CLINICAL
PHOTOGRAPHY
www.indiandentalacademy.com
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
CONTENTS
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

INTRODUCTION
CAMERAS AND PARTS
LENSES
SHUTTER
APERTURE
EXPOSURE
FILM
LIGHTING
FOCUSING
C...
INTRODUCTION
 1st

camera – Italy
‘CAMERA OBSCURE’ (dark chamber)
Huge box with a tiny opening on one side.
On the opposi...
CAMERA
 BODY
 LENS
 SHUTTER
 VIEW-FINDER

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PRINCIPLE EMPLOYED IN CAMERA
 The

camera works in
much the same way
as our eye.
 Shutter – eye lid
 Aperture –iris
 L...
TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Sheet Film Cameras

# Non-Reflex Cameras
- Snap Shot Cameras
- Range Finder
Cameras
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TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Disc Cameras

# Cartridge Load
Cameras

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TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Instant Picture
Cameras

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TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Twin Lens Reflex
Cameras

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TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Single Lens Reflex
Cameras

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TYPES OF CAMERAS
# Panoramic Cameras
# Underwater Cameras
# Stereographic Cameras
# Aerial Cameras
# Electronic Cameras.

...
LENSES
 Heart

of the camera.

 Complex works

of engineering

 PRINCIPLE

– same as that of a magnifying lens
which ga...
PHYSICS IN LENSES
 REFRACTION-

The
bending of light on
entering a different
transparent medium.

 REFRACTIVE

INDEX- Th...
LENSES
 Series

of prisms
stacked up.

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ABERRATIONS IN LENSES
 Spherical

Aberrations

 Chromatic

Aberrations

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FEATURES OF LENSES


Covering Power of a LensThe point at which the image falls below
an acceptable standard, marks the c...
FEATURES OF LENSES
 FOCAL

LENGTH AND
MAGNIFICATIONFocal Length is the distance from the
lens
to the film to get a sharp ...
•

•
•

Lenses with higher
focal length form
magnified images,
but show a restricted
field of view and
vice-versa .
Shorte...
DEPTH OF FIELD
 Zone

of in focus
elements from front to
back.

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TYPES OF LENSES
 STANDARD

LENSES
 WIDE ANGLE LENSES
 TELEPHOTO LENSES

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DRONACHARYA’S TEST

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TYPES OF LENSES
 STANDARD

LENSES- These lenses show
the world as it is.
- Gives you the joy of
having far away and
near ...
TYPES OF LENSES
 WIDE

ANGLE
LENSES- Provide maximum
amount of depth of
field.
- Background seems
farther away.
Foregroun...
TYPES OF LENSES


TELEPHOTO
LENSES- Magnified
images ,fill the
frame with the
subject.
- Focal length
more than that of
t...
TYPES OF LENSES


FISH EYE LENSES



ZOOM LENSES

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TYPES OF LENSES
 SPECIAL
•
•
•
•

LENSES
Night lenses
Shift lenses
Macro lenses
Medical lenses

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SHUTTER
 Earlier-

no shutters were used.
 Because people used very slow light
sensitive materials, which required
expos...
TYPES OF SHUTTERS
 Leaf

Shutterbuilt into lens.
no.of thin metal
plates.

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TYPES OF SHUTTERS
 Focal

Plane Shutters- Essential in S.L.R
cameras.

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SHUTTER SPEED
 Shutter

speed refers to the length of the
exposure time.
 Shutter speed shown as ‘2000’ means
1/2000 th ...
APERTURE
It is a hole through which the light passes
from the subject to the film.
Various sizes of apertures are called
‘...
APERTURE
 These

no.s are a measure of the size of
the lens aperture
NOT the diameter of the aperture.
 It is the number...
APERTURE
 Lower

the number
greater the aperture
size and vice-versa.

