to the mandibular anterior teeth or in some instances, facial to the posterior teeth. It has a half-pear shape similar to that of the lingual bar. DISADVANTAGES The results of a labial bar are generally poor. The bulk of the connector distorts the lower lip unless the lip is relatively immobile, and the mere presence of the metal between the gingival tissue and the lip causes patient discomfort. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. MINOR CONNECTORS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. The primary function of a minor connector is to join other units of the prosthesis such as clasps, rests, indirect retainers, and denture bases to the major connectors. The minor connector is also responsible for distributing the stresses that occur against certain components of the partial denture to other components, thus preventing any build up of force at a single point. The need for rigidity is emphasized by this function. If the minor or major connector were to flex, stresses could not be www.indiandentalacademy.com distributed evenly throughout the prosthesis.
  36. 36. The minor connector also distributes forces on the edentulous ridge to the ridge and the remaining teeth. Occlusal force on the minor connector that attaches the denture base to the major connector is passed to several other minor connectors that serve as attachments for clasps, rests or indirect retainers. This broad distribution of force prevents any one tooth or one portion of the edentulous ridge from bearing a destructive amount of force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. TYPES OF MINOR CONNECTORS     There are four types of minor connectors: those that, Join the clasp assembly to the major connector Join indirect retainers or auxillary rests to the major connector Join the denture base to the major connector Serve as an approach arm for a vertical projection or bar-type clasp www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  JOIN THE CLASP ASSEMBLY TO THE MAJOR CONNECTOR These must be rigid because they support the active component of the partial denture, the retentive clasp. They also support the prostheses that prevents vertical movement towards the tissue, the rest. They must have sufficient bulk to ensure rigidity. These are located on proximal surfaces of teeth adjacent to edentulous areas. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  JOIN INDIRECT RETAINERS OR AUXILLARY RESTS TO THE MAJOR CONNECTOR These generally rise from the major connector. They should form a right angle with the major connector, but the junction should be a gentle curve rather than a sharp angulation. It should be designed to lie in the embrasure between tooth to disguise its bulk as much as possible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40.  JOIN THE DENTURE BASE TO THE MAJOR CONNECTOR These may be of latticework construction, mesh construction or bead/wire/nail head minor connectors. These must be strong enough to anchor the denture base securely, resist breakage or flexing and must not interfere with arrangement of artificial teeth. In the maxillary arch if the denture base is a distal extension base, then the minor connector must extend the entire length of the residual ridge to cover the tuberosity. When a distal extension ridge in the mandibular arch is being treated, he minor connector should extend twowww.indiandentalacademy.com thirds the length of the edentulous ridge.
  41. 41. SERVE AS AN APPROACH ARM FOR A VERTICAL PROJECTION OR BAR-TYPE CLASP The only minor connector that does not require to be rigid. It supports a direct retainer that engages an undercut on a tooth from below rather than from above. It approaches the tooth from the gingival margin. It must have a smooth , even tape from its origin to its terminus. It must not cross a soft tissue undercut. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. RESTS AND REST SEATS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. The components of a removable partial denture that serve primarily to transfer forces occurring against the prosthesis down the long axis of the abutment teeth are called rests, and a rest seat is the prepared surface of a tooth or fixed restoration into which a rest fits. The relationship between the rest and the surface of a tooth must be such that forces transmitted from the prosthesis to the rest are directed apically down the long axis of the tooth. In this fashion stress can be absorbed by the fibers of the periodontal ligament without damaging the ligament or the supporting bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com Force on a partial denture is transmitted to occlusal rest, and because of its design, further transmitted down long axis of abutment tooth.