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 Aperture

and Area of
sharpness.
SMALL aperture- little
light- render subject
sharply.
LARGE aperturemore light- capture...
EXPOSURE
It is the total amount of
light that reaches the
film in the camera.
i.e. intensity of light x
time.

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EXPOSURE
 Proper

exposure
depends upon:- Lighting
- Subject
- Desired depth of
field.

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Each of these require an
adjustment in :-shutter speed or
-aperture size

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FILM
3 main types: Black and white
 Color
 Color reversal films (color slides).

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LAYERS OF A BLACK AND
WHITE FILM
1.
2.

3.
4.

Scratch resistant
coating
Emulsion layer
containing silver
halide crystals ...
LAYERS OF A COLOR FILM
1.
2.

3.
4.

Scratch resistant coating
3 Emulsion layers containing dyes
sensitive to blue, green ...
COLOR REVERSAL FILMS
 Couplers

in the slide
films are colorless.
 Processing is more
complex because of
the extra stage...
CHARECTERISTICS OF A FILM
1.
2.
3.
4.

SPEED
GRAININESS
COLOR SENSITIVITY
COLOR BALANCE

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LIGHTING
3 sources of man made
light: Incandescent
 Vapour Flash
 Electronic Flash

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FLASH TECHNIQUES
 Bounce

the Flash –
Indirect lighting
 Fill in flash or
Synchro sunlight –
Direct lighting

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DIRECTION OF SOURCE OF
LIGHT
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

FRONT LIGHTING
BACK LIGHTING
SIDE LIGHTING
TOP LIGHTING
BOTTOM LI...
HOW TO MAKE A
PHOTOGRAPH?

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BALANCE OF THREE ELEMENTS

1.
2.
3.

SHUTTER SPEED
APERTURE VALUE
FILM SENSITIVITY

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SHUTTER SPEED
 Fast

shutter speeds
keep both fore ground
and background in
sharp focus.

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APERTURE VALUE
 Wide

aperture Minimum DOF
 Stopped down
aperture – Max DOF

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CLINICAL
ASPECT
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PHOTOGRAPHIC ITEMS
NEEDED


35mm SLR camera body with removable lens



Automatic bellows for Minolta or for other make ...


Series 7 color correction glass filter, depending on
flash used (color filters must match flash and film to
be used, an...
EXTRA ORAL
PHOTOGRAPHY
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PROCEDURE IN TAKING EXTRA
ORAL VIEWS:
 Acc.

to Proffit (extra oral views)

 Frontal

view with lips relaxed
 Frontal v...
IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS
 Frontal

view:-

- outer canthus to
superior attachment
of the ear (C-SA
line);
- Interpupillary li...
IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS
 Profile

view:
- canthus to superior
attachment of ear
- encompassing area of
crown to collarbone
-...
ABO Requirements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Quality prints either in black and white or
color.
Head oriented accurately in all 3 plan...
ABO Requirements
6. 1lat view ,1ant view- (optional)
with lips apart.
7. 1 ant view- (optional) smiling.
8. Quality lighti...
Camera position for lateral view

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Hairstyle:
 Hairstyle

can distract
from facial analysis.
Hair should be pulled
back, in a ponytail, if
necessary.

 Thi...
IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS
 Oblique

view:
- Make sure that about half of
opposite upper lid eyelashes show.
All of far side pu...
INTRA-ORAL
PHOTOGRAPHY
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INTRAORAL VIEWS
 The

basis of an
excellent clinical
photograph is clean
and accurate
rendering of the
subject area free ...
POSITIONING THE PATIENT
The position of the patient is important to
the camera view and to the operator’s
ease in making t...
MIRROR VIEWS
 Maxillary

Arch :
For ease in making intra oral views of the
maxillary arch, the patients head should
be sl...
OPERATORY DENTAL LIGHT
 It

should not be directly on the teeth.
 Keep the light on the side of the cheek
and out of the...
DEPTH OF FIELD
 Focus

should be on the particular lesion or
tooth for close-up views.
 For full mouth views, focus shou...
POINTS OF INTEREST
 The

slide image should
include only main points
of interest. The camera
should be in close
enough.
...
APERTURE CONSIDERATIONS
 The

f-opening will depend on the film
speed, power of the flash, and its position
on the bracke...
 With

all adjustments considered, to make the
final exposure, move the camera forward (the
automatic lens is wide open) ...
Intra oral lighting and contrast
 With

a side-mounted 180º rotation to the flash,
the lighting and contrast can be chang...
How to determine the
best position of the
flash for the teeth and
for other details?
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Whatever

side of the arch the
flash is directed onto will
always have the least shadow
or contrast, but it still will be...
 For

greater
contrast to the
six anterior teeth,
to show enamel
texture or detail,
remove the flash
from the bracket
and...
RETRACTOR SHAPES








Because the size of mouths vary,
more than one pair of retractors
should be available.
Do not...
Application of retractors :
 Too

often, retractors
are placed on the lip,
and the patient or
assistant is then
asked to ...
Application of retractors :
 If

the patient’s mouth is very small and the
lips very tight, one retractor can be used
for...
Mirrors :
 The

use of glass mirrors that have been
rhodium-plated on one or both sides has
been recommended .
 Metal mi...
MIRROR SHAPES AND SIZES
 There

are three
standard mirrors, sold
as the University of
Washington set.

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MIRROR SHAPES AND SIZES
 Other

shapes
are available
for special
purposes.

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PLACEMENT OF MIRRORS


MAXILLARY ARCH:-Patient’s head should be slightly tilted
back.
-Warm the mirror to prevent fogging...
MAXILLARY
ARCH: Occlusal ViewThe posterior part
of the mirror
should rest on the
distal cusps of the
last tooth, with the...
 If

the mirror is held at
too steep an angle, a
view of the nostrils
will also be included.

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MAXILLARY ARCH: Buccal ViewThe buccal mirror
should always be
placed distally to the
area to be viewed and
should be held...



1.

MAXILLARY ARCH:-

Palatal ViewFor lingual views of the six anterior teeth, mirror
should be at 45º angle to the o...
 MAXILLARY

ARCH:-

2. For the posterior lingual view, the mirror
must be at about a 45º angle and as far as
possible awa...


MANDIBULAR
ARCH :In general, the same
procedure is followed
for the mandibular
arch, except that the
head must be tilte...
BACKGROUND AND LIGHTING
FOR OBJECTS

1.
2.
3.

Things to be considered:Texture
Color
How the background is to be used?
(f...
 TEXTURE:-

* Paper should be smooth and dull.
- For burrs and instruments- minimum
textures
- For casts, specimens – col...
 COLOR:-

-Background color should be a light pastel
for color photography.
- Dark colors distract from the importance
of...
 HOW

TO USE THE
BACKGROUND?
* Paper should be
curved, not creased.
- Eliminates line of
horizon .
* Wall
provided,should...
PHOTOGRAPHY OF SMALL
OBJECTS
 APERTURE-

- Pure white -> f/27
- Other color -> f/19,
f/22
- Black -> f/15.
 Use proper
b...
PHOTOGRAPHY OF SMALL
OBJECTS
 Wet

or dry small
specimens :Glass plate working
surface.

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PHOTOGRAPHY OF LARGE
OBJECTS
 DENTAL

CASTS:# Background –
- Black for white
casts.
# Flash –
- 12 o clock position
to pr...
 If

light
source is
either on left
or right, then
a small white
paper
reflector can
be used.

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DIGITAL
CAMERAS
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BASIC TERMS
 Graphic

Applications

 Pixels

arranged in horizontal ‘Raster Lines’.
 Display Resolution.
expressed as d...
BASIC TERMS
 Bitmap.
 Image

Resolution and dots per inch(dpi).