  44. 44. In the case of the tooth-supported denture, all the stresses are transferred-to the abutment teeth. In the combination partial denture, only a portion of the stress is transferred to the teeth, and the edentulous ridge must absorb the remainder. In addition to transferring forces, the rest must act as a vertical stop, preventing injury and overdisplacement of the soft tissues under the partial denture bases or major connectors. It is unfor­tunate that many temporary partial dentures do not possess this function, with resulting damage to under­lying soft tissue and supporting structures of abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. The rest must also maintain the retentive clasp in its proper position. The rest that is a component part of a direct retainer unit is referred to as a primary rest, whereas additional rests that may be used for indirect retention or extra support are called auxiliary, or secondary rests. Auxiliary, or secondary, rests are used as indirect retainers in distal extension partial dentures. These rests are placed anterior or posterior to the axis of rotation to prevent the unsupported distal extension denture base from lifting away from the edentulous ridge. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Primary rests prevent vertical movement of the prosthesis toward the tissue and also help transmit lateral or horizontal forces applied to the partial denture during function to the supporting teeth. On the proximal surface of an abutment tooth adjacent to an edentulous space food may be impacted between the minor connector and the tooth if a rest is not used on the proximal-occlusal or incisal surface. It is our philosophy of removable partial denture design that rests should be placed on the proximal surfaces of all teeth adjacent to edentulous spaces. If esthetics is not a concern, occlusal rests can be placed on the adjacent teeth with a metal pontic between to close these spaces and reestablish a con­tinuous arch, preventing further drifting or tipping of posterior teeth and improving periodontal health. The rest must be designed so that it and another minor Connector act as the reciprocal clasp arm. This procedure does not alter the normal contour of at least half of the crown of the abutment. Rests may also help establish a more acceptable occlusal plane. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. There are three forms of rests:    The occlusal rest, so named because it is seated on the occlusal surface of a posterior tooth; The lingual, or cingulum rest, seated on the lingual surface of a tooth, usually a maxillary canine; The incisal rest, seated on the incisal edge of a tooth, usually a mandibular canine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. OCCLUSAL RESTS AND REST SEATS It is essential that a rest seat be prepared in the occlusal surface of a tooth for each occlusal rest. A rest should never be placed on a tooth that has not been adequately prepared. The outline form of an occlusal rest should be triangular, with the base of the triangle resting on the marginal ridge and the rounded apex directed toward the center of the tooth. The shape of the rest should follow as closely as possible the outline of the mesial or distal fossa of the occlusal surface of the tooth in which the rest seat is prepared. The size of the rest varies from one-third to one-half the mesiodistal diameter and ap­proximately half the buccolingual width of the tooth measured from cusp tip to cusp tip. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. LINGUAL OR CINGULUM RESTS The lingual or cingulum rest is used primarily on maxillary canines. The main indication for their use is missing canines. The lingual rest is nearer the center of rotation of the supporting tooth, so it does not tend to tip the tooth. In addition, since the lingual rest is confined to the lingual surface of the anterior tooth, it is more acceptable esthetically. Because of the configuration of the lingual rest, it is also less www.indiandentalacademy.com subject to breakage and distortion.
  50. 50. INCISAL REST AND REST SEATS Incisal rests are less desirable for anterior teeth than lingual rests. They may be used successfully , however ,if the abutment tooth is sound and a cast restoration is not indicated. Incisal rests are most frequently used on mandibular canines but may be used on maxillary canines. They are not generally indicated on incisor teeth except under unusual circumstances. Incisal rests are positioned near the incisal angles of abutment teeth. Whether they are designed for the mesioincisal or distoincisal angle depends on the type of clasp planned for that tooth. If the tooth is not to be clasped, the rest is placed on the www.indiandentalacademy.com distoincisal surface for esthetic reasons.
  51. 51. DIRECT RETAINERS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. The component that engages an abutment tooth and in so doing resists dislodging forces applied to a removable partial denture is called the direct retainer. The amount and location of this retention on an abutment tooth must be carefully controlled to prevent damage to the supporting structures of the tooth. There are two types of direct retainers currently in use, Intracoronal and Extracoronal. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. Intracoronal Retainers The intracoronal retainer, or internal attachment, was developed by Dr. Herman E. S. Chayes in 1906. It consists of two units which is a receptacle that is built into a crown or inlay constructed for an abutment tooth. The second unit is an insert that is attached to the removable partial denture. Extracoronal Retainers The extracoronal direct retainer (or clasp) operates on the principle of the resistance of metal to deformation. It is designed so that one terminal of each clasp is located on an external surface of a tooth that converges apically to produce an undercut. When two or more of these clasp terminals engage www.indiandentalacademy.com undercuts, the partial denture will resist dislodging forces.
  54. 54. Devan (1955) used some clarifying terms to describe retention. He referred to the surface of a tooth that is occlusal to the height of contour as suprabulge, and the surface inclining cervically as infrabulge. A tooth surface may be said to be retentive if it is cervical to its height of contour, or infrabulge. There are two basic categories of clasps: circumferential, or Akers, clasps and vertical projection, or bar or Roach, clasps. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. Circumferential, or Akers, clasps A circumferential clasp has two clasp arms that partially encircle the abutment tooth. The clasp, with the exception of the retentive clasp terminal, is always located occlusal to the height of contour. Thus, the retentive tip approaches the undercut from above the greatest bulge of the tooth. This is the prin­cipal difference between the two basic categories of clasps; circumferential clasps approach the undercut from above the height of contour, whereas vertical projection clasps approach it from below the height of contour. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. The combination clasp is a type of circumferential clasp. Its retentive arm is of wrought metal, which makes it more flexible than a similar arm constructed of cast alloy. The reciprocal arm must be rigid to counteract the forces generated by the flexible wrought metal; therefore it is made of cast metal. The retentive terminal reaches the undercut from above the height of contour, as do those of all the www.indiandentalacademy.com circumferential clasps.
  57. 57. Vertical projection, or bar or Roach, clasps The vertical projection, or bar, clasp is an extension of the metal framework of the partial denture that projects along the mucosa, crosses the gingival margin of the abutment tooth, and approaches the infrabulge of the tooth in a cervico-occlusal direction. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. COMPONENTS OF A CLASP ASSEMBLY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. Requirements of Clasp Design All clasps must be designed so that they satisfy the following six basic requirements:       1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. retention support stability reciprocation encirclement passivity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. The function of the retentive clasp arm is to provide retention for the prosthesis against dislodging forces. The retentive clasp is divided into three parts, each with its own functional requirements. The terminal third is flexible and engages the undercut area, the middle third has a limited degree of flexibility and may engage a minimal amount of undercut, and the proximal third, or shoulder, is rigid and must be positioned above the height of contour. RETENTION The amount of retention that a clasp arm provides depends on the flexibility of the clasps arm, the depth that the retentive terminal extends into the undercut, and the amount of clasp arm www.indiandentalacademy.com that extends below the height of contour.
  61. 61. SUPPORT Support is the property of a clasp that resists displacement of the clasp in a gingival direction. The prime support units of a clasp are occlusal, lingual, or incisal rests. The manner in which rests provide support has been discussed previously, but it will be repeated that rests should provide only vertical support. Other elements of the partial denture must resist horizontal displacement (provide stability). STABILITY Stability is resistance to horizontal displacement of a prosthesis. All clasp components except the retentive clasp terminals contribute to this property in varying degrees. The cast circumferential clasp offers the greatest amount of stability because its shoulder is rigid and aids in stabilization. The wrought wire clasp has a flexible shoulder, and the bar clasp does not have a shoulder, so both provide less stability.) All three clasp types have a rigid reciprocal, or bracing arm www.indiandentalacademy.com which provides equal amounts of stability.