 Bits.
 Sample

Depth.
 24 bits of data per pixel – ...
PRINCIPLE EMPLOYED
 It

captures the image on a
CHARGED COUPLE
DEVICE ( C.C.D).
 The finer the grid of the
C.C.D the gre...
ADVANTAGES OF ‘DIGICAMS’
1.

2.

3.
4.

Speed and immediacy of image capture,
immediate review and re exposure of
unsatisf...
DISADVANTAGE
 It

can not replace the need of a 3-D
dental casts.
 Although CAD – CAM technology has
arrived , but
until...
 In

a review by Hutchison et al (1999)
Highest resolution -->1280 x 1024 pixels
more conveniently known as
1.3 Megapixel...
FEATURES TO CONSIDER






LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)
MAINS ADAPTOR
SOFTWARE
RESOLUTION
NUMBER OF IMAGES STORED
INT...
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
 Downloading

of images

 Reproduction
 Storage

and filing
 Batteries
 Radiographs

www.ind...
FOVEON CHIPS
 Conventional

cameras use CCD
chip with many pixels.
 Pixels insensitive to
light.
 Pixel covered – filte...
CONCLUSION
In photography you should be clear with
your basic fundamentals and you should
know how to apply them aptly in ...
REFERENCES
 The

ABC’s of picture taking ease with
EOS cameras.
 Practical Photography.
 World book.
 Dental Clinics o...
THANK U
www.indiandentalacademy.com
Leader in continuing dental education