  62. 62. RECIPROCATION Each retentive clasp terminal must be opposed by a reciprocal clasp arm or another element of the partial denture capable of resisting horizontal forces exerted on the tooth by the retentive arm. The reciprocal arm of the clasp is positioned on the opposite side of the tooth from the retentive arm. The reciprocal clasp arm must be rigid. The reciprocal arm should be positioned on a surface of a tooth that is reasonably parallel to the denture's path of insertion and withdrawal. Because the reciprocal clasp must be rigid, it must be positioned above the height of contour. It should, however, be placed as close to the height of contour as possible, no higher than the middle third of the tooth and preferably at the junction of the gingival and middle thirds. To reciprocate forces properly, it should contact the tooth at the same time or before the retentive arm does. In this way the tipping forces generated by the retentive clasp terminal as it flexes over the greatest bulge of the tooth are neutralized. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. ENCIRCLEMENT Each clasp must be designed to encircle more, than 180 degrees (more than half the circumference) of the abutment tooth. Encirclement may be in the form of continuous contact, as is the case with circumferential clasp arms, or broken contact, as with bar clasps. PASSIVITY A clasp in place should be completely passive. The retentive function is activated only when dislodging forces are applied to the partial denture. One of the main causes of pain or tenderness in an abutment tooth following insertion of a partial denture is incomplete seating of the clasp. If the clasp is not seated, the retentive terminal cannot reach the depth of undercut it was planned to reach and therefore al­ways applies force to the tooth, producing pain. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. CAST CIRCUMFERENTIAL CLASPS The cast circumferential clasp is the easiest clasp to design and construct. It is the most logical clasp choice for toothsupported partial dentures because of its excellent support, bracing, and retentive qualities. www.indiandentalacademy.com Clasps positioned near occlusal surfaces of abutment teeth widen food table (occlusal surface). This interferes with stimulating normal food flow pattern and may damage supporting tissues.
  65. 65. SIMPLE CIRCLET CLASP The simple circlet is the most versatile and widely used clasp. It is most the clasp of choice on tooth-supported removable partial dentures where the available reten­tion undercut permits its use. This clasp usually approaches the undercut on the abutment tooth from the 'edentulous area and engages the undercut remote from the edentulous space. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. REVERSE, OR REVERSE APPROACH, CIRCLET CLASP The reverse circlet clasp is used when the retentive undercut is located on the surface of the abutment tooth adjacent to the edentulous space. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. MULTIPLE CIRCLET CLASP The multiple circlet clasp is essentially two opposing simple circlet clasps joined at the terminal end of the two reciprocal arms. Its use is primarily in sharing the retention responsibilities among several abutment teeth on one side of the arch when a principal abutment tooth has lost some of its periodontal support. This may be considered a form of splinting weakened teeth by a re­ movable partial denture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. EMBRASURE CLASP, OR MODIFIED CRIB CLASP The embrasure clasp is essentially two simple circlet clasps joined at the body. It is most frequently used on the side of the arch where there is no edentulous space. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. RING CLASP The ring clasp is most often indicated on tipped molars. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. C, FISHHOOK, OR HAIRPIN CLASP The C clasp is essentially a simple circlet clasp in which the retentive arm, after crossing the facial surface of the tooth from its point of origin, loops back in a hairpin turn to engage a proximal undercut below its point of origin. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71. ONLAY CLASP The onlay clasp is an extended oc­clusal rest with buccal and lingual clasp arms. The clasp may originate from any point on the onlay that will not create occlusal interferences. This clasp is generally indicated when the occlusal surface of the abutment tooth is below the occlusal plane, us­ually as a result of the tooth being tipped or rotated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. COMBINATION CLASP The combination clasp consists of a wrought round wire retentive clasp arm and a cast reciprocal clasp arm. The cast reciprocal arm is normally a circumferential clasp, but a bar clasp may be used. The wrought wire retentive arm is a circumferential clasp arm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. The combination clasp is most often indicated on an abutment tooth adjacent to a distal extension space when the usable undercut on the tooth is on the mesiobuccal surface. The partial denture tends to rotate around a fulcrum, the occlusal rest, producing potentially damaging stresses to the abutment tooth. The greater flexiblity of the combination clasp allows it to be placed in a greater, or deeper, undercut area. It is often used on maxillary canines or premolars for this reason. The main disadvantage of the combination clasp is that it does require extra steps in laboratory fabrication. It is also more prone to breakage or damage than a cast clasp. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. BAR, OR VERTICAL PROJECTION, CLASPS The bar clasps approach the undercut or retentive area on the tooth from a gingival direction, resulting in a "push" type of retention. This push retention of bar clasps is more effective than the "pull" retention characteristic of circumferential clasps. The greater the length of the clasp and the more marked the taper, the more flexible the clasp will be. Because of the gingival approach of the bar clasp, it is usually more esthetic than a circumferential clasp. Among the disadvantages of bar clasps is the greater tendency to collect and hold food debris. Also, because of the www.indiandentalacademy.com increased flexibility of the retentive arm, it does not contribute as much to bracing and stabilization as most circumferential clasps do.
  75. 75. TYPES OF BAR CLASPS T CLASP The T clasp is used most often in combination with a cast circumferential reciprocal arm. The retentive terminal and its opposing encircling finger project laterally from the approach arm to form a T. Both projections should point toward the occlusal surface of the abutment tooth. The T clasp is used most frequently on a distal extension ridge where the usual undercut is on the distobuccal surface of the abutment tooth. In this position, as tissueward forces occur on the denture base, the terminal clasp tip rotates cervically into a greater undercut which reduces the torquing stresses to the abutment tooth. For any removable partial denture with one or two distal extension denture bases, the clasp retention most desired is distobuccal www.indiandentalacademy.com retention on the terminal abutment. This retention can best be secured by T clasps projecting from the metal acrylic resin retention.
  76. 76. MODIFIED T CLASP This is basically a T clasp with no non-retentive finger. It is indicated for premolars and canines for esthetic reasons. Care must be taken to ensure 180-degree encirclement of abutment. Y CLASP The Y clasp is basically a T clasp; its configuration occurs when the height of contour on the facial surface of the abutment tooth is high on the mesial and distal line angles but low on the center www.indiandentalacademy.com of the facial surface.
  77. 77. I CLASP AND I BAR The I-clasp may occasionally be used on the distobuccal surface of maxillary canines for esthetic reasons. There is a definite danger involved in using this clasp. I BAR I CLASP Because the only contact of the retentive clasp with the abutment tooth is the tip of the clasp, an area of 2-3 mm, encirclement and horizontal stabilization mav be www.indiandentalacademy.com compromised.
  78. 78. INDIRECT RETAINERS A removable partial denture, which is supported entirely by remaining natural teeth usually, does not require additional support other than that furnished by the primary abutment teeth. If positive direct retainers are located on the abutment teeth, forces will not tend to rotate or dislodge the prosthesis. If the partial denture is not supported by natural teeth at each end of the edentulous space or spaces (that is, if covers a unilateral or bilateral distal extension ridge or a long-span anterior edentulous space), some provision must be made for the denture to resist rotational forces to which it will be subjected. In the case of a bilateral distal extension partial denture, the occlusal rests on the terminal abutment teeth act as fulcra, and an imaginary line drawn between the oc­clusal rests will be the fulcrum line. Rotational movement around this fulcrum line, either toward the tissue or away from the tissue or ridge, may occur as forces are applied to the artificial teeth on the denture base. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Movement toward the supporting ridge will be limited by the supporting ridge and will be equal to the amount of compressible mucosa or the amount of bone resorption that has taken place since the partial denture was constructed. This vertical component of the rotating motion toward the ridge can be controlled only by stable denture base support. An in­direct retainer does not control the movement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Vertical movement also occurs in the direction away from the supporting ridge. Sticky foods or other substances may exert a pull on the artificial teeth that tends to lift the denture base away from the ridge. Tissues adjacent to the borders of the den­ture base, such the tongue or buccinator muscle, may also lift the denture base from the underlying ridge when they are activated by speech, chewing, or swal­lowing. In addition, gravity exerts an unseating force on a maxillary prosthesis. The principle reason for us­ing the indirect retainer is to counteract the movement produced by these forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. When the bilateral or unilateral distal extension partial denture is under occlusal loading, the fulcrum line runs between the most posterior rests. When the denture is subjected to dislodging forces such as sticky food, the fulcrum line runs through the retentive tip of the direct retainer (clasps). The indirect retainer in the distal extension partial denture uses the mechanical advantage of leverage by moving the fulcrum line farther from the force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. The indirect retainer has several additional functions. It contributes to the support and stability