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Clinical photography /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Clinical photography /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. CLINICAL PHOTOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. CONTENTS o o o o o o o o o o o o INTRODUCTION CAMERAS AND PARTS LENSES SHUTTER APERTURE EXPOSURE FILM LIGHTING FOCUSING CLINICAL TECHNIQUES DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY CONCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION  1st camera – Italy ‘CAMERA OBSCURE’ (dark chamber) Huge box with a tiny opening on one side. On the opposite side light formed an inverted image. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. CAMERA  BODY  LENS  SHUTTER  VIEW-FINDER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. PRINCIPLE EMPLOYED IN CAMERA  The camera works in much the same way as our eye.  Shutter – eye lid  Aperture –iris  Lens-lens  Film-retina www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Sheet Film Cameras # Non-Reflex Cameras - Snap Shot Cameras - Range Finder Cameras www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Disc Cameras # Cartridge Load Cameras www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Instant Picture Cameras www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Twin Lens Reflex Cameras www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Single Lens Reflex Cameras www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. TYPES OF CAMERAS # Panoramic Cameras # Underwater Cameras # Stereographic Cameras # Aerial Cameras # Electronic Cameras. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. LENSES  Heart of the camera.  Complex works of engineering  PRINCIPLE – same as that of a magnifying lens which gathers light of the sun to burn paper. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. PHYSICS IN LENSES  REFRACTION- The bending of light on entering a different transparent medium.  REFRACTIVE INDEX- The bending power of the medium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. LENSES  Series of prisms stacked up. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. ABERRATIONS IN LENSES  Spherical Aberrations  Chromatic Aberrations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. FEATURES OF LENSES  Covering Power of a LensThe point at which the image falls below an acceptable standard, marks the circle of good definition. For a 35mm camera one frame is 24x36mm and frame diagonal is 43mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. FEATURES OF LENSES  FOCAL LENGTH AND MAGNIFICATIONFocal Length is the distance from the lens to the film to get a sharp image of an object. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. • • • Lenses with higher focal length form magnified images, but show a restricted field of view and vice-versa . Shorter F.L -> WIDE ANGLE LENSES. Longer F.L -> TELEPHOTO LENSES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. DEPTH OF FIELD  Zone of in focus elements from front to back. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. TYPES OF LENSES  STANDARD LENSES  WIDE ANGLE LENSES  TELEPHOTO LENSES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. DRONACHARYA’S TEST www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. TYPES OF LENSES  STANDARD LENSES- These lenses show the world as it is. - Gives you the joy of having far away and near to objects , clearly captured and sharp enough. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. TYPES OF LENSES  WIDE ANGLE LENSES- Provide maximum amount of depth of field. - Background seems farther away. Foreground is in focus. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. TYPES OF LENSES  TELEPHOTO LENSES- Magnified images ,fill the frame with the subject. - Focal length more than that of the lens. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. TYPES OF LENSES  FISH EYE LENSES  ZOOM LENSES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. TYPES OF LENSES  SPECIAL • • • • LENSES Night lenses Shift lenses Macro lenses Medical lenses www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. SHUTTER  Earlier- no shutters were used.  Because people used very slow light sensitive materials, which required exposure of several minutes.  PURPOSETo protect the film from light until the chosen moment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. TYPES OF SHUTTERS  Leaf Shutterbuilt into lens. no.of thin metal plates. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. TYPES OF SHUTTERS  Focal Plane Shutters- Essential in S.L.R cameras. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. SHUTTER SPEED  Shutter speed refers to the length of the exposure time.  Shutter speed shown as ‘2000’ means 1/2000 th of a sec.  Slow shutter speed- 1/30, 1/2.  Fast shutter speed- 1/2000,1/4000. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. APERTURE It is a hole through which the light passes from the subject to the film. Various sizes of apertures are called ‘f’ STOPS or ‘f’ NUMBERS. Size rages from 1.4-32 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. APERTURE  These no.s are a measure of the size of the lens aperture NOT the diameter of the aperture.  It is the number by which the focal length of the lens must be divided to yield the aperture diameter.  For Eg. 50mm lens is set to f/2 aperture, diameter of the aperture is 50/2 = 25mm.  ‘f’ stands for focal length. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. APERTURE  Lower the number greater the aperture size and vice-versa. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35.  Aperture and Area of sharpness. SMALL aperture- little light- render subject sharply. LARGE aperturemore light- captures shallow plane clearly. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. EXPOSURE It is the total amount of light that reaches the film in the camera. i.e. intensity of light x time. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. EXPOSURE  Proper exposure depends upon:- Lighting - Subject - Desired depth of field. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. Each of these require an adjustment in :-shutter speed or -aperture size www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. FILM 3 main types: Black and white  Color  Color reversal films (color slides). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. LAYERS OF A BLACK AND WHITE FILM 1. 2. 3. 4. Scratch resistant coating Emulsion layer containing silver halide crystals in gelatin. Plastic film base. Anti-halation coating. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. LAYERS OF A COLOR FILM 1. 2. 3. 4. Scratch resistant coating 3 Emulsion layers containing dyes sensitive to blue, green and red colors in gelatin. Plastic film base. Anti-halation coating. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. COLOR REVERSAL FILMS  Couplers in the slide films are colorless.  Processing is more complex because of the extra stages needed to turn the negative back to the positive. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43. CHARECTERISTICS OF A FILM 1. 2. 3. 4. SPEED GRAININESS COLOR SENSITIVITY COLOR BALANCE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. LIGHTING 3 sources of man made light: Incandescent  Vapour Flash  Electronic Flash www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. FLASH TECHNIQUES  Bounce the Flash – Indirect lighting  Fill in flash or Synchro sunlight – Direct lighting www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. DIRECTION OF SOURCE OF LIGHT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. FRONT LIGHTING BACK LIGHTING SIDE LIGHTING TOP LIGHTING BOTTOM LIGHTING MULTIPLE LIGHTING MIRRORS ULTRAVIOLET LAMPS LASERS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. HOW TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. BALANCE OF THREE ELEMENTS 1. 2. 3. SHUTTER SPEED APERTURE VALUE FILM SENSITIVITY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. SHUTTER SPEED  Fast shutter speeds keep both fore ground and background in sharp focus. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. APERTURE VALUE  Wide aperture Minimum DOF  Stopped down aperture – Max DOF www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. CLINICAL ASPECT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. PHOTOGRAPHIC ITEMS NEEDED  35mm SLR camera body with removable lens  Automatic bellows for Minolta or for other make of cameras  100mm automatic bellows lens (short mount style); 105mm automatic bellows lens to fit most other camera bodies.   Washington 1800 rotating light bracket.  Show and nut for bracket to hold flash unit.  Series 7 lens adapter ring or rings, depending on lens (need to attach bracket to lens; state lens make and size). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.  Series 7 color correction glass filter, depending on flash used (color filters must match flash and film to be used, and also are a protection over the lens).  Vertical flash unit – guide number 45-55 for K64 film. It is not practical at this time to list the names of flash units as by the time this information is in print, a different flash may be used.  Pistol grip and 200 single cable release. A pistol grip should be used on all clinical units for single handed operation plus good balance of the unit. Large pistol grips are not practical. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. EXTRA ORAL PHOTOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. PROCEDURE IN TAKING EXTRA ORAL VIEWS:  Acc. to Proffit (extra oral views)  Frontal view with lips relaxed  Frontal view with lips together  Profile view with lips relaxed  Profile view with lips together  Smile (Angular or frontal) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS  Frontal view:- - outer canthus to superior attachment of the ear (C-SA line); - Interpupillary line; - Encompassing area (crown to collarbone). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS  Profile view: - canthus to superior attachment of ear - encompassing area of crown to collarbone - Chin and neck should show, preferably up to the clavicles. - Frankfort horizontal line to be sure that head is level. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. ABO Requirements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Quality prints either in black and white or color. Head oriented accurately in all 3 planes of space and in F-H plane. 1Lateral view- facing to the right , serious expression ,lips closed lightly. 1Anterior view- serious expression Background free of distractions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. ABO Requirements 6. 1lat view ,1ant view- (optional) with lips apart. 7. 1 ant view- (optional) smiling. 8. Quality lighting with no shadows. 9. Ears exposed for purpose of orientation. 10.Eyes opened, looking straight ; glasses removed. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Camera position for lateral view www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. Hairstyle:  Hairstyle can distract from facial analysis. Hair should be pulled back, in a ponytail, if necessary.  This allows for auricular analysis and for relationship between tragus and infraorbital rim to be evaluated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. IDEAL HEAD POSITIONS  Oblique view: - Make sure that about half of opposite upper lid eyelashes show. All of far side pupil should not show.  Smile: - As broad a grin as possible, with the teeth showing. Otherwise similar to frontal view. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. INTRA-ORAL PHOTOGRAPHY www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. INTRAORAL VIEWS  The basis of an excellent clinical photograph is clean and accurate rendering of the subject area free of visually distracting influences such as saliva or material (alba) or of the poor use of mirrors, retractors, or backgrounds. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. POSITIONING THE PATIENT The position of the patient is important to the camera view and to the operator’s ease in making the view .  For most straight anterior views, the patient should be in a semi upright position with a slight tilt backwards.  In a contour chair, the patient must turn his head to the side so that the operator does not have to lean sideways over the chair and patient.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. MIRROR VIEWS  Maxillary Arch : For ease in making intra oral views of the maxillary arch, the patients head should be slightly titled back.  Mandibular arch : The head must be tilted back far enough to allow this arch to be almost parallel with the floor when the mouth is wide open. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. OPERATORY DENTAL LIGHT  It should not be directly on the teeth.  Keep the light on the side of the cheek and out of the mouth.  The light is only needed to give enough light to focus by.  When the dental light is bright or strong on the side of the arch that should have the greatest contrast, it will kill the contrast produced by the flash. www.indiandentalacademy.com .
  68. 68. DEPTH OF FIELD  Focus should be on the particular lesion or tooth for close-up views.  For full mouth views, focus should be just ahead of half the anterior posterior distance. In most views, this would be cuspid midline to first bicuspid midline.  At this point of focus, depth of field will produce anterior-posterior sharpness. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. POINTS OF INTEREST  The slide image should include only main points of interest. The camera should be in close enough.  Exclude retractors, mirror edges, fingers, and above all the patient’s lips when not wanted as a part of the scene. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. APERTURE CONSIDERATIONS  The f-opening will depend on the film speed, power of the flash, and its position on the bracket.  The correct f-opening is - (f/22) for an area of six anterior teeth.  Intraoral views for black people should use one half stop more open (f/19).  Pure white subjects (enamel) require less light, so these views should be f/27. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71.  With all adjustments considered, to make the final exposure, move the camera forward (the automatic lens is wide open) to see the area selected.  It will only be sharp in a narrow band (one tooth) as the lens is wide open.  Adjust the camera attitude to the patient’s position to minimize movement of the camera.  Keep your arms close to the body, or rest your elbow on any handy support.  Ensure it is stable and then press the shutter www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. Intra oral lighting and contrast  With a side-mounted 180º rotation to the flash, the lighting and contrast can be changed for each scene.  Ninety percent of all intraoral views should be made with the flash at 9 or 3 o’clock.  Generally, never use the flash at 12 o’clock .  For some views in the lower arch or under the tongue with the tongue held up, you may want the flash used at from 11 to 1 o’clock. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. How to determine the best position of the flash for the teeth and for other details? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. Whatever side of the arch the flash is directed onto will always have the least shadow or contrast, but it still will be adequate. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75.  For greater contrast to the six anterior teeth, to show enamel texture or detail, remove the flash from the bracket and hold it at a 45’ angle so that it will cross-light the anterior teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. RETRACTOR SHAPES     Because the size of mouths vary, more than one pair of retractors should be available. Do not hesitate to modify or cut down your own retractors for special applications. Curved metal wire retractors have some applications and should be used when needed. The main application for this retractor is buccal mirror views. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Application of retractors :  Too often, retractors are placed on the lip, and the patient or assistant is then asked to hold them and proceeds to retract the lips by pulling the handle back toward the ears. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Application of retractors :  If the patient’s mouth is very small and the lips very tight, one retractor can be used for right or left buccal views, then a small retractor on the other side can be used just to keep the lips apart soothe flash can illuminate the area well.  Where plastic or wire retractors cannot be used for views such as a lip lesion, fingers can be used to stretch the lip or extend the frenum. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Mirrors :  The use of glass mirrors that have been rhodium-plated on one or both sides has been recommended .  Metal mirrors are not satisfactory ; they have neither the brilliance nor smooth surface of a glass mirror. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. MIRROR SHAPES AND SIZES  There are three standard mirrors, sold as the University of Washington set. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. MIRROR SHAPES AND SIZES  Other shapes are available for special purposes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. PLACEMENT OF MIRRORS  MAXILLARY ARCH:-Patient’s head should be slightly tilted back. -Warm the mirror to prevent fogging. -The finger and thumb should be on the peripheries which will keep them from appearing in the photograph. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. MAXILLARY ARCH: Occlusal ViewThe posterior part of the mirror should rest on the distal cusps of the last tooth, with the mirror centered in the arch and held at about a 450 angle.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84.  If the mirror is held at too steep an angle, a view of the nostrils will also be included. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. MAXILLARY ARCH: Buccal ViewThe buccal mirror should always be placed distally to the area to be viewed and should be held as close to a 450 angle to the buccal surfaces of the teeth as possible.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86.   1. MAXILLARY ARCH:- Palatal ViewFor lingual views of the six anterior teeth, mirror should be at 45º angle to the occlusal plane. If the mirror is held at too steep an angle, a view of the nostrils will also be included. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87.  MAXILLARY ARCH:- 2. For the posterior lingual view, the mirror must be at about a 45º angle and as far as possible away from the area to be viewed. The mirror should not touch the lingual side of the last molar, but it should be close. The mirror should then angle across the arch so that it crosses over the first or second bicuspid as it comes out of the mouth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88.  MANDIBULAR ARCH :In general, the same procedure is followed for the mandibular arch, except that the head must be tilted back far enough to allow this arch to be almost parallel with the floor when the mouth is wide open. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. BACKGROUND AND LIGHTING FOR OBJECTS  1. 2. 3. Things to be considered:Texture Color How the background is to be used? (flat paper or curved to form a floor and a wall) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90.  TEXTURE:- * Paper should be smooth and dull. - For burrs and instruments- minimum textures - For casts, specimens – colored crepe paper. * Cloth is a bad background as it has too much texture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91.  COLOR:- -Background color should be a light pastel for color photography. - Dark colors distract from the importance of the subject. - For white casts -> black paper. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  92. 92.  HOW TO USE THE BACKGROUND? * Paper should be curved, not creased. - Eliminates line of horizon . * Wall provided,should not be far from object. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  93. 93. PHOTOGRAPHY OF SMALL OBJECTS  APERTURE- - Pure white -> f/27 - Other color -> f/19, f/22 - Black -> f/15.  Use proper background and lighting. - Use flash at 12 o clock position to eliminate shadow. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. PHOTOGRAPHY OF SMALL OBJECTS  Wet or dry small specimens :Glass plate working surface. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. PHOTOGRAPHY OF LARGE OBJECTS  DENTAL CASTS:# Background – - Black for white casts. # Flash – - 12 o clock position to prevent shadows. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96.  If light source is either on left or right, then a small white paper reflector can be used. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. DIGITAL CAMERAS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. BASIC TERMS  Graphic Applications  Pixels arranged in horizontal ‘Raster Lines’.  Display Resolution. expressed as display width by display height in Pixels. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. BASIC TERMS  Bitmap.  Image Resolution and dots per inch(dpi).  Bits.  Sample Depth.  24 bits of data per pixel – 16.7 m colors.  For RVGs also at least 8 bit palette color format needed which gives 256 shades of gray. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. PRINCIPLE EMPLOYED  It captures the image on a CHARGED COUPLE DEVICE ( C.C.D).  The finer the grid of the C.C.D the greater is the amount of detail recorded.  The basic unit of image detail is known as ‘PIXEL’ (picture element). www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. ADVANTAGES OF ‘DIGICAMS’ 1. 2. 3. 4. Speed and immediacy of image capture, immediate review and re exposure of unsatisfactory images. Cataloguing and storage of images is simplified with associated computer system. Incorporation of images into documents and presentations is simplified. Images can be cropped too. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. DISADVANTAGE  It can not replace the need of a 3-D dental casts.  Although CAD – CAM technology has arrived , but until a truly 3-dimensional digital replica is available, dentists should continue to keep plaster casts for medicolegal records. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103.  In a review by Hutchison et al (1999) Highest resolution -->1280 x 1024 pixels more conveniently known as 1.3 Megapixels.  Rapid advancement in technology. higher no. of pixels :. Increase in amount of detail found.  Latest cameras have 5, 6.5, 11.1 Megapixel resolution.  Now the quality of images is more than acceptable. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. FEATURES TO CONSIDER      LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) MAINS ADAPTOR SOFTWARE RESOLUTION NUMBER OF IMAGES STORED INTERNALLY. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS  Downloading of images  Reproduction  Storage and filing  Batteries  Radiographs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. FOVEON CHIPS  Conventional cameras use CCD chip with many pixels.  Pixels insensitive to light.  Pixel covered – filter.  In FOVEON CHIP, 3 filters stacked on 1 another. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. CONCLUSION In photography you should be clear with your basic fundamentals and you should know how to apply them aptly in a given situation. So ,lets just not ‘take pictures’ , lets MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. REFERENCES  The ABC’s of picture taking ease with EOS cameras.  Practical Photography.  World book.  Dental Clinics of North America; 1983.  BJO;1999; Vol 26  BJO; 2000; Vol 26  AJODO;2004;125;139. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. THANK U www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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