of the partial denture, particularly in counteracting horizontal forces applied to the denture. When a long-span mandibular lingual bar major connector is used, even if toothsupported, an indirect retainer provides additional support and rigidity for the lingual bar. It also prevents impingement of the lingual bar on the mucosa during function. The indirect retainer also acts as a third point of contacting tooth structure to ensure accurate repositioning of the framework on the teeth during relining or rebasing, Occlusal rests on the terminal abutment Teeth act as the other two of the three points of the tripod. If final impressions are to be made with the framework as a www.indiandentalacademy.com impression tray, this support for the accurate repositioning is absolutely essential.
  83. 83. DENTURE BASES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. Plastic (acrylic resin) and metal denture bases are available. The acrylic resin denture base may be used when denture teeth are indicated as replacement teeth except when the edentulous span is too great for other forms of replacement teeth and the interarch space is restricted. In the latter situation extra strength to prevent breakage is required, and a metallic denture base must be used. The main drawback to a metal denture base, particularly on a distal extension edentulous ridge, is the inability to reline it in the event of ridge resorption. The metal base is more indicated for tooth-supported edentulous areas. The metal is somewhat easier for the patient to clean and is not subject to breakage as acrylic resin is. Because the den­ture base is metal, thermal changes are more quickly transferred to the underlying mucosa, stimulating the soft tissue in a manner not possible www.indiandentalacademy.com with a plastic base.
  85. 85. If a metal denture base is planned for the partial denture, extreme care must be used in the impression making procedure. Overextension of the denture base borders must be avoided because adjusting the metal­ lic borders is not an easy office procedure. Underextension of the denture must also be avoided because the forces generated by function of the partial denture must be distributed over as large an area as possible to prevent the edentulous ridge from being over-stressed, which could lead to ridge resorption. In addition, esthetics restricts use of the metal denture base to the placement of posterior teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. The use of characterized acrylic resin to duplicate the soft tissue tones of each individual patient can per­mit the placement of esthetically acceptable denture bases in the anterior part of the mouth. One of the great advantages of an acrylic resin denture base is that the artificial teeth may be positioned ex­actly where the original teeth were, regardless of the loss of ridge that may have occurred, thus restoring the normal contour of the edentulous ridge. This cannot be done with other forms of tooth replacement. In selected cases the resin of the denture base may be used as a "plumper" to fill out or reestablish the normal contours of the lips or cheeks. Care must be taken in this instance not to overstress the abutment teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. TOOTH REPLACEMENTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. The majority of artificial teeth on a removable partial denture are positioned on a denture base. However, there are instances (for example, single missing tooth, confined space, small interocclusal distance) in which facings, tube teeth, reinforced acrylic pontics (RAP), or metal pontics have a more favorable prognosis. The characteristics of the various tooth replacements are considered following this discussion of denture bases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. ANTERIOR TOOTH REPLACEMENTS Replacement of anterior teeth, particularly single tooth replacement, should normally be accomplished with a fixed partial denture. In the following in­stances, however, an anterior replacement may be part of a removable partial denture: In a young patient in whom tooth preparation might compromise a healthy pulp, this treat­ment may be used as an interim prosthesis. Poor general health of the patient may contra-indicate the more prolonged treatment with a fixed prosthesis. The periodontal support of the abutment teeth may not be sufficient for a fixed partial denture. The edentulous span may be too long or the curve of the arch too great to permit the use of a fixed replacement. Excessive loss of the edentulous ridge would make positioning the artificial teeth with a fixed partial denture difficult, if not impossible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. METHODS There are basically four methods of replacing an­terior teeth with removable partial dentures. Other re­placement forms exist but can be considered to be modifications of these four.     Porcelain or plastic denture teeth on denture base Facings Tube teeth Reinforced acrylic pontics (RAPS) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. DENTURE TEETH ON DENTURE BASE Advantages Most esthetic form of replacement. Permits wider distribution of vertical forces. Restores lost portion of edentulous ridge. May be easily relined if needed. In case of plastic teeth, opposing occlusion is against acrylic resin. Limitations Difficult to use for single tooth replacement. Requires bulk for adequate strength. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92. FACINGS Advantages May be used as a single tooth replacement when interocclusal space is limited and strength is re­quired. May be used when a broad, wellhealed ridge is present with little resorption having taken place.. Limitations Difficult to obtain a good esthetic result. Opposing occlusion is against metal. Cannot be relined. Little or no support is derived from the under­lying ridge. Cannot be used on resorbed ridge. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. TUBE TEETH Advantages Provides good esthetic replacement for a single tooth where space is available. Opposing teeth will occlude against the acrylic resin tooth. Not necessary to invest and process the denture after the framework has been finished. Limitations Must have ample space mesiodistally and occlusogingivally. Requires a well-healed, nonresorbed ridge; even moderate resorption of the ridge contraindicates its use. Derives no support from the soft tissue and can­not be relined. The tube tooth also makes an excellent single tooth posterior replacement, particularly in the premolar area. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. RAPs Advantages Excellent strength and esthetics. Can be designed so that occlusion is confined to the plastic. Can be used in a restricted space. Limitations Unhealed ridge or resorbed ridge contraindi­ cates use. Little support can be gained from the ridge. Cannot be relined. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. POSTERIOR TOOTH REPLACEMENTS PLASTIC TEETH The vast majority of missing posterior teeth will be replaced by acrylic resin denture teeth supported on a denture base. However, the wear and abrasion of plastic teeth may be dangerous when most of the posterior teeth have been replaced by plastic teeth. Over time the occlusal surfaces of the teeth tend to flatten, not only producing inefficient masticating sur­faces, but also causing a gradual decrease in the ver­tical dimension of occlusion and a change in the occlusal relationship. Patients wearing this type of prosthesis must be maintained on a strict recall program to prevent this occlusal change. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. PORCELAIN TEETH Porcelain teeth should be used only when artifi­cial teeth are opposed by artificial teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. METAL PONTICS The use of the metal tooth, or pontics, is obviously restricted to the replacement of posterior teeth. A veneer of tooth-colored resin can be processed on the facial surface of the metal pontic to produce an acceptable esthetic result. The metal tooth is indicated where the interarch space is severely restricted or where drifting of the re­maining teeth has resulted in a space too small for a plastic or porcelain tooth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. METAL PONTICS WITH ACRYLIC WINDOWS In the event that esthetics are of concern and the edentulous space is restricted, the buccal surface of the pontic may be cut away during framework wax up and tooth colored resin processed in the recess. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. TUBE TEETH Tube teeth are the most used form of posterior tooth replacement next to denture teeth on a denture base. They should be limited to one, two, or three teeth and should usually be tooth supported. A tube tooth makes an excellent esthetic replacement for maxillary first premolars. In this position it should be butted to the edentulous ridge. Tube teeth are seldom indicated for a distal extension ridge. The ridge should be well healed, because there is no possibility of relining this type of replacement. